Artificial Intelligence
86 views | +0 today
Follow
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

Brief guide to Artificial Intelligence

Let’s begin! The first material [cause it’s not really a scoop ;) ]  will be more about history, origin and philosophy behind – less about technology and other stuff.  I hope You will enjoy it! 

Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

1. Introduction


Artificial intelligence is the area of science that focuses upon creating machines that have the ability to behave more intelligently than human beings. The potential to develop intelligent machines has fascinated human beings for several centuries (mechanical men and artificial beings appear in Greek myths, such as the golden robots of Hephaestus and Pygmalion's Galatea. In the Middle Ages, there were rumours of secret mystical or alchemical means of placing mind into matter, such as Jābir ibn Hayyān's Takwin, Paracelsus' homunculus and Rabbi Judah Loew's Golem. By the 19th century, ideas about artificial men and thinking machines were developed in fiction, as in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein or Karel Čapek's R.U.R. [Rossum's Universal Robots], and speculation, such as Samuel Butler's "Darwin among the Machines." AI has continued to be an important element of science fiction into the present). Everyone has heard of artificial intelligence, and it has been the topic of numerous books and movies. From 2001 Space Odyssey to Blade Runner, Terminator or I, Robot, it is clear that the potential of AI has been explored by writers and directors.


The introduction of computers and over 50 years of research in techniques of artificial intelligence programming have led people to believe that the dream of such smart capabilities will soon become a reality. The main issue of artificial intelligence is the challenges that have not yet been met and scientists are not yet aware of how to resolve the issue in terms of manufacturing intelligence. The issues related with determining the very meaning of intelligence and consciousness have adversely impacted the progress in innovating systems that equal human levels of intelligence. Another reason why such a possibility remains quite remote is that the search is not being done in the right direction.


Researchers have started developing intelligent systems that can perform almost the same functions as the human mind, in addition to understanding speech and performing several other functions that were not possible earlier. It is now possible to ascertain how militaries of different nations make use of artificial intelligence techniques in developing their high-tech systems. This paper will thoroughly examine the history of artificial intelligence and the development that has taken place in this regard over the last few decades in providing human beings with better facilities and higher standards of living.

 


2. Origin of the phrase artificial inteligence


The phrase artificial intelligence was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy, who was a computer science professor at Stanford University. According to him, artificial intelligence implied the engineering and science of creating intelligent machines. During the initial years of the development of artificial intelligence there was considerable excitement and the pioneers of the concept had made confident and forthright predictions. Herbert Simon was an innovator of artificial intelligence systems and had predicted in 1965 that within 20 years machines will be capable of doing everything that human beings can do. Two years later, MIT scholar Marvin Minsky predicted that the next generation will be able to get over the complexities associated with creating artificial intelligence systems. In keeping with such determination amongst researchers, popular culture started taking for granted that artificial intelligence will be able to provide man with robots that could perform all human functions.
Movies such as Jetsons, Star Wars and Rosy the Robot were instant successes and created a wave of popularity whereby high expectations were raised in the context of artificial intelligence. However, after a few decades of such assertions people have started questioning what artificial intelligence has done for humanity. Many believe that if artificial intelligence is defined as a means for self learning and self-awareness, then it has obviously proved to be a big disappointment (Scientific American, 2002).

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

AI in everyday life

Next material about our daily relations with Artificial Intelligence

Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

3. Everyday Life

 

Every time that people search through the worldwide web they get responses from NetFlix and are prompted to give further feedback in order to allow artificial intelligence systems to provide the required results. They may also get opportunities to speak on telephone voice recognition systems that are tools devised for making constructive use of intelligent machines. It can be said that people may not be having the facility of fully functioning robots that perform all human functions, but it is also true that artificial intelligence is now ingrained heavily in people’s everyday lives. Amongst the most influential factors that have boosted artificial intelligence is the Moore’s Law because artificial intelligence cannot do without power from the CPU. This is corroborated by the fact that the world had take twenty years to transform from 5MHz technology to 500MHz technology but only eight months were required to transform to 1GHz technology. Scientists such as Burrus have argued in favour of expert systems and artificial intelligence that work in the background of different functions.
The introduction of artificial intelligence systems in financial institutions reduced the time taken in the servicing and approving loans from two weeks to a few minutes. In addition, there are several other examples of artificial intelligence such as air force pilots being able to land their planes on aircraft carriers. Expert systems are now widely used for the management of room service orders in luxury hotels. Artificial intelligence allows hotel staff to know when they should start cooking and when they should deliver the food.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

Why there is no intelligent machines yet

At this point, AI is not a matter of “how fast computers are”, or how much storage they have at their disposal. If that was true, we would already have some form of slow-reacting, but truly intelligent, machines.

