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Complex nerve-cell signaling traced back to common ancestor of humans and sea anemones

Complex nerve-cell signaling traced back to common ancestor of humans and sea anemones | arslog | Scoop.it

New research shows that a burst of evolutionary innovation in the genes responsible for electrical communication among nerve cells in our brains occurred over 600 million years ago in a common ancestor of humans and the sea anemone. The research, led by Timothy Jegla, an assistant professor of biology at Penn State University, shows that many of these genes, which when mutated in humans can lead to neurological disease, first evolved in the common ancestor of people and a group of animals called cnidarians, which includes jellyfish, coral, and sea anemones.


"Our research group has been discovering evidence for a long time that most major signaling systems in our neurons are ancient, but we never really knew when they first appeared," Jegla said. "We had always assumed that we would be able to trace most of these signaling systems to the earliest nervous systems, but in this paper we show that this is not the case. It looks like the majority of these signaling systems first appear in the common ancestor that humans share with jellyfish and sea anemones."

Electrical impulses in nerve cells are generated by charged molecules known as ions moving into and out of the cell through highly specialized ion-channel proteins that form openings in the cell membrane. The new research focuses on the functional evolution of the genes that encode the proteins for potassium channels -- ion channels that allow potassium to flow out of nerve cells, stopping the cell's electrical impulses. "The channels are critical for determining how a nerve cell fires electrical signals," said Jegla. "It appears that animals such as sea anemones and jellyfish are using the same channels that shape electrical signals in our brains in essentially the same way."


"Humans and sea anemones went their separate ways evolutionarily speaking roughly 600 million years ago," said Jegla, "so we know that the mechanisms we use to generate impulses in our neurons must be at least that old."


Recent genome sequences from comb jellies, which also have nervous systems, show that they are a more ancient group of animals than sea anemones and might even be the oldest type of animals that are still living today. "When we looked at comb jellies, we found that the potassium channels looked very different -- most of the channel types found in humans were missing," said Jegla. "We could trace only one kind of the human potassium channels that we looked at all the way back to comb jellies, but we find almost all of them in sea anemones."


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Untapped Events's curator insight, February 19, 2015 10:38 AM

 Investigação demonstra que os mecanismos que os nossos neurónios usam para gerar impulsos terá cerca de 600 milhões de anos.


Research shows that the mechanisms we use to generate impulses in our neurons must be at least 600 million years old.


‪#‎UntappedEvents‬ ‪#‎News‬ ‪#‎Science‬ ‪

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Appel à projets Arts Numériques | Culture & Coopération

Appel à projets Arts Numériques | Culture & Coopération | arslog | Scoop.it
Appel à projets Arts numériques et espace public à Saint-Etienne.
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The Year That Tech Needed The Art Industry

The Year That Tech Needed The Art Industry | arslog | Scoop.it
Wandering the halls at CES this year, you would have been forgiven for thinking it was still 2014. Bluetooth speakers crowded the shelves, wearables were..
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Scientists Successfully 'Hack' Brain To Obtain Private Data

Scientists Successfully 'Hack' Brain To Obtain Private Data | arslog | Scoop.it
It sounds like something out of the movie “Johnny Mnemonic,” but scientists have successfully been able to ‘hack’ a brain with a device that's easily available on the open market.
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Internet Art and Spirituality Emerge in New Group Show 'Witchcraft' | The Creators Project

Internet Art and Spirituality Emerge in New Group Show 'Witchcraft' | The Creators Project | arslog | Scoop.it
Artists Laura Brothers, Sara Ludy, Brenna Murphy, and Krist Wood question artistic practices in the Internet Age at Initial Gallery.
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Everything I Know: 42 Hours of Buckminster Fuller’s Visionary Lectures Free Online (1975)

Everything I Know: 42 Hours of Buckminster Fuller’s Visionary Lectures Free Online (1975) | arslog | Scoop.it
Think of the name Buckminster Fuller, and you may think of a few oddities of mid-twentieth-century design for living: the Dymaxion House, the Dymaxion Car, the geodesic dome.
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Photos With Embroidered Pixels Trace the History of the Berlin Wall | WIRED

Photos With Embroidered Pixels Trace the History of the Berlin Wall | WIRED | arslog | Scoop.it
The Berlin Wall divided a city in half and stood as one of the most important symbols of the Cold War for nearly three decades. Nowadays the nearly 100-mile wall is gone, but a few traces still remain --- small sections of concrete kept as historical markers, guard towers dot the city, and less obvious signs, like groves of young trees along the wall’s former path, hint at what once was.
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Last #CALL - 404 International Festival of Art & Technology - deadline 15-03-2014 - #mediaart

Last #CALL - 404 International Festival of Art & Technology - deadline 15-03-2014 - #mediaart | arslog | Scoop.it

“404 International Festival of Art & Technology”, born in Argentina in 2004, is a non-profit organization which main objective is to promote artistic productions that bring together Arts and Technology, generating an environment where the artists can relate with the community.

