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being an immigrant or living in a "slum" is a feature not a bug
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Climate Change, Disaster Risk, and the Urban Poor: Cities Building Resilience for a Changing World

Climate Change, Disaster Risk, and the Urban Poor: Cities Building Resilience for a Changing World | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

Poor people living in slums are at particularly high risk from the impacts of climate change and natural hazards. They live on the most vulnerable lands within cities, typically areas that are deemed undesirable by others and are thus affordable. Residents are exposed to the impacts of landslides, sea-level rise, flooding, and other hazards. Exposure to risk is exacerbated by overcrowded living conditions, lack of adequate infrastructure and services, unsafe housing, inadequate nutrition, and poor health. These conditions can turn a natural hazard or change in climate into a disaster, and result in the loss of basic services, damage or destruction to homes, loss of livelihoods, malnutrition, disease, disability, and loss of life. This study analyzes the key challenges facing the urban poor given the risks associated with climate change and disasters, particularly with regard to the delivery of basic services, and identifies strategies and financing opportunities for addressing these risks. Several key findings emerge from the study and provide guidance for addressing risk:

 

1) The urban poor are on the front line. The poor are particularly vulnerable to climate change and natural hazards due to where they live within cities, and the lack of reliable basic services.

 

2) City governments are the drivers for addressing risks. Local governments play a vital role in providing basic services which are critical to improving the resilience of the urban poor.

 

3) City officials build resilience by mainstreaming risk reduction into urban management. Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction can be best addressed and sustained over time through integration with existing urban planning and management practices.

 

4) Significant financial support is needed. Local governments need to leverage existing and new resources to meet the shortfalls in service delivery and basic infrastructure adaptation.

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Escaping poverty through low end globalisation?

Escaping poverty through low end globalisation? | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

This photograph is taken in Guangzhou (the city once known as Canton) at a wholesale clothing market. Most of the people in the market are not from Guangzhou. The market traders are a mix of people from China and from a number of different nations in Africa. The customers are primarily Africans.  It is an international place, drawing all toward a common goal:  to escape poverty through the international circulation of cell phones and clothing.   

 

Most of those Africans in Guangzhou are working in businesses that facilitate the export of goods back to Africa.  Gordon Matthews in his book Ghetto at the centre of the world tells us that Africans go through stages of engagement in the process of becoming a trader with China. The easiest point of access is via Hong Kong and in particular through a single building: Chung King Mansions. The traders come to Hong Kong with money that they have scraped together from friends and family seeking out those with experience. In Hong Kong, they will either buy from local wholesalers, which is a more expensive but potentially less risky option, and ship the good back or taken home as part of their luggage.  Those who are more connected or willing to take bigger risks may find  a guide who will take them to Shenzhen or, even better, Guangzhou to buy from wholesalers directly. Goods will then be shipped as in the photograph above or again carried home as luggage. Those who successfully manage the first trip, and are able to get their goods home, then survive economically to return again. Many do not.

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kolkata

kolkata | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

The slums of Kolkata can be divided into three groups: the older ones, up to 150 years’ old, in the heart of the city, are associated with early urbanization. The second group dates from the 1940s and 1950s and emerged as an outcome of industrialization-based rural–urban migration, locating themselves around industrial sites and near infra-structural arteries. The third group came into being after the independence of India and took vacant urban lands and areas along roads, canals and on marginal lands. In 2001, 1.5 million people, or one third of Kolkata’s population, lived in 2011 registered and 3500 unregistered slums.

 

Registered Slums (bustees): these slums are recognized by the Calcutta Municipal Corporation (CMC) on the basis of land title; since 1980, they have been taken over by the CMC for letting/lease to slum dwellers.

 

Unregistered slums: this comprises slums onthe land encroaching settlements.

 

The "bustee-type" generally has some form of secure tenure or ownership rights based on land rent or lease, with structures built by the slum dwellers, or house rental/lease of structures built by third parties.


Tenure security is, in principle, not available to the unregistered land encroaching settlements on road sides (jhupri), along canals (khaldhar) or on other vacant land (udbastu).


Over 40 per cent of Kolkata’s slum residents have been slum dwellers for two generations or longer, and more than half originate from the Kolkata hinterland. With the majority engaged in the informal sector, with average monthly earnings of between 500 and 1700 rupees and a household size of five to six persons, some three-quarters of the Kolkata slum population are below the poverty line.


This summary has been extracted from:

UN-Habitat (2003) Global Report on Human Settlements 2003, The Challenge of Slums, Earthscan, London; Part IV: 'Summary of City Case Studies', pp195-228.