We don’t.

Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

4. Barriers

 

In the early seventies, the capabilities of AI programs were limited. Even the most impressive could only handle trivial versions of the problems they were supposed to solve. There was not enough memory or processing speed to accomplish anything truly useful. For example, Ross Quillian's successful work on natural language was demonstrated with a vocabulary of only twenty words, because that was all that would fit in memory. Hans Moravec argued in 1976 that computers were still millions of times too weak to exhibit intelligence. He suggested an analogy: artificial intelligence requires computer power in the same way that aircraft require horsepower. Below a certain threshold, it's impossible, but, as power increases, eventually it could become easy. With computers doubling their performance every 2 years, some are already predicting that computers are “not far” from equalling the human brain in terms of raw computing performance. But according to Frederico Faggin (he’s the person who designed the Intel 4004, the world’s first microprocessor, and subsequently designed the Z80 which was a mega-hit as well) even in 40 years, processors still won’t have the raw processing power of the human brain. He adds that it is also very difficult to measure the human brain’s performance because we don’t understand it enough. But if computers were fast enough and store enough information, could machines be as smart as humans? For the foreseeable future, no. This is probably one of the biggest myths that circulates in and around the world of computing. At this point, AI is not a matter of “how fast computers are”, or how much storage they have at their disposal. If that was true, we would already have some form of slow-reacting, but truly intelligent, machines. We don’t.

The real issue is that we don’t understand how human intelligence and “consciousness” work. We don’t know the principles behind it, we can superficially imitate it but we cannot build something like it, or better – for now. What we need is a “cognitive computing” model (a theory) before we can build machines around it.
If you look at today’s computers, they are based on a computing model which is based on Boolean logic, a theory that was developed by George Boole in 1854 well before the first computer was invented. It is only in the 1930s that Claude Shannon applied the Boolean logic theories to circuit design. This opened the door to executing algorithms as they were imagined by Ada Lovelace, an 18th century English lady who is often seen as the first computer programmer in history. But to create intelligence, do we have to imitate the brain? Maybe not, maybe we have not reached that level of understanding for AI.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

My conclusion

It is last paragraf of my "Brief guide to Artificial Intelligence"

Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

6. Conclusion

 

Although nothing indicates today that within the next 40 years computers can be as smart (or smarter) than humans, there is always a possibility that a research breakthrough leads to a working cognitive computing model. And while we are confident that computing will continue to evolve at a quick pace, and that one day computer may finally reach that level of consciousness, the million-dollar question is: when?

 

“When” cannot be extrapolated from the simple evolution of computing performance. In fact, computer performance somewhat irrelevant at this point. Real AI will be born when the first cognitive computing model comes to life.


Although there is no established paradigm or theory that helps in guiding research in artificial intelligence, researchers are not in agreement over several issues. Some of the issues that continue to remain unresolved relate to whether artificial intelligence simulates natural intelligence through the study of neurology or psychology. Another issue is whether human biology is relevant to research in artificial intelligence. Intelligent behaviour cannot be explained with the use of simple concepts such as optimization and logic.

 

At the far end a small ray of hope for AI development, following Paul Allen's The Singularity. First the obvious - from 2012, go back in time 15 years and describe today's everyday technology. People would scoff and tell you all about how impossible it is. Go back 15 years from that point, describing the era's technology, and it wouldn't seem that far-fetched. The point is obvious - not to declare that all advancement is exponential, but it's clear as day that advancement is getting much, much faster all the time.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

Digithead's Lab Notebook: Practical advice for applying machine learning

Digithead's Lab Notebook: Practical advice for applying machine learning | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

It's not who has the best algorithm that wins. It's who has the most data.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

Forget artificial intelligence. It's artificial idiocy we need to worry about

Forget artificial intelligence. It's artificial idiocy we need to worry about | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Tom Chatfield: Machines are good at some things and OK at others, but completely useless when it comes to understanding
Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

On the other hand comes... Another point of view

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski from Tracking the Future
Scoop.it!

