Article On Chemistry - Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals
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Water and food concerns give rise to Virtual Water - World Of Chemicals

Water and food concerns give rise to Virtual Water - World Of Chemicals | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
water chemistry discusses the concept of virtual water which helps to save lots of sweet water, which can be used for other purpose, as per this new research around 70% of good water as been used for food production
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How is bromine synthesised by laboratory process? - World Of Chemicals

How is bromine synthesised by laboratory process? - World Of Chemicals | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
To make bromine in the laboratory here are few steps we need to follow; we need to find a chlorine source and react it with a solution of bromide ions. After formation of the bromine, it must be separated from the solution in a suitable way
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Chemistry in everyday life

Chemistry in everyday life | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Have you ever wondered why chemistry is so important? Why do we study chemistry? We all are made of chemicals and everything around us is made of chemicals. Everything we hear, see, smell, taste, and touch involves chemistry and chemicals (matter). Hearing, seeing, tasting, and touching all involve intricate series of chemical reactions and interactions in our body. Many of the changes we observe in the world around are caused by chemical reactions. Chemistry is not limited to beakers and laboratories. It is all around us, and the better we know chemistry, the better we know our world. Chemistry is present in every aspect of life, and few examples are
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Chemistry of Enzymes, Polymers

Chemistry of Enzymes, Polymers | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Original name of enzymes is ferments. Enzymes are biomolecules, biocatalysts, complex proteins that drives thousands of metabolic processes in living things. Without enzymes there is no respiration process, digestion processes in animals and no photosynthesis process in plants. Overall enzymes can able to catalyze 4000 biochemical reactions. Enzymes are biocatalysts. Enzymes without being consumed in the process can speed up chemical processes or slow down the chemical processes. After the reaction is complete, the enzyme is released from the chemical process which can start another reaction. They are present in all living cells, where they perform a vital function by controlling the metabolic processes. Moreover, enzymes take part in the breakdown of food materials into simpler compounds. Enzymes like pepsin, trypsin and peptidases break down proteins into amino acids, lipases split fats into glycerol and fatty acids, and amylases break down starch into simple sugars. Enzymes production Enzymes are generally extracted from various sources like plants, animals, bacteria, fungi, and animal organs. The enzymes of animal and plant origin are produced through the disruption of tissues, organs, leaves and fruits. Then enzymes will be extracted with water or organic solvent. In same way microbial enzymes are attained through the process of fermentation. Examples for enzymes Chimosin Pepsin Trypsin Pancreatin Ficin Papain Bromelain Pactinases Glucoamylase Amylase Protease Alpha-amylase Thousands of different enzymes are needed to keep the human body functioning normally, each usually acting on only one kind of substrate, and catalyzing only one kind of reaction. Enzymes are classified according to the type of reaction they catalyze and the type of substrates on which they act. Most metabolic processes involve a series of many different chemical changes. In digestion, for example, separate chemical reactions take place in the mouth, stomach, and intestine. Certain enzymes break down the protein, carbohydrate, and fat molecules of food into smaller molecules. Other enzymes assist in passing these smaller molecules into the bloodstream. History & Discovery of enzymes In 1833 Payen and Persoz isolated enzyme complex from malt In 1874 Christian Hansen extracted dried calves' stomachs with saline solution In 1876 William Kuhne coined the term ‘enzyme’ In 1897 Eduard Buchner studied about zymase action In 1926 James B. Sumner explained function of urease In 1930 Northrop and Stanley worked on pepsin enzyme Structure of enzymes Enzymes are in general globular proteins and range from just 62 amino acid residues in size and all these amino acids linked together. The amino acids within each kind of enzyme have a characteristic arrangement. The bonds between the different amino acids in the chains are weak and may be broken by such conditions as high temperatures or high levels of acids. When the bonds are broken, the enzymes become nonfunctional and disease sometimes occurs. Enzyme Commission number/system For the classification of enzymes one particular method is following by the people i.e., Enzyme Commission System. The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. EC 1 - Oxidoreductases, catalyzes both oxidation reactions and reduction reactions EC 2 - Transferases, catalyzes transferring of groups EC 3 - Hydrolases, catalyzes hydrolytic cleavage of different bonds EC 4 - Lyases, catalyzes cleavage of bonds EC 5 - Isomerases - catalyzes geometric or structural changes within molecule EC 6 - Ligases - catalyzing the joining of two molecules Applications of enzymes Enzymes for textile industry, enzymes used for textile industry for the purpose of desizing, bio-polishing, denim finishing, bleach clean-up, bio-scouring and de-wooling Enzymes for leather industry - enzymes used for leather industry for the purpose of bating, un-haring, degreasing and soaking in the beam-house processes Enzymes for food industry - enzymes used for food industry for the purpose of food baking and brewing of alcohols Enzymes for detergent industry - enzymes used for detergent industry for the purpose of removing protein stains, fatty stains Enzymes for biofuel industry Enzymes for rubber industry Enzymes for photographic industry Polymers Polymers are high molar mass containing macromolecules and are composed of a large number of repeating units or different types of units. Homopolymers are the polymers contain single type of repeat units. Where as copolymers are the polymers contains mixture of repeat units There are two types of polymers. Natural polymers Synthetic polymers Proteins - it is polymer of amino acids Nucleic acids - it is polymer of nucleotides Starches - it is polymer of glucose Latex is the naturally occurring polymers Ethylene Propylene Polyethylene Polyethylene terephthalate [PETE] Polyvinyl chloride [PVC] Polypropylene [PP] Polystyrene [PS] Poly tetrafluoro ethylene Polyurethane Polyamide Polyacrylamides are synthetic polymers Polymers are the major constitute the basis for diamond, quartz, and feldspar and concrete, glass, paper, plastics, and rubbers. Polymers are formed by chemical reactions in which a large number of molecules called monomers are joined sequentially, forming a chain. In others, two or three different monomers may be joined to form a long chain. Polymers are classified by the characteristics of the reactions by which they are formed. Addition polymers If all atoms in the monomers are incorporated into the polymer, the polymer is called an addition polymer. Most addition polymers are made from monomers containing a double bond between carbon atoms. Such monomers are called olefins. Condensation polymer If some of the atoms of the monomers are released into small molecules, such as water, the polymer is called a condensation polymer. Condensation polymers are made from monomers that have two different groups of atoms which can join together to form. Chemical properties of polymers The attractive forces between polymer chains play a major role in polymer's properties. Polymers side groups determine what types of intermolecular forces will exist. If greater the strength of the intermolecular forces, the greater will be the tensile strength and melting point of the polymer. Different types of bonds exists between polymers are Hydrogen bonds Dipole-dipole bonds Vander waal’s forces
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Chemicals of indelible ink used at bank cash counters

