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ASEM Aquaculture Health
Collated articles relevant to the work of the ASEM Aquaculture Platform on Aquatic Animal Health - http://sites.google.com/site/aqasemhealth
Curated by John Bostock
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FVE | Caring for health and welfare of fish A critical success factor for aquaculture

FVE | Caring for health and welfare of fish A critical success factor for aquaculture | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Conclusions and presentations from the conference on aquaculture fish health and welfare held in Brussels in May 2013. 

 

>Overview of Aquaculture sector

Courtney Hough, FEAP - General Secretary
>Mediterranean fish farming

Panos Christofilogiannis, AQUARK - Managing Director
>Cold water fish farming

Brit Hjeltnes, Norwegian Veterinary Institute - Deputy Director Fish Health
>Fresh water farming

Ferenc Baska, Szent István University – Associate Professor

>Shellfish

Tristan Renault, IFREMER - Responsable Unité de recherche

>Fish health: “prevention is better than cure”
Sunil Kadri, Aquaculture Innovation - Director
>Fish welfare: “a critical success factor for aquaculture”
John Avizienius, RSPCA Farm Animals - Deputy Head
>Sustainable fish farming: “working at the human-animal-ecosystem
interaction”
Armand Lautraite, Fish Veterinarian

>Veterinary medicinal products in aquaculture
Klaus Hellmann, Klifovet AG - Managing Director
>Role and responsibilities of the veterinarian – OIE perspective
Etienne Bonbon, Advisor to the OIE
>EU Animal health law: focus on aquatic sector
Barbara Logar, EU Commission - DG SANCO
>FVE’s roadmap
Christophe Buhot, FVE President

 

 

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Rather late finding this, but hopefully still relevant and of interest

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Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists | contents vol 34 (4)

Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists | contents vol 34 (4) | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
- Trypanorhych cestodes of the tiger tooth croaker (Otolithes ruber) in the
Persian Gulf. P. Shohreh, H. Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, M. Soltani, I. Mobedi,
M. Ghadam and S. Mehdizadeh Mood.

 

- Epidermal papilloma in a gold spot plecostomus (Pterygoplichthys
joselimaianus Weber, 1991). H. Rahmati-holasoo, S. Shokrpoor, H. A.
Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi and M. Ahmadpoor.

 

Note: The first report of Mycobacterium marinum isolated from cultured
meagre, Argyrosomus regius. M. L. Avsever, C. Çavuşoğlu, M
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The latest publication from EAFP

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Identification of Genes Involved in Taura Syndrome Virus Resistance in Litopenaeus Vannamei

Identification of Genes Involved in Taura Syndrome Virus Resistance in Litopenaeus Vannamei | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Boube et al (2014). Identification of Genes Involved in Taura Syndrome Virus Resistance in Litopenaeus Vannamei. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health: Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 137-143.

 

The goal of the present research was to identify the genes that are differentially expressed between two lineages of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei displaying different susceptibilities to Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and to understand the molecular pathways involved in resistance to the disease. An oligonucleotide microarray was constructed and used to identify several genes that were differentially expressed in the two L. vannamei lineages following infection with TSV. Individual L. vannamei from either resistant or susceptible lineages were exposed via injection to TSV. Individuals were removed at 6 and 24 h postinfection, and gene expression was assessed with the in-house microarray. The microarray data resulted in the selection of a set of 397 genes that were altered by TSV exposure between the different lineages. Significantly differentially expressed genes were subjected to hierarchical clustering and revealed a lineage-dependent clustering at 24 h postinoculation, but not at 6 h postinoculation. Discriminant analysis resulted in the identification of a set of 11 genes that were able to correctly classify Pacific white shrimp as resistant or susceptible based on gene expression data.

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This looks like useful progress for future management of TSV

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Research Scientist/Senior Research Scientist in Fish Physiology | DTU Aqua Vaccancy

Research Scientist/Senior Research Scientist in Fish Physiology | DTU Aqua Vaccancy | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

DTU Aqua, Section for Aquaculture, located in the North Sea Science Park, Hirtshals, Denmark invites applications for an appointment as scientist or senior scientist in the field of fish physiology specifically  related to behaviour and welfare. The position is available from January 1, 2015 or according to mutual agreement.