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Kolkata_bw.pdf

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Opening the Gates – Gurgaon, India

Opening the Gates – Gurgaon, India | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

Gurgaon, India is one of the fastest-growing cities in one of the most rapidly urbanizing countries on the planet. Known as the Millennium City because it barely existed two decades ago, the Delhi satellite is a study in contrast. Multinational corporations do business from gleaming skyscrapers that overlook unpaved roads and slums with no running water or sewer system. Tech entrepreneurs employed by Fortune 500 companies live in gated communities that on the inside look like any ritzy suburb, except even fancier and the water has to be trucked in. Outside, feral pigs roam free. Since the city’s beginning, the disparity has been stark and unabated. Now that is beginning to change, with an emerging class of young leaders who say the city cannot continue this unsustainable growth. These individuals are moving outside their walled subdivisions to engage with India’s notoriously dysfunctional government and work for reform. The goal is to build a better city for all. If they succeed, this jarringly free-market city could become a model for repairing broken democracy.

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Apopka Family Learning Center

Apopka Family Learning Center is an inclusive community where children and families of all races, cultures, and walks of life are welcomed. We believe that family and community offer the best support system for healthy social, academic, civic, and ethical development. By offering educational opportunities to the entire family, we create families who value education, self-reliance, and community service.


@AFLCenter

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A real class war may be on its way.

A real class war may be on its way. | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

Hard times can create mean times. Americans may find scapegoats for stagnation, as many already have in immigrants or public-sector unions. But permanent stagnation could also lead to the creation of class politics, which by the standards of other nations have been largely absent from the American experience — save among the rich. Since growth slowed in the ’70s, the wealthy have sought and won changes to tax codes, financial regulations, campaign spending laws and the bargaining power of workers that have enabled them to claim an unprecedented share of the country’s output.


Long-term stagnation, however, might just transform this one-sided class war into a two-sided contest. If growth vanishes — or if the wealthy continue to claim so vast a share of our wealth that growth vanishes for everyone but them — then the only path that the 99 percent could take to better their lot would be explicitly redistributive.


Via David Hodgson
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Poverty and education: why school reform is vital

Poverty and education: why school reform is vital | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

The most important civil-rights battleground today is education, writes Nicholas D. Kristof, and the most crucial struggle against poverty is the one fought in schools.


Inner-city urban schools today echo the "separate but equal" system of the early 1950s. In the Chicago Public Schools (where a tentative agreement was just reached following a teachers' strike), 86 percent of children are black or Hispanic, and 87 percent come from low-income families.


Those students often don't get a solid education, any more than blacks received in their separate schools before Brown v. Board of Education. Chicago's high school graduation rates have been improving but are still about 60 percent. Just 3 percent of black boys in the ninth grade end up earning a degree from a four-year college, according to the Consortium on Chicago School Research.


America's education system has become less a ladder of opportunity than a structure to transmit inequity from one generation to the next.

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Leong Kin Wai's curator insight, February 1, 2013 8:28 AM

The insight is done using the 4Cs thinking routine.

Something that seems close to the idea of reforming the school system is the idea of 'school choice', a voucher system that allows for children to be sent to another school with the voucher, the purpose being to push children from failing schools to better ones without moving house.

The concept that is important to note here is that the author is making mention not of school choice, but of reforming the school system in itself, which would be referring to reform of the hiring system of teachers.

The change here is in how I believe people can succeed and subsequently how some teachers say we do. I have felt before that regardless of who teachers, I am the only one held responsible. Now, while that statement still holds truth in who society might point the finger to, that teachers also have a responsibility in moulding the workers of tomorrow.

What I want to challenge here has something to do with the connection from the beginning with the idea of school choice. If the key idea is to rid of bad teachers, what about a system that may incentivise students to move to better schools by giving them the choice and means to do so?

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Arrival Cities - By Doug Saunders

Arrival Cities - By Doug Saunders | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

A look at nine places defining life on the margins for the new century, from Chongqing to California. 


These places are known around the world by many names: as the slums, favelas, bustees, bidonvilles, ashwaiyyat, shantytowns, kampongs, urban villages, gecekondular, and barrios of the developing world, but also as the immigrant neighborhoods, ethnic districts, banlieues difficiles, Plattenbau developments, Chinatowns, Little Indias, Hispanic quarters, urban slums, and migrant suburbs of wealthy countries, which are themselves each year absorbing 2 million people, mainly villagers, from the developing world.


When we look at arrival cities, we tend to see them as fixed entities: an accumulation of inexpensive dwellings containing poor people, usually in less than salubrious conditions. In the language of urban planners and governments, these enclaves are too often defined as malign appendages, cancerous growths on an otherwise healthy city. Their residents are seen, in the words of former Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, "as an ecologically defined group rather than as part of the social system."


This leads to tragic urban-housing policies in the West, of the sort that made Paris erupt into riots in 2005, led to clashes in London in the 1980s, and propelled Amsterdam into murderous violence in the first decade of this century. It leads to even worse policies in the cities of Asia, Africa, and South America, to slum-clearance projects in which the futures of tens or hundreds of thousands of people are recklessly erased.