Chemicals of indelible ink used at bank cash counters | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
NEW DELHI. INDIA: On Tuesday 15th Nov 2016, Government of India announced it is going to use indelible ink at the cash counter where the old bank notes of 500 and 1,000 Rupees are being exchanged. The move taken by the Government is very necessary because it has been noticed that the facility of note exchange is being misused by several black money holders. The indelible ink which is utilised here is same as the ink used in Indian Election times, the ink will remain at least for 72 hours once marked on your finger. It helps authorities to figure out the malpractices that is happening everywhere. The ink contains few important chemicals that’ll stick firmly and remains for a prolonged period of time. Silver Nitrate is the chemical which is mixed with black ink solution when the solution is applied on your finger it turns to silver chloride as a result of chemical reaction. Silver chloride once sticks on to your finger cannot be removed so easily and disappears only when external skin cells are replaced. Silver Nitrate reacts with the salt present on your skin after which silver chloride is formed. And, importantly silver chloride is insoluble in water & never dissolves with water or any other solution. The election ink comprises 10 percent, 14 percent or 18 percent silver nitrate solution, the proportion depends on the duration of time the mark is required to be visible. Election ink is sometimes mixed with alcohol for fast drying, and also biocide is blended to ensure the bacteria is not transferred if dipping bottles are used for staining purpose. Usually the election ink is violet in colour, however, it turns to black or brown colour when it comes in contact with the sunlight. In India Mysore Paints and Varnish Limited (MPVL) is the only company that has the authority to make indelible ink. MPVL is a Government of Karnataka undertaking and is situated in the city of Mysore, India. Ministry of finance has approached MPVL asking for the supply of indelible ink with large quantity.
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BASF’s coating solutions comply with emission guidelines in China