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Application deadline is 31st August 2014

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Biosecurity in Aquaculture Part 1: International Considerations

Biosecurity in Aquaculture Part 1: International Considerations | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
This is the first of a series of three articles that focuses on biosecurity in aquaculture. Far from pretending to be guidelines, the aim of this article is to provide baseline information for the aquaculture community regarding the importance and complexity of aquatic biosecurity that must involve producers and governmental authorities working together as a unit, write Leonardo Galli, Don Griffiths, Pikul Jiravanichpaisal, Nattawadee Wattanapongchart, Oranun Wongsrirattanakul and Andrew Shinn, Fish Vet Group.
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Nice clear explanation of underlying principles.

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New collaborations seek to solve infectious disease challenges | Australia National Health and Medical Research Council

Many of Australia's leading animal and human infectious disease experts are joining forces this week to identify challenges that might benefit from greater collaboration across Australia's research institutions.

The Forum will be held at the Geelong high-containment facility and is a joint initiative between CSIRO’s Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL) and the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC).

Professor Warwick Anderson, CEO of the NHMRC said the Forum was an important step towards managing infectious disease in Australia.

'More than 70 per cent of new and emerging infectious diseases originate in animals, so there are great benefits to merging the collective genius from both sides to address some of the nation's greatest infectious disease challenges.'

The Forum’s workshops will be lead by Australia's Chief Medical Officer - Professor Chris Baggoley, Nobel Laureate - Professor Peter Doherty, and Director of the Sydney Institute for Emerging infectious Diseases and Biosecurity - Tania Sorrell. 

This meeting of the minds will discuss emerging zoonotic disease threats, comparative medicine, and medical countermeasures including anti-microbial resistance, diagnostics and treatments.

The workshop structure of the program will enable researchers to tease out  and prioritise issues that will deliver the greatest national and global impact by combining Australia's collective biomedical research and infrastructure capabilities.

Dr Kurt Zuelke, CSIRO Biosecurity Flagship Director and Executive Director, AAHL said, 'AAHL’s extensive Physical Containment Level 4 laboratories are some of the most sophisticated in the world, which when combined with the unique research tools, models and expertise available within the facility, have great potential for human health research as well as animal health.

With funding through the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy, we hope to facilitate greater access to this facility for fellow infectious disease researchers.

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FOOD SECURITY: Aquaculture is hooked on chemicals, an addiction that must be fixed in the future -- study -- Tuesday, August 5, 2014 -- www.eenews.net

FOOD SECURITY: Aquaculture is hooked on chemicals, an addiction that must be fixed in the future -- study -- Tuesday, August 5, 2014 -- www.eenews.net | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
In part of the search to find ways to feed future populations, given the mounting impacts of extreme weather on traditional farming, many have begun to turn their attention to the ocean. Over the past 40 years, aquaculture has grown rapidly, accounting for half of human-consumed seafood in 2011 and continuing at a 6 percent annual increase in production. But along with increased demand and rapid expansion are many of the same problems presented by industrialized agriculture.
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A challenging and perhaps controversial article looking at the trend towards more industrial aquaculture

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Prebiotics as immunostimulants in aquaculture: A review

Prebiotics as immunostimulants in aquaculture: A review | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Fish & Shellfish Immunology 40 (1) 40-48

 

Prebiotics are indigestible fibers that increase beneficial gut commensal bacteria resulting in improvements of the host's health. The beneficial effects of prebiotics are due to the byproducts generated from their fermentation by gut commensal bacteria. In this review, the direct effects of prebiotics on the innate immune system of fish are discussed. Prebiotics, such as fructooligosaccharide, mannanoligosaccharide, inulin, or β-glucan, are called immunosaccharides. They directly enhance innate immune responses including: phagocytic activation, neutrophil activation, activation of the alternative complement system, increased lysozyme activity, and more. Immunosaccharides directly activate the innate immune system by interacting with pattern recognition receptors (PRR) expressed on innate immune cells. They can also associate with microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) to activate innate immune cells. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in innate immune cell activation need to be further explored. Many studies have indicated that immunosaccharides are beneficial to both finfish and shellfish.

  
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This should be a helpful review for anyone wanting to know more about prebiotics for aquatic animals

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Fish hospital to come up at Thevara

Fish hospital to come up at Thevara | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

KOCHI: The city is gearing up to set up the first aquatic animal hospital in the government sector. An Aquatic Animal Health and Environment Management Laboratory will come up on the premises of the Fishermen Training Centre at Thevara under the  Agency for Development of Aquaculture, Kerala (ADAK). The state government has accorded sanction for `1.12 cr for it. The total amount for the project is `1.68cr, the rest of the amount will be provided by National Fisheries Development Board. The construction work will be carried out by Ernakulam Nirmithi Kendra which is expected to begin soon.