From Star Trek to Siri: How the Machine-Reading Revolution will dictate the future

From Star Trek to Siri: How the Machine-Reading Revolution will dictate the future | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

IBM's Watson system defeated the human champion on "Jeopardy!" in February 2011 -- surprising the world.
But that feat was a precursor to what is being called a "Machine-Reading Revolution," which is underway now.
Microsoft co-founder Paul G. Allen and entrepreneur Oren Etzioni reveal five ways it will change how you live.
They say it will impact on how we find a hotel, follow our favorite sports team and receive medical advice.


Via Szabolcs Kósa
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski from Tracking the Future
Scoop.it!

Computer Chips in Your Brain

Computer Chips in Your Brain | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Imagine a world where information can be downloaded straight to your brain. It's not as unrealistic as you might think.


Via Szabolcs Kósa
Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

It sounds pretty insane - but just think of it - how cool would it be...

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski from Tracking the Future
Scoop.it!

Google Puts Money on Robots, Using the Man Behind Android

Google Puts Money on Robots, Using the Man Behind Android | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Over the last half-year, Google has quietly acquired seven technology companies in an effort to create a new generation of robots. And the engineer heading the effort is Andy Rubin, the man who built Google’s Android software into the world’s dominant force in smartphones.


Via Szabolcs Kósa
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski from Daily Magazine
Scoop.it!

Why Is Google Buying So Many Robot Startups? | MIT Technology Review

Why Is Google Buying So Many Robot Startups? | MIT Technology Review | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Forget robotic product delivery. As usual for Google, I suspect it’s all about the data.

Via THE *OFFICIAL ANDREASCY*
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

"Robotics and the Living": Concepts and Design of Intelligent Systems

"Robotics and the Living": Concepts and Design of Intelligent Systems | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

Only abstract of whole conference but has pointed out many issue in field of AI

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

Sztuczna inteligencja nadciąga

Sztuczna inteligencja nadciąga | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Sztuczna inteligencja, wielkie marzenie ludzkości, właśnie pojawia się wśród nas. Po cichu, niezauważalnie i w dość nieoczekiwany sposób. Powinniśmy się bać czy cieszyć?
Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

Podstawowe problemy takie jak uczenie się i rozpoznawanie, czy zostaną rozwiązane?

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

The Reality of Artificial Intelligence

Machine learning is a central concept of artificial intelligence and the two are often used interchangeably in meaning the same things. The assumption is that instead of programmers attempting to devise comprehensive and direct sets of instructions that systems should essentially follow to achieve their goals, they are provided with several examples of related data so that they can develop their own recognition systems and rules for operation.

Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

5. The Reality of Artificial Intelligence


It cannot be denied that McCarthy’s vision has actually become a reality. In the current popular culture, artificial intelligence continues to conjure up visions of intelligent robots. Films such as Star Trek and the Matrix demonstrated super intelligence that was much superior to human beings, especially in the context of problem solving and reasoning. Nevertheless, the truth about artificial intelligence technology cannot be said to have achieved the far reaching vision of science fiction. But it is possible for scientists at least in the near future to create artificial intelligence machines that possess human abilities. Kevin Warwick, who teaches cybernetics at the University of Reading strongly believes that super intelligent artificial intelligence systems will arrive in the coming future and usher in a speedy and changing technology, which he has referred to as singularity. He holds that,


“I feel that by 2050 that we will have gone through the Singularity and it will either be intelligent machines actually dominant – The Terminator scenario – or it will be cyborgs, upgraded humans. I really by 2050 can’t see humans still being the dominant species. I just cannot believe that the development of machine intelligence would have been so slow as to not bring that about” (Minsky, 2005, p.104).


At the core of artificial intelligence there is a challenge that has not yet been solved and scientists are not yet aware of how to resolve the issue in terms of manufacturing intelligence. The issues related with ascertaining the very meaning of intelligence and consciousness in this regard have adversely impacted the progress in innovating systems that equal human levels of artificial intelligence. Another reason why such a possibility remains quite remote is that the search is not being directed on the correct route. According to Reading’s Warwick, “I think in the ’60s, ’70s people were maybe making predictions – we were going to have AI systems like the human brain in 10 years and things like that – maybe they were completely unrealistic scenarios but we’ve tended to use AI systems for specific areas. We’ve not been looking at recreating humans” (Minsky, 2005, p. 136).