BASF’s coating solutions comply with emission guidelines in China | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
BASF’s new coating solutions for wind turbines, meet the current volatile organic compounds (VOCs) guidelines, including the tightened threshold values for use in Beijing, China.
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New Indian Rupee Note Material | Currency Making Material

New Indian Rupee Note Material | Currency Making Material | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
The recent Indian demonetization emerged as a shock and surprise not just to the Indians, but to many across the globe. The news of India scrapping their 500 and 1000 rupees notes has gone viral on Facebook, Twitter and other social networking platforms. In the event of such a historic move in India, at Worldofchemical.com, we would like to bring in few insights on the significance of chemicals in currency notes manufacturing and printing.
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How mangoes can unlock marijuana's true potential?

How mangoes can unlock marijuana's true potential? | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
If you wish to lie lazily in the heat of the sweltering summers, then started thinking to have some seasonal fruits! Or ice cream. If you are elder you go and buy juicy mangoes from the stores, if you are a kid, you go and pluck the mangoes from the garden. There is a plenty of varieties found in mangoes like Totapuri, Langra, Alphonso, Kesar, Dashehari, Neelum and list goes on.... Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies, and sweet chili sauce. It also contain some health benefits. Mango Health Benefits Numerous phytochemicals are present in mango peel and pulp, such as the triterpene, lupeol which is under basic research for its potential biological effects. Pigments that are present in mango peel include carotenoids, such as the provitamin A compound, beta-carotene, lutein and alpha-carotene, and polyphenols, such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins and tannins. Mango contains a unique xanthonoid called mangiferin. The flavor of mango fruits is contributed by several volatile organic chemicals mainly belonging to terpene (Myrcene), furanone, lactone, and ester classes. Mangoes health benefits include Eating mangoes will give you 105 calories energy. It is composed of 76 percent vitamin C. Vitamin c acts as antioxidant and immune booster. 25 percent vitamin A. As everyone know vitamin A is good for vision. Mangoes also composed of 11 percent vitamin B6 plus other B vitamins and 9 percent healthy probiotic fibre, 9 percent copper. Copper is usefull in the production of red blood cells.And other minerals present in mangoes are 7 percent potassium, 4 percent magnesium etc. Apart from being pulpy, jiucy and lots of health benefits did you know that the mangoes can unlock marijuana's true potential! Yes! It is true! You read it correct! But wait what is marijuana? Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled parts from the marijuana plant. Some people get addicted to marijuana after using it for a while. Most of us have heard of cannabinoids, those are the chemical compounds present in marijuana that provide the effects our bodies feel when ingest cannabis. As the legalization of recreational and medical cannabis continues to spread in the present days. And though active compounds known as cannabinoids have been hogging the limelight, there’s another category of compounds that are yet to be similarly appreciated by consumers and chemists alike. Those are nothing terpenes, but terpenes which are belongs to family of cannabinoid-like compounds. Among the 20,000 different terpenes that have so far been identified in nature, 200 have been found within the cannabis plant it self. Terpenes play a major role in the plant’s myriad healing properties. Indeed, current studies are revealing that they provide quite the banquet of therapeutic services, as well as being a building block within the cannabis plant. Out of these terpenes myrcene is found to be the most abundant terpene. Myrcene can be found in any number of plants and fruits and grains, and it is definitely in one of the most popular fruits on the planet: it is none other than the king of fruits i.e., Mango. Myrcene is responsible for giving mangoes their unique smell. Let me explain you here about an interesting fact about mangoes, myrcene, marijuana combination An interesting experiment was done with the mango and cannabis that produced some notable and practical results. Eating fresh mangos or even drinking a fresh mango smoothie 45 minutes prior to smoking will dramatically increase the toking effect felt by marijuana and help medical marijuana patients to ease their pain. This is because a chemical compound known as myrcene terpene. Those who have experienced increased highs as a result of eating mangoes suggest that the absorption time of Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was cut from 7 seconds to just 4. As a result THC can induce hallucinations, change thinking and cause delusions. On average, the effects last about two hours, and kick in 10 to 30 minutes after ingestion. But mangoes are by no means the only myrcene-containing substances. The key terpene is also found in apricots, hops, lemon grass, the bay tree (from which bay rum is made), parsley, verbena, and wild thyme. And that leads to an interesting question just begging for field research: If mangoes get you higher on pot, wouldn't these other items do so, too?
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This Diwali, illuminate your home with flickering diyas! - World Of Chemicals