“The centre is envisaged as a virtual research and support centre for fish farmers and as a ‘Hospital for Fish’ to address various diseases cropping up in fish species, which are being reported seasonally from various parts of the country. The hospital will be able to regularly monitor the occurrence of diseases and evolve effective strategies for health management for aqua culturists. The lab will also play an important role in quarantine and disease-free certification of ornamental fish,” sources said.  

The laboratory will act as a support component for all hatcheries and farms both in the government and private sector to test the quality of fish seed.

Experts pointed out that since the significance of aquaculture is rapidly increasing in the state, the establishment of such a laboratory is relevant. It is estimated that around 400 aquaculture farmers across the state will be benefited from the facility.

The laboratory will function as a monitoring and surveillance centre for diseases affecting fishes and aquatic organisms, including shrimps, fresh water prawn and farming fishes. The centre will be able to test the pollution levels of water. It will maintain registers pertaining to the details of farmers, samples given for testing, tests undertaken and results. These can be used for further aquaculture research, sources said.

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Wishing this initiative every success.

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Updated information on a "new disease" in rainbow trout - Norwegian Veterinary Institute

Updated information on a "new disease" in rainbow trout - Norwegian Veterinary Institute | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

In late August 2013 the Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI) received the first case of diseased rainbow trout from a hatchery. The signs of disease were unusual for fish at this age. The second and third cases were submitted to the NVI during October and primo November. The most recent hatchery affected by this disease was recorded in January 2014. Diseased fish were sized from 30 – 100 g. One hatchery reported high mortality in some pens. The other affected sites reported moderate mortalities.  

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Information on an emerging disease issue in Norway

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The tidepool shrimp, Palaemon ritteri Holmes, constitutes a novel host to the white spot syndrome virus - Sánchez-Paz - 2014 - Journal of Fish Diseases

The tidepool shrimp, Palaemon ritteri Holmes, constitutes a novel host to the white spot syndrome virus - Sánchez-Paz - 2014 - Journal of Fish Diseases | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a lethal and contagious pathogen for penaeid shrimp and a growing number of other crustacean species. To date, there are no effective prophylactic or therapeutic treatments commercially available to interfere with the occurrence and spread of the disease. In addition, the significance of alternative vectors on the dispersal of this disease has been largely ignored and therefore the ecological dynamics of the WSSV is still poorly understood and difficult to ascertain. Thus, an important issue that should be considered in sanitary programmes and management strategies is the identification of species susceptible to infection by WSSV. The results obtained provide the first direct evidence of ongoing WSSV replication in experimentally infected specimens of the tidepool shrimp Palaemon ritteri. Viral replication was detected using a validated set of primers for the amplification by RT-PCR of a 141 bp fragment of the transcript encoding the viral protein VP28. It is therefore conceivable that this shrimp may play a significant role in the dispersal of WSSV.

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A new and improved PCR method for detection of AHPND bacteria - NACA News

A new and improved PCR method for detection of AHPND bacteria - NACA News | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
A new PCR method has been developed for detection of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease in shrimp

 

Here we describe a new method for detecting isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that cause acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). This method is based on the gene sequence of a protein discovered in a sub-fraction of cell-free culture broth from isoaltes of V. parhaemolyticus that cause AHPND, but not from V. parahaemolyticus or other bacteria that do not cause AHPND. This cell-free preparation caused the typical signs of acute AHPND (massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells) when administered to shrimp by reverse gavage. It contained two prominent protein bands of 58 and 12 kDa. After mass spectrometery of peptide fragments derived separately from these proteins and after subsequent analysis by MASCOT, it was revealed that they had significant homology to bacterial toxins against insects. Primers were designed to amplify the complete gene sequences for these proteins from AHPND bacteria. After sequencing of the resulting amplicons, primers were designed for PCR methods to detect each of these protein genes, and preliminary tests with a few isolates of AHPND and non-AHPND bacterial isolates revealed that both methods gave positive results for all the AHPND isolates but that the 58 kDa protein alone also gave positive results for some non-AHPND isolates. Thus, further tests were carried out using the PCR method for the 12 kDa protein only. The 98 bacterial isolates tested consisted of non-AHPND (35) and AHPND (49) V. parahaemolyticus isolates (total 84) confirmed by bioassay and 14 other isolates of bacteria commonly found in shrimp ponds including other species ofVibrio and Photobacterium. Results for all 49 AHPND isolates were positive with the test while results for all the remaining isolates were negative. This gave 100% sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the new method when compared to 100% sensitivity, 97.7% specificity, 97.4% positive predictive value and 100% negative predictive value for the previously recommended AP2 PCR method that was evaluated using a similar set of 80 bacterial isolates. The isolate that gave a false positive test result in the test with the AP2 method was included in the test of the new method and it gave a correct, negative test result.