Machine learning is a central concept of artificial intelligence and the two are often used interchangeably in meaning the same things. The assumption is that instead of programmers attempting to devise comprehensive and direct sets of instructions that systems should essentially follow to achieve their goals, they are provided with several examples of related data so that they can develop their own recognition systems and rules for operation. Machine learning is very strong because it provides systems with solutions to effectively manage the complex environment that they have to function in. They have to also develop, improve and efficiently manage the changes that keep being introduced in the operational systems. The bottom line in this context relates to the fact that systems have the ability to become aware of operating different strategies more efficiently than human beings.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

This Eerie Game Was Made by Artificial Intelligence

This Eerie Game Was Made by Artificial Intelligence | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Are computers starting to get creative?
Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

Whole game made by AI ANGELINA. It is not latest hit but it is playable.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

Scientists closer than ever to making artificial intelligence a reality

Scientists closer than ever to making artificial intelligence a reality | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

Discussion in CBS This Morning between James Barrat and Gary Marcus about AI

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

The Singularity Is Near...

The Singularity Is Near... | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Movie trailer

Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

It is just a trailer - I guess You will know where to find the whole movie. It is not certainly documentary movie but it shows what may come in not so distant future

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski from Tracking the Future
Scoop.it!

​The Worst Lies You've Been Told About the Singularity

​The Worst Lies You've Been Told About the Singularity | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

In a nutshell, the Technological Singularity is a term used to describe the theoretical moment in time when artificial intelligence matches and then exceeds human intelligence. The term was popularized by scifi writer Vernor Vinge, but full credit goes to the mathematician John von Neumann, who spoke of "ever accelerating progress of technology and changes in the mode of human life, which gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue."

By "not continue" von Neumann was referring to the potential for humanity to lose control and fall outside the context of its technologies. Today, this technology is assumed to be artificial intelligence, or more accurately, recursively-improving artificial intelligence (RIAI), leading to artificial superintelligence (ASI).

Because we cannot predict the nature and intentions of an artificial superintelligence, we have come to refer to this sociological event horizon the Technological Singularity — a concept that's open to wide interpretation, and by consequence, gross misunderstanding.


Via Szabolcs Kósa
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

A. I. Projects

A. I. Projects | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab, The Blue Brain Project, Vicarious, A.I.L.E.E.N.N. (Artificial Intelligence Logical Electronic Emulation Neural Network), OpenCog, The SYMBRION and REPLICATOR projects, Project Halo, BigDog (Boston Dynamics).

Those and much, much more projects are running simultaneously right now. And those already have been very succesful - take for example first quantum computer, BigDog robot who can walk himself in any weather or terrain conditions.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

Speaktoit - Your Personal Assistant

Speaktoit - Your Personal Assistant | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Artificial Intelligence in Your pocket. This company builded interface based on natural language interaction and predictive assistance. It is actually system that understand and learns himself.

Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

This is just small app but it shows the potential of technology which is developed over a half century.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

The Bio-intelligence Explosion – David Pearce | Science, Technology & the Future

The Bio-intelligence Explosion – David Pearce | Science, Technology & the Future | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
The Biointelligence Explosion How recursively self-improving organic robots will modify their own source code and bootstrap our way to full-spectrum
Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

Will robots dominate during the next 50 years, as computers has during the previous 50?

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

Marvin Minsky honored for lifetime achievements in artificial intelligence | Machines Like Us

Marvin Minsky honored for lifetime achievements in artificial intelligence | Machines Like Us | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
The MIT professor emeritus earns the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award for his pioneering work and mentoring role in the field of artificial intelligence.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski
Scoop.it!

No real Artificial Intelligence in the next 40 years

No real Artificial Intelligence in the next 40 years | Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Here is another doze of Intel.

Simultaneously  this is something should each of us consider himself 

Marcin Piotr Świderski's insight:

Can computing and science fiction collide to create a true Artificial Intelligence? A.I has been part of our computing landscape for a long time, first as an idea, then taking baby steps, thing started to move in the early days of computers. After that, there was a period of disillusion and with the rise of cloud computing and massively parallel consumer-level chips A.I is more than ever on our lips and in our minds – but how far are we really from the awakening of a digital form of consciousness?

more...
No comment yet.