This Diwali, illuminate your home with flickering diyas! - World Of Chemicals | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Undoubtedly, the ghee lamps create a pleasant, relaxing ambience with their spectacular view. Also, they have hidden science which most of us are not aware of.
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How to Use Isopropyl Alcohol for Electronics Cleaning?

How to Use Isopropyl Alcohol for Electronics Cleaning? | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Isopropyl alcohol is the best compound, to use on computers, laptops or any other electronic devices. The reason behind why you want to use it to get rid of smoke smells on electronics is that it dries very quickly. If you are using water to clean the electonic devices, it would lead to you destroying the product because water and electricity are deadliest combination. On the other hand since isopropyl alcohol dries quickly, it is selected as preferred method to cleaning electronics. The very first thing that you need to keep in mind, before you start cleaning electronic devices with isopropyl alcohol is to unplug or remove the batteries from the electronic device. Second formost important factor, that you must consider temperature of the devices. Isopropyl alcohol works best when the room is above 60 degrees Fahrenheit, so that it completes it work and it can evaporate soon on the surfaces of the devices. If you are applying this chemical without considering temperature factor, it costs you more. Now a days, current generation kids are fond of games, in specific video games and they will be using game consoles, controllers hours together. Once they will finish the game, it will be neglect these gaming peripherals. As a result dust will be deposited on these devices. In these case also we can apply isopropyl alcohol as a cleaning agent. Other electronic devices like printed circuit board’s (PCB), Tvs, Headphones, Smartphones and any other small electronics can be sanitize and keep them clear of dirty finger prints and smudges.
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Great significances of oxygen - World Of Chemicals

Great significances of oxygen - World Of Chemicals | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Oxygen isolated by joseph priestley oxygen comprises 22 per cent of the atmospheric air Oxygen is produced using air separation plants used in various industrial applications steel production, rocket propellants, medicine
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Interesting facts about nitrogen element - World Of Chemicals

Interesting facts about nitrogen element - World Of Chemicals | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Nitrogen chemical element represented as N and atomic number of 7, nitrogen used in various industrial and commercial applications such as fertilizers, packaged foods, Light Bulbs, Reactive compounds production
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Benzene: A carcinogen found in soft drink | People falling Sick after having carbonated drinks or soft drinks

Benzene: A carcinogen found in soft drink | People falling Sick after having carbonated drinks or soft drinks | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it

Within 20 minutes of drinking a soft drink blood sugar spikes and your liver responds to the resulting insulin burst by turning massive amounts of sugar into fat. The continuing insulin burst, over time, eventually creates insulin resistance and finally diabetes can be the result.