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Click through to link for full details

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Fish Vet Group Open for Business in Asia | The Fish Site

Fish Vet Group Open for Business in Asia | The Fish Site | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
THAILAND - International aquaculture health company Fish Vet Group (FVG) has officially opened for business in Asia with a ceremony to launch its state-of-the-art aquaculture diagnostic facility in Bangkok, Thailand.
John Bostock's insight:

Commercial investment into good disease diagnosis should be a welcome encouragement to the aquaculture sector in Asia.

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Revision of the legal framework for veterinary medicinal products - European Commission

Revision of the legal framework for veterinary medicinal products - European Commission | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

On 10 September 2014 the European Commission has adopted a pair of proposals on veterinary medicinal products and medicated feed.

The proposal on veterinary medicinal products aims to:

Increase the availability of veterinary medicinal products;
Reduce administrative burden;
Stimulate competitiveness and innovation;
Improve the functioning of the internal market; and
Address the public health risk of antimicrobial resistance

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EAFP Small Grants Scheme

EAFP Small Grants Scheme | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

In the light of an overall reduction of grant funding opportunities in the field of aquatic animal health, the EAFP has decided to launch a new Small Grant Scheme to assist its members in obtaining training in new methods which can further and improve research in fish pathology. 
 
The EAFP Small Grants Scheme has been established to allocate small amounts of funding (up to a maximum of 1000 €)  to support requests from members of the EAFP. Funds will be provided specifically for training visits to laboratories/institutions.

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Good to see EAFP supporting mobility

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Health Monitoring Software Supported by Provincial Government | OceansAdvance Inc

Health Monitoring Software Supported by Provincial Government | OceansAdvance Inc | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

The Provincial Government (Newfoundland & Labrador, Canada) is providing approximately $80,000 to implement a software-based Sea Lice Decision Support System within the province, a project that supports the advancing of best practices in aquaculture. The Honourable Keith Hutchings, Minister of Fisheries and Aquaculture, announced the funding today, which will help the Newfoundland Aquaculture Industry Association establish and test this powerful tool for monitoring sea lice prevalence and evaluating control programs.

 

“Sea lice naturally occur in ocean environments and can impact many species, but with this internet-based software system, the industry will have far greater capacity to monitor and mitigate the impact on farmed fish. This $80,000 investment is in keeping with the millions invested in other types of infrastructure to ensure aquaculture in this province is always following best practices.” said Minister Hutchings at the news conference.

 

The funding for this project was provided jointly by the Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture and the Department of Innovation, Business, and Rural Development. The innovative software was initially developed by the Atlantic Veterinary College at the University of Prince Edward Island, and has been used with great success in New Brunswick thus far.

John Bostock's insight:

This looks a very useful step forward. (Thanks to Will for bringing to our attention)

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2015 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health: ‘Riding the wave to the future’: OIE - World Organisation for Animal Health

2015 OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health: ‘Riding the wave to the future’: OIE - World Organisation for Animal Health | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

The OIE is pleased to announce that the 3rd OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health will be held in Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam) on 20-22 January 2015. This conference will build on the success of the First and Second OIE Global Conferences on Aquatic Animal Health held in Bergen, Norway (2006) and Panama City, Panama (2011) which helped to raise awareness about the importance of aquatic animal health and to build a global framework for improving management, prevention and control of aquatic animal diseases.

John Bostock's insight:

Important dates for the diary if you are involved in aquatic animal health issues, especially policy and regulation.

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Optimisation and standardisation of functional immune assays for striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) to compare their immune response to live and heat killed Aeromonas hydrophila as model...

