Coffee isn't just warm and energizing, it may also be extremely good for you. In recent years, scientists have studied the effects of coffee on various aspects of health and their results have been nothing short of amazing.
The study of weed origins and evolutionary history is the poor cousin of the archaeobotany of crop domestication. Archaeobotanists can potentially do much more on this, and undoubtedly should. To provide some inspiration it is worth considering some recent insights from genetics, to do with weedy rice. While it is surely the case that rice's wild progenitors may act as weeds in the crop, it now appears that much weedy rice is descended from the crop and not directly from the wild progenitor.
Systematic archaeobotanical work at Xihe site recovered 8000 years old rice and other plant remains. Cultural context analyses of the plant and animal remains indicated Xihe people relied mainly on fishing–hunting–gathering as their subsistence. As the largest amount and higher concentration of plant remains, rice might contribute much to plant food resource at the settlement. Even though it is too early to demonstrate the nature of the rice remains (whether it is wild, cultivated or domesticated), the case that discovery of Xihe rice has undoubtedly provided new evidence for our understanding of rice exploitation subsistence at about 8000 years ago in East China.
This interactive map documents where 443 million people around the world get there water (although the United States data is by far the most extensive). Most people can't answer this question. A recent poll by The Nature Conservancy discoverd that 77% of Americans (not on private well water) don't know where their water comes from, they just drink it. This link has videos, infographics and suggestions to promote cleaner water. This is also a fabulous example of an embedded map using ArcGIS Online to share geospatial data with a wider audience.
By moving the slider, the user can compare 1990 false-color Landsat views (left) with recent true-color imagery (right). Humans are increasingly transforming Earth’s surface—through direct activities such as farming, mining, and building, and indirectly by altering its climate.
This interactive feature includes 12 places that have experienced significant change since 1990. This is an user-friendly way to compare remote sensing images over time. Pictured above is the Aral Sea, which is and under-the-radar environmental catastrophe in Central Asia that has its roots in the Soviet era's (mis)management policies.
Tags: remote sensing, land use, environment, geospatial, environment modify, esri, unit 1 Geoprinciples, zbestofzbest.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, Online First™ - SpringerLink.
The gene pool of cultivated Asian rice consists of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.), cultivated rice (O. sativa L.) and a weedy form (O. sativa f. spontanea). All three components are widespread in Thailand, frequently co-occurring within fields and providing the opportunity for gene flow and introgression. The purpose to this study is to understand the on-going evolutionary processes that affect the gene pool of rice by analysis of microsatellite variation. Results indicate that O. rufipogon, the wild ancestor of rice, has high levels of genetic variation both within and among populations. Moreover, the variation is structured predominantly by annual and perennial life history. High levels of variation are detected among cultivars indicating Thai cultivated rice has a broad genetic base with only a 20 % reduction in diversity from its wild ancestor. The weedy rice populations reveal varying levels of genetic variation, from nearly as high as wild rice to near zero. Weedy rice is genetically structured into 2 groups. Some populations of invasive weedy rice are the result of hybridization and gene flow between local wild rice and local cultivated rice in the regions of co-occurrence. Other populations of weedy rice are genetically nearly identical to the local cultivated rice. The diversity analysis indicates that the rice gene pool in Thailand is a dynamic genetic system. Gene flow is ongoing among its three main components, first between cultivated and wild rice resulting in weedy rice. Weedy rice in turn crosses with both cultivated varieties and wild rice.
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