Over a decade, it has been presented in different countries, such as Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, Taiwan, Argentina, and Russia.

 

“404 Festival””, the oldest festival of New Media in Argentina, launches its 12th open-call destined to artists and researchers from all over the world with the aim to spread and stimulate New Media creations.


Via Jacques Urbanska
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Game Theory Calls Cooperation Into Question | Quanta Magazine

Game Theory Calls Cooperation Into Question |  Quanta Magazine | arslog | Scoop.it
A new solution to the prisoner’s dilemma, a classic game theory scenario, has created new puzzles in evolutionary biology.

When the manuscript crossed his desk, Joshua Plotkin, a theoretical biologist at the University of Pennsylvania, was immediately intrigued. The physicist Freeman Dyson and the computer scientist William Press, both highly accomplished in their fields, had found a new solution to a famous, decades-old game theory scenario called the prisoner’s dilemma, in which players must decide whether to cheat or cooperate with a partner. The prisoner’s dilemma has long been used to help explain how cooperation might endure in nature. After all, natural selection is ruled by the survival of the fittest, so one might expect that selfish strategies benefiting the individual would be most likely to persist. But careful study of the prisoner’s dilemma revealed that organisms could act entirely in their own self-interest and still create a cooperative community.

Press and Dyson’s new solution to the problem, however, threw that rosy perspective into question. It suggested the best strategies were selfish ones that led to extortion, not cooperation.

Plotkin found the duo’s math remarkable in its elegance. But the outcome troubled him. Nature includes numerous examples of cooperative behavior. For example, vampire bats donate some of their blood meal to community members that fail to find prey. Some species of birds and social insects routinely help raise another’s brood. Even bacteria can cooperate, sticking to each other so that some may survive poison. If extortion reigns, what drives these and other acts of selflessness?


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The 3D-Printer Industry Is Taking Shape, With Big Implications For Product Design, Manufacturing, And Marketing

The 3D-Printer Industry Is Taking Shape, With Big Implications For Product Design, Manufacturing, And Marketing | arslog | Scoop.it
Many households and businesses will own 3D printers in the near future.

Via Michael Dunham
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PERSYSTOGRAF - Audiovisual street organ

www.avoka.fr /////////////////////////////////////////////// ENGLISH ////////////////////////////////////////////// With the PERSYSTOGRAF, Avoka’s latest…

Via nay-seven
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nay-seven's curator insight, January 19, 2015 11:15 AM

A new creative installation from the French collaborative group AVOKA. Simplicity and nice graphics results here for this innovative Visual organ ( partially inspired by the work on rotating screens made by Bernard Szajner ).

Pascal Quéru's comment, March 18, 2015 7:52 AM
Oh la la Bernard szajner =:))) trop bien
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Project Anywhere: digital route to an out-of-body experience

Project Anywhere: digital route to an out-of-body experience | arslog | Scoop.it

Constantinos Miltiadis’s project combines inteligloves and Kinect sensors to an Oculus Rift-style headset to provide the ultimate in impressive digital experiences


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FILE #01 | Digital Aesthetics E-BOOK | OPEN CALL for ARTICLES

FILE #01 | Digital Aesthetics E-BOOK | OPEN CALL for ARTICLES | arslog | Scoop.it
FILE is an e-book promoted by M0us310n.net which analyses the intersections between Philosophy, Art, and computing communication processes on the internet. FILE is an open call for dialogue that attempts to bring together different theoretical and practical fields of criticism and reflection on digital art. Developed from an academic context, but emerging from a need to reach beyond it and to establish links with the artistic production, FILE is created with the intention of compile essays in or
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Mad Scientists at MIT Are Designing Chairs That Assemble Themselves | WIRED

Mad Scientists at MIT Are Designing Chairs That Assemble Themselves | WIRED | arslog | Scoop.it
It took this chair 7 hours to fully assemble itself. Not lightning fast, but an impressive starting point.
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prosthetic knowledge — Neon Nomads A public travelling gallery of digital...

prosthetic knowledge — Neon Nomads A public travelling gallery of digital... | arslog | Scoop.it
Neon Nomads
A public travelling gallery of digital art that displays works outside on tipis tents made with LED fabric:
“Global nomadic art gallery which first set up camp in Hyde Park , Sydney...
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Open Call: NARS Foundation 2015 Emerging Curators