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Is the air you breathe, safe? - World Of Chemicals

Is the air you breathe, safe? - World Of Chemicals | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Carbon monoxide, Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen oxides, Particulates, Gases from factories are some chemicals or air pollutants found in India, china; some steps that can reduce air pollution
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World Aids Day 2016: 2,000 Proteins Present in HIV Virus

World Aids Day 2016: 2,000 Proteins Present in HIV Virus | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
AIDS stands for: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.HIV stands for: Human immunodeficiency virus Contains 2000 Proteins . HIV is transmitted primarily via unprotected sexual intercourse (including anal and even oral sex)
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Chemistry of fear | See What Chemical Causes Fear

Chemistry of fear | See What Chemical Causes Fear | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
It’s 12’O clock in midnight! You are alone and watching television in home! Suddenly the front door and windows are thrown against the door frame! You reached the front door to close it and it’s very dark out side! Doors and windows fasten up flopping! In the same time some horror scene coming in television! Then suddenly, Your breath speedup and started shivering!
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Friedrich Hund – discoverer of Hund’s rule - World Of Chemicals

Friedrich Hund – discoverer of Hund’s rule - World Of Chemicals | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Friedrich Hund was a German physicist He did significant work on the structures of atoms and molecules In 1925 Hund discovered ‘Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity’
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Role of Oxalic Acid in Human Body | List of Oxalic Acid Foods

Role of Oxalic Acid in Human Body |  List of Oxalic Acid Foods | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Oxalic Acid belonging to the family of carboxylic acids and this chemical also termed as Ethanedioic Acid. Oxalic acid is widely used as an acid rinse in laundries, where it can able to remove rust and ink stains because of its capability of converting insoluble iron compounds into a soluble complex ion.For the same reason, it is the chief ingredient of many commercial preparations used for removing scale from automobile radiators. It occurs naturally in high levels in many common foods, including several vegetables like Potatoes, Beets, Broccoli, Carrots and other foods like fruits, nuts&seeds, legumes&grains, Chocolate, Beer etc. In some of these food items, it tastes pleasantly sour, and in others it’s essentially tasteless. Because it binds with some nutrients making them unavailable, for this reason the oxalic acid is often described as an anti-nutrient. We don’t believe oxalic acid poses a health threat if you’re reasonable about your consumption. More than 90 per cent of the oxalic acid you consume is normally excreted in your urine. Organic form of oxalic acid, in low concentration, is essential to maintain peristaltic motion in our body. However, when it is processed or cooked, it becomes inorganic form, and may have certain negative effects on the body. Foods high in both calcium and oxalic acid are less of a concern than those merely high in oxalic acid, since the calcium bonds with the oxalic acid in the stomach. In lower doses, oxalic acid can limiting the absorption of some nutrients, particularly calcium and iron. When oxalic acid combines with calcium and some of these other minerals it creates oxalate crystals, which can contribute to kidney stones, gout etc. Oxalic acid can also interfere with the absorption of minerals in our diet such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Hence, it is advisable for people with certain health conditions to limit its intake through the diet. One thing to be kept in mind is that, oxalic acid is harmless if consumed in organic form and moderate amounts. However, too much of it can have several adverse effects on your body.
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What is Freezing Point Depression? Who Discovered?

What is Freezing Point Depression? Who Discovered? | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Francois-Marie Raoult French chemist formulated a law on solutionsknown as Raoult’s law, discovered aqueous solutions freezing point
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Methylene Blue: A Chemical for Treating Aquarium Fish