Optimisation and standardisation of functional immune assays for striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) to compare their immune response to live and heat killed Aeromonas hydrophila as model... | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Aquaculture production of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is growing rapidly in South East Asia, especially in Vietnam. As it is a relatively new aquaculture species there are few reports evaluating its immune response to pathogens. Thus, functional assays for P. hypophthalmus were optimised to evaluate both innate and adaptive immune responses, and were then used to examine immune response following stimulation with live and heat-killed Aeromonas hydrophila. These were used as models of infection and vaccination, respectively.

Four treatment groups were used, including a control group, a group injected intraperitonally (IP) with adjuvant only, a group injected with heat-killed A. hydrophila (1 × 109 cfu ml−1 mixed with adjuvant), and a group injected with a subclinical dose of live A. hydrophila. Samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post-injection (d.p.i.) to assess their immune response. The results indicated that challenge with live or dead bacteria stimulated the immune response in P. hypophthalmus significantly above the levels observed in control groups with respect to specific antibody titre, plasma lysozyme and peroxidase activity, and phagocytosis by head kidney macrophages at 7 or/and 14 d.p.i. At 21 d.p.i., total and specific antibody (IgM) levels and plasma lysozyme activity in fish injected with either live or dead A. hydrophila were significantly different to the control groups. Differential immune responses were observed between fish injected with either live or dead bacteria, with live A. hydrophila significantly stimulating an increase in WBC counts and plasma peroxidase activity at 3 d.p.i., with the greatest increase in WBC counts noted at 21 d.p.i. and in phagocytosis at 14 d.p.i. By 21 d.p.i. only the macrophages from fish injected with dead A. hydrophilashowed significantly stimulation in their respiratory burst activity. This study provides basic information on the immune response in pangasius catfish that can be useful in the health control of this species.

 (Wanna Sirimanaponga, Kim D. Thompsona, Kan Kledmaneeb, Prawporn Thaijongrakb, Bertrand Collet, Ei Lin Ooi & Alexandra Adams IN  Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 40(2) 374-383 - October 2014).
John Bostock's insight:

Excellent article from Dr Sirimanapong and colleagues available on open access until October 2014.

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OIE Discusses Disease Eradication for the Americas | The Fish Site

OIE Discusses Disease Eradication for the Americas | The Fish Site | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

GLOBAL - Disease eradication in the Americas and other issues were addressed by the Director of Animal Health in Panama. Between the 5 and 7 August an Executive Board of the Regional Committee of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) met in the capital of Panama to debate strategies for the Americas.

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Getting your feet wet - Guidance & Resources for the developing Aquatic Veterinarian. - YouTube

Video from Dr Loh the Fish Vet:

 

"This is a recording of the presentation I gave to veterinary students at Ross University, St Kitts & Nevis a couple of weeks ago".

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Advice to aspiring fish vets...

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9th Symposium on Diseases on Asian Aquaculture (DAA9) - EMS/AHPND Special Session Announced

9th Symposium on Diseases on Asian Aquaculture (DAA9) - EMS/AHPND Special Session Announced | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

The Organizers of DAA9 will convene a special session on shrimp EMS/AHPND. If you want to know the latest on this emerging shrimp disease and become part of the Fish Health Section (FHS) of the Asian Fisheries Society (AFS) network, don’t miss this opportunity.

Prof Tim Flegel will facilitate the session in collaboration with FHS (AFS) and DAH (MARD) with an opening presentation titled “EMS/AHPND: a game changer for the future development of aquaculture”. This will be followed by presentations from other invited speakers and speakers selected from submitted abstracts. Prof Lightner, Dr Gomez-Gill, Dr Hirono, Prof Grace Lo and Prof Sorgeloos have confirmed making presentations at this session. We are expecting many more presentations from leading researchers from within and outside this region. The scope of the session will be broad and cover sequencing and analysis of genomic and epigenomic DNA of AHPND isolates; pathology, epidemiology and control; plus ongoing regional/international initiatives in Asia Pacific for dealing with the disease. The session will be  part of the 5 day DAA9 event and is open to all DAA9 registered delegates.

John Bostock's insight:

This will be a very well attended event!

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Eroded swimmeret syndrome, a novel disease of the signal crayfish - University of Eastern Finland

Eroded swimmeret syndrome, a novel disease of the signal crayfish - University of Eastern Finland | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Crayfish researchers at the University of Eastern Finland Department of Biology have discovered, together with Swedish colleagues, a new disease plaguing female signal crayfish. As the name suggests, eroded swimmeret syndrome (ESS) destroys the swimmerets of female crayfish, weakens their reproductive ability and can increase the mortality of mother crayfish. In Finland and Sweden, the observed declines and sudden plunges in natural populations of signal crayfish can, to some extent, be explained by eroded swimmeret syndrome.