Open Call: NARS Foundation 2015 Emerging Curators | arslog | Scoop.it
The Emerging Curator Program offers an opportunity for an individual to organize a conceptually cohesive and innovative group show at the NARS Foundation Gallery, a unique gallery surrounded by artist studios. The aim of the program is to encourage new dialogue and to create a platform for emerging curators and artists to experiment and exchange ideas. The curator is provided with exhibition space and administrative support, including the assistance of an experienced staff curator. No prior cur
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Digital Iconoclasm: Antonio Roberts interviewed by Nathan Jones | www.furtherfield.org

Digital Iconoclasm: Antonio Roberts interviewed by Nathan Jones | www.furtherfield.org | arslog | Scoop.it
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MoMA Releases Trailer for Björk's 'Black Lake' | The Creators Project

Watch the trailer for her upcoming immersive music and film experience realized with Andrew Thomas Huang
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Breakthrough DNA Editor Borne of Bacteria | Quanta Magazine

Breakthrough DNA Editor Borne of Bacteria |  Quanta Magazine | arslog | Scoop.it
Interest in a powerful DNA editing tool called CRISPR has revealed that bacteria are far more sophisticated than anyone imagined.

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La Chambre Rouge par Julien Grosjean - #soundart #mediaart

(English below )
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La Chambre Rouge sera présentée dans le cadre du Mirage Festival le Samedi 28 Février 2015 à Lyon
miragefestival.com/
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La chambre est rouge et la porte ouverte. Il y a des traces de passage.
Des voix résonnent du dehors tandis que je suis là. Je tourne, entre la mémoire et l’oubli.

La Chambre Rouge est une installation qui capte, enregistre, diffuse et altère des paroles rassemblées ici et là.
C’est une expérience sensible et un objet de réflexion sur les thèmes du temps, de la mémoire, de l’oubli et de l’identité.
Des paroles, extraites d’interview, sont diffusées et progressivement effacées par le dispositif,
auquel est aussi connecté un micro, ouvert en permanence, invitant le public à témoigner de sa présence.

Par son apparence fragmentée et la coexistence de deux boucles de bande magnétique, captant les mêmes information du dehors mais les reproduisant autrement, l’installation évoque symboliquement la coexistence en notre être de différentes mémoires (consciente, inconsciente, corporelle, émotionnelle...) et de leur rapport différents au temps, à l’altération et à l’oubli.

//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

The room is red and the door open. There are traces of passage.
Voices are sounding from outside while i am here. I’m turning, between memory and oblivion.

La Chambre Rouge is an installation that perceives, records, emits and transforms words gathered from here and there.
It is a sensitive experience and an objet issued from the reflexion about the subjects of time, memory, forgetting and identity.
Words, extracts from interviews, are played and progressively erased by the device, to wich is also connected a
microphone that records permanently , inviting an audience to share its presence.

By its fragmented appearence and the coexistence of two differents tapes’ loop that are recording the same exterior information, but reproducing them differently, the installation symbolically evoke the internal coexistence of different memories ( conscious, unconscious, corporal, emotionnal) and their different relation to time, alteration and oblivion.

Conception et Réalisation : Julien Grosjean
Prises de vue : Rose-Mary Loisy - indelebile.fr
Montage : Julien Grosjean
Contact et Diffusion : jjuull@free.fr

Produit grâce à l'aide et au soutien de l'ENSA de Bourges


Via Jacques Urbanska
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Synchronization as Aggregation: Cluster Kinetics of Pulse-Coupled Oscillators

We consider models of identical pulse-coupled oscillators with global interactions. Previous work showed that under certain conditions such systems always end up in sync, but did not quantify how small clusters of synchronized oscillators progressively coalesce into larger ones. Using tools from the study of aggregation phenomena, we obtain exact results for the time-dependent distribution of cluster sizes as the system evolves from disorder to synchrony.

 

Synchronization as Aggregation: Cluster Kinetics of Pulse-Coupled Oscillators
Kevin P. O'Keeffe, Pavel L. Krapivsky, Steven H. Strogatz

http://arxiv.org/abs/1501.04115


Via Complexity Digest
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New 3D Printer Will Now Print Drones, Phones, and Other Electronics - SERIOUS WONDER

New 3D Printer Will Now Print Drones, Phones, and Other Electronics - SERIOUS WONDER | arslog | Scoop.it

3D printers creating 3D printers creating 3D printers - the possibilities are endless with Voxel8's 3D electronic printer! - B.J. Murphy for Serious Wonder


Via LeapMind
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