Let’s begin! The first material [cause it’s not really a scoop ;) ] will be more about history, origin and philosophy behind – less about technology and other stuff. I hope You will enjoy it!
|Scooped by Marcin Piotr Świderski|
Brief guide to Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence is the area of science that focuses upon creating machines that have the ability to behave more intelligently than human beings. The potential to develop intelligent machines has fascinated human beings for several centuries (mechanical men and artificial beings appear in Greek myths, such as the golden robots of Hephaestus and Pygmalion's Galatea. In the Middle Ages, there were rumours of secret mystical or alchemical means of placing mind into matter, such as Jābir ibn Hayyān's Takwin, Paracelsus' homunculus and Rabbi Judah Loew's Golem. By the 19th century, ideas about artificial men and thinking machines were developed in fiction, as in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein or Karel Čapek's R.U.R. [Rossum's Universal Robots], and speculation, such as Samuel Butler's "Darwin among the Machines." AI has continued to be an important element of science fiction into the present). Everyone has heard of artificial intelligence, and it has been the topic of numerous books and movies. From 2001 Space Odyssey to Blade Runner, Terminator or I, Robot, it is clear that the potential of AI has been explored by writers and directors.
The introduction of computers and over 50 years of research in techniques of artificial intelligence programming have led people to believe that the dream of such smart capabilities will soon become a reality. The main issue of artificial intelligence is the challenges that have not yet been met and scientists are not yet aware of how to resolve the issue in terms of manufacturing intelligence. The issues related with determining the very meaning of intelligence and consciousness have adversely impacted the progress in innovating systems that equal human levels of intelligence. Another reason why such a possibility remains quite remote is that the search is not being done in the right direction.
Researchers have started developing intelligent systems that can perform almost the same functions as the human mind, in addition to understanding speech and performing several other functions that were not possible earlier. It is now possible to ascertain how militaries of different nations make use of artificial intelligence techniques in developing their high-tech systems. This paper will thoroughly examine the history of artificial intelligence and the development that has taken place in this regard over the last few decades in providing human beings with better facilities and higher standards of living.
2. Origin of the phrase artificial inteligence
The phrase artificial intelligence was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy, who was a computer science professor at Stanford University. According to him, artificial intelligence implied the engineering and science of creating intelligent machines. During the initial years of the development of artificial intelligence there was considerable excitement and the pioneers of the concept had made confident and forthright predictions. Herbert Simon was an innovator of artificial intelligence systems and had predicted in 1965 that within 20 years machines will be capable of doing everything that human beings can do. Two years later, MIT scholar Marvin Minsky predicted that the next generation will be able to get over the complexities associated with creating artificial intelligence systems. In keeping with such determination amongst researchers, popular culture started taking for granted that artificial intelligence will be able to provide man with robots that could perform all human functions.
Movies such as Jetsons, Star Wars and Rosy the Robot were instant successes and created a wave of popularity whereby high expectations were raised in the context of artificial intelligence. However, after a few decades of such assertions people have started questioning what artificial intelligence has done for humanity. Many believe that if artificial intelligence is defined as a means for self learning and self-awareness, then it has obviously proved to be a big disappointment (Scientific American, 2002).