SYMPTOMS CAUSED BY A FUNGUS

For a couple of years now, eroded swimmeret syndrome has been observed in female signal crayfish in both Finland and Sweden. Over the past year, the syndrome has been a target of intense research, and it has been discovered that female signal crayfish weakened by crayfish plague can contract eroded swimmeret syndrome. Molecular biological studies show that the erosion of the swimmerets and the actual symptoms are caused by a fungus of the Fusarium genus.

suu, Kuopio, Savonlinna
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More bad news for Scandinavian crayfish lovers 

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Recent insights into host–pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp - Shekhar - 2014 - Journal of Fish Diseases

Recent insights into host–pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp - Shekhar - 2014 - Journal of Fish Diseases | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

Viral disease outbreaks are a major concern impeding the development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. The viral disease due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed in early 1990s still continues unabated affecting the shrimp farms and cause huge economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand viral pathogenesis and shrimp response to WSSV at the molecular level. Identification and molecular characterization of WSSV proteins and receptors may facilitate in designing and development of novel therapeutics and antiviral drugs that may inhibit viral replication. Investigations into host–pathogen interactions might give new insights to viral infectivity, tissue tropism and defence mechanism elicited in response to WSSV infection. However, due to the limited information on WSSV gene function and host immune response, the signalling pathways which are associated in shrimp pathogen interaction have also not been elucidated completely. In the present review, the focus is on those shrimp proteins and receptors that are potentially involved in virus infection or in the defence mechanism against WSSV. In addition, the major signalling pathways involved in the innate immune response and the role of apoptosis in host–pathogen interaction is discussed.

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As fish farms proliferate, diseases do too

As fish farms proliferate, diseases do too | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it
June 26, 2014 — 

Earlier this year, Tamara Awerbuch Friedlander, an instructor in theDepartment of Global Health and Population at Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH), traveled to Chile to work with faculty members at the University of Antofagastato develop research and an academic curriculum focused on preventing the spread of diseases and parasites among farmed fish, and from aquacultures to the wild fish population, without the use of potentially harmful chemicals.

Awerbuch Friedlander uses mathematical modeling to study the complex social and biological systems behind the spread of diseases, and has previously focused on AIDS and Lyme disease, among others. In Antofagasta, she taught a three-week course on mathematical modeling to students, based on the long-running course she developed and teaches at HSPH. She described her approach as holistic. “I teach students to look at a range of factors relevant to the spread of a disease — such as ecological impact and human behavior — to develop a mathematical model. This can then be used to explore the effect of each factor in the presence of the others as well as new interventions.”

She and her Chilean colleagues hope to develop a strategy for promoting sustainable aquaculture that they can share with policy makers. Factors they are taking into account include the economic motivations of fish farmers and consumers’ aversion to the use of insecticides and antibiotics. Potential approaches for disease control could include keeping fewer fish in each pen and removing them before they have had time to become infested by potentially disease-causing insects, Awerbuch Friedlander said.

Her work in Chile this year was funded by the Fulbright Specialist Program. Scholars accepted into the program are added to a roster for five years and can be approached by researchers in other countries who are interested in their work. The program is an excellent opportunity that many researchers may not be aware of, but should be, Awerbuch Friedlander said. “For the next five years, I can look forward to collaborations around the world.”

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Welcome to the complexities of aquaculture epidemiology

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EMS Survey Now Available Online

EMS Survey Now Available Online | ASEM Aquaculture Health | Scoop.it

The Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA) is calling on shrimp farms in Asia and Latin America to fill out a survey designed to collect information on early mortality syndrome (EMS). The survey is now available online, the organization announced on June 19.

 

This comprehensive survey is the crux of a GAA case study launched in March to identify the practices that prevent and/or manage EMS at shrimp farms. The study will act as a foundation for recommendations to the global aquaculture community for better shrimp-farming practices.

 

The study will be conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of the survey. All shrimp farms in countries affected or threatened by EMS -- including China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, India and Mexico -- are encouraged to participate by completing an online form.

 
John Bostock's insight:

For the attention of all shrimp farmers!

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