Methylene Blue: A Chemical for Treating Aquarium Fish | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
In this 21st centuary all the people remain in stress mentally, it could be the business related reasons, personal reasons etc. So there should be some simple practices to get rid of these stress factors from our mindset. Out these simple methods, there is a one simple way to keep our mind calm is to decorate your home with aquarium. This treatment is termed as pet therapy. Some recent studies also concluded that by spending some time in front of an aquarium with plenty of colourful fishes certainly reduces stress and subsequently lowers blood pressure. At the time of stress our body releases three different types of hormones like Adrenaline, Cortisol and Norepinephrine that are in charge of adding fuel to the fire. This could be reason why some of the nursing homes, physician offices, dental clinics, and even waiting rooms for counselors are equipped with beautiful aquariums with varieties of fish. Aquariums can beautifully decorates our living room or even other places of home. As per Hindu mythology one of Lord Vishnu’s avatars was a fish in the sea, so it is believed that the fishes can consume all the negative energies and give a calming effect. It’s always suggested to keep colorful and attractive fishes in aquarium which deviate the jinx of a visitor from the entire home to the aquarium and all their negative energies will transformed into positive energy by glancing at the colorful attractive fishes. This in turn produces positive energy. It also makes you to feel energetic and will be free from all the worries. Having an aquarium at office or home tends to relax your mind and create a calm atmosphere. Other important reason to keep aquariums in our home is for Vastu.Some of the Vastu experts believes keeping an aquarium is one of the best solutions for any Vastu defect. If you plan to have a aquarium at your home, then you should know and remember some of the following points. Basically An aquarium is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which water-dwelling plants or animals are kept and displayed. So obviously aquariums needs proper maintenance. Aquarium maintenance is something that absolutely has to be done on a regular basis. So you've finally got your new aquarium and it's starting to look a little dirty and your newly brougt fishes getting sick. This is the right time for some routine aquarium care or maintenance. Before pursuing any form of treatment for your aquarium, consider making a detailed list of all of its inhabitants. Even dont forget to discuss your situation with an expert who can help you make an informed decision about using agents on your fish. One of those agents is Methylene blue. Methylene blue can remedy various ailments, including bacterial illness and parasite infestation. It is a relatively safe chemical. Methylene Blue is effective against superficial fungal infections of fish. The drug may be used as an alternative to Malachite Green for the control of fungus when it is known that the fish to be treated are sensitive. Methylene Blue is safe for use with fish eggs and fry for the prevention of fungal infections. As a secondary use, it is effective against some external protozoans, such as Ichthyophthirius (Ich), Chilodonella and Costia. Methylene Blue is effective against skin and gill flukes, ick, velvet, fungus and many external parasites and bacterial infections. This compound is very safe to use even for many invertebrates. Methylene Blue works by staining cells and disabling their metabolism. A positive side effect of this compound is the ability to increase hemoglobin (oxygen carrying cells) by transforming methemoglobin. Because of this characteristic, methylene blue can be used to treat nitrite and cyanide poisoning. Methylene Blue should not be used in the main aquarium as it will destroy or severely defect the biological filter bacteria. It can also permanently discolor equipment and silicate seals blue.
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Sodium hydroxide – cleaning, sanitization agent in chromatography media and columns

Sodium hydroxide – cleaning, sanitization agent in chromatography media and columns | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Sodium hydroxide is the principal strong base used in the chemical industry. In bulk it is most often handled as an aqueous solution, since solutions are cheaper and easier to handle. Sodium hydroxide is also used for the manufacture of sodium salts and detergents, for pH regulation, and for organic synthesis. Sodium hydroxide is employed to digest tissues, such as in a process that was used with farm animals at one time. This process involved placing a carcass into a sealed chamber, then adding a mixture of sodium hydroxide and water. This eventually turns the body into a liquid with coffee-like appearance and the only solid that remains are bone hulls, which could be crushed between one's fingertips. Surfactants can be added to the sodium hydroxide solution in order to stabilize dissolved substances and thus prevent redeposition. A sodium hydroxide soak solution is used as a powerful degreaser on stainless steel and glass bakeware. It is also a common ingredient in oven cleaners. Sodium hydroxide is widely accepted for cleaning, sanitizing, and storing chromatography media and systems. The advantages of sodium hydroxide as a cleaning and sanitation agent are Efficacy Low cost Ease of detection Removal Disposal Sodium hydroxide has been shown to be effective in removing proteins and nucleic acids. It is also effective for inactivating Viruses Bacteria Yeasts Fungi Endotoxins It is common practice in industrial manufacturing to save time by adding a salt, such as sodium chloride, to the sodium hydroxide solution to combine cleaning with sanitization. During restrictive inspections, producers of biopharmaceuticals and biological products usually give attention to cleaning and cleaning validation of chromatography resins and multiuse purification systems. Chromatographic resins must either be disposed of or sufficiently cleaned to ensure reproducibility in subsequent cycles. Over the years, varied cleaning agents have been proposed. Once evaluating a new cleaning agent for a resin, make sure it is compatible with system components as well. Destruction of O-rings and other column components by a cleaning agent is a risk to a process. For resins, the foremost cleaning agent is sodium hydroxide. Some reports indicate that heated sodium hydroxide is an excellent cleaning agent. Even without the heating, high concentrations of sodium hydroxide require facility and equipment evaluation and use of safety equipment to protect workers. Sodium hydroxide is frequently used as an industrial cleaning agent where it is often called "caustic". It is added to water, heated, and then used to clean process equipment, storage tanks, etc. It can dissolve grease, oils, fats and protein based deposits. It is also used for cleaning waste discharge pipes under sinks and drains in domestic properties. As a cleaning agent, sodium hydroxide saponifies fats and dissolves proteins. In general, it can solubilize precipitated proteins. Its hydrolyzing power is enhanced by the presence of chlorine. Chromatography columns can become contaminated by a variety of protein and nonprotein species during a purification process. Consequences of chromatography column contamination include Increase in backpressure Loss of signal resolution Altered product yield Medium discoloration Common chromatographic contaminants include Residual proteins Proteins Nucleic acids Lipids Viruses Bacteria Yeast Fungi Prions Endotoxins Metal ions Sodium hydroxide for proteins removal Sodium hydroxide has been used extensively to get rid of proteins from ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration media. The ability of sodium hydroxide to remove proteins from chromatography media depends on the following factors Nature of the media Nature of sample Sample contaminants These factors may interfere with the cleaning efficiency of sodium hydroxide. A higher concentration of sodium hydroxide may be required if lipids are bound to a protein. Sodium hydroxide for nucleic acids removal Nucleic acids can bind tenaciously to anion exchangers of chromatography equipment. 1 M sodium hydroxide and 3 M sodium chloride, with a total contact time of one hour, effectively removes radiolabelled calf thymus DNA from a weak anion exchanger. Since it is a bacteriostat it is recommended for the removal of bacteria from chromatography equipment sodium hydroxide should be added along with ethanol. Sodium hydroxide may not completely eliminate bacterial spores alone in further good manufacturing process required to complete the process. Endotoxins are effectively removed by using sodium hydroxide sanitizing agent. When sodium hydroxide used for sanitization of chromatography media, the ability to withstand stringent sanitizing conditions depends on the following factors Functional groups Attachment chemistries Stability of base matrices to alkaline conditions Other applications Food uses of sodium hydroxide include washing or chemical peeling of fruits and vegetables, chocolate and cocoa processing, caramel coloring production, poultry scalding, soft drink processing, and thickening ice cream. Olives are often soaked in sodium hydroxide to soften them, while pretzels and German lye rolls are glazed with a sodium hydroxide solution before baking to make them crisp. Sodium hydroxide has been used to straighten hair
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How sniffer dogs can spot diabetes? - World Of Chemicals

How sniffer dogs can spot diabetes? - World Of Chemicals | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Sniffer dogs spot diabetes by smelling a chemical found in your breath that provides indication to blood sugar levels in patients, isoprene chemical is smelled
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Chemistry of Teflon Cookware - World Of Chemicals

Chemistry of Teflon Cookware - World Of Chemicals | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Let me give you the common name of Polytetrafluoroethylene i.e., “Teflon” Teflon is generally used for non-stick cookware. The non-stick cookware coating allows food to brown without sticking to the pan
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Celebrating Mole Day to foster interest in chemistry - World Of Chemicals

Celebrating Mole Day to foster interest in chemistry - World Of Chemicals | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Mole Day celebrated annually on October 23 from 6:02 a.m. to 6:02 p.m. commemorates Avogadro’s Number (6.02 x 1023), which is a basic measuring unit in chemistry
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8,400 - 10,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke!

8,400 - 10,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke! | Article On Chemistry -  Find Out Chemical Industry Best Articles only at World Of Chemicals | Scoop.it
Carbon monoxide is the main poisonous gas in car exhausts as well as present in cigarette smoke It binds to haemoglobin much more readily than oxygen, thus causing the blood to carry less oxygen. Not just tobacco, there are several harmful chemicals in cigarettes, some of which are poisonous Other chemicals effect include
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