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Tale of two worlds: Statistics paint picture of extremes of wealth and poverty that exist side by side in Brooklyn

Tale of two worlds: Statistics paint picture of extremes of wealth and poverty that exist side by side in Brooklyn | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it
Kids are getting shot in Brownsville parks. Meanwhile, artisanal horseradish is selling for $74 in Williamsburg. Here are some jarring numbers that illustrate persistent inequality in the thriving- but still troubled- borough.
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KENYA: Urban poor face rising food insecurity

KENYA: Urban poor face rising food insecurity | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

A recent urban food security assessment carried out by the Famine Early Warning Systems Network, the World Food Programme, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the government of Kenya has revealed that more than a quarter of urban children in the country are stunted - a symptom of chronic malnutrition - while 13 percent of high-density urban households have unacceptably low levels of food consumption.

 

Many of the urban poor resort to coping strategies such as restricting consumption, eating fewer or smaller meals and eating cheaper products. The urban poor in Kenya spend 60 to 65 percent of their income on food.

 

According to the assessment, Kenya's urban population accounts for about 35 percent of the total population, with 70 percent of urban dwellers living in slums. Kenya’s urban population grew by 4 percent in 2010, and the World Bank estimates that urban poverty will represent almost half of Kenya's total poverty by 2020.

 

At present, the government is promoting urban and peri-urban agriculture to improve food access among the urban poor.

 

“Urban agriculture is an important coping strategy for the urban poor, many of whom would be food insecure. We are targeting some 100,000 urban farmers per year over the next three years," the Ministry of Agriculture's Songa said.

 

The government says it will subsidize seeds, fertilizers, sacks and training to the farmers to help them produce short-cycle crops such as tomatoes, vegetables and beans.

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Bill Moyers and Chris Hedges on Capitalism’s ‘Sacrifice Zones’

There are forgotten corners of this country where Americans are trapped in endless cycles of poverty, powerlessness, and despair as a direct result of capitalistic greed. Journalist Chris Hedges calls these places "sacrifice zones," and joins Bill this week on Moyers & Company to explore how areas like Camden, New Jersey; Immokalee, Florida; and parts of West Virginia suffer while the corporations that plundered them thrive.


These are areas that have been destroyed for quarterly profit. We're talking about environmentally destroyed, communities destroyed, human beings destroyed, families destroyed," Hedges tells Bill.

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UN, Fashion Industry Team Up to Support African Manufacturing, Fight Poverty | Ecouterre

UN, Fashion Industry Team Up to Support African Manufacturing, Fight Poverty | Ecouterre | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it
The United Nations and the fashion industry are teaming up to fight poverty and boost production in Africa through the Fashion 4 Development initiative.
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Gawad Kalinga | Inhabitat

Gawad Kalinga | Inhabitat | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

In the face of mass hyperurbanization, where do we even start to make a shift: fair labor practice, cleaning up the environment, more affordable housing? How can disaster response serve as a catalyst for bringing forth greater infrastructural change?


One organization based in the Philippines may just have a big part of the answer, and is certainly no stranger to disaster recovery. Gawad Kalinga is quickly becoming an international NGO that originally began as a local movement in the Philippines, aimed at eradicating poverty by building villages and communities with squatters all over the country. Started in 2000, several projects have already established together over 15,000 homes in more than 600 villages.


Gawad Kalinga, which means “to give care,” relies on strengthening communal infrastructure that not only includes site development, but education and health facilities, livelihood and community empowerment but, essentially, an economic engine for people and not just raw shelter. The homes are built on sweat equity and skills training, and the organization even provides start-up capital for micro-enterprises and the marketing of community-based products.


Founder Tony Meloto says, “If you want to bring the country out of poverty, give the poorest of the poor a middle class environment so they have middle class aspirations. [...] The problem of poverty is not economic, it is behavioral.”


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Cooperatives as Business Models of the Future

Cooperatives as Business Models of the Future | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

Cooperatives as Business Models of the Future - When the International Year of Cooperatives (IYC) concluded last week, some of the overwhelming success stories highlighted at a two-day interactive session came both from developing and developed countries,...

Dame Pauline Green, president of the International Cooperative Alliance...

In Brazil, Green said, a clearly defined government policy aimed at helping rural people, through cooperative businesses, has seen a massive reduction in poverty in the rural areas of the sprawling South American nation.

In Kenya, cooperatives account for nearly half of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP), while in Rwanda the cooperative economy has gone from zero to eight percent of GDP over the last 10 years.

The world’s largest 300 cooperatives, primarily in the insurance and food and agriculture sectors, generated revenues of 1.6 trillion dollars and employed nearly 100 million people worldwide.

 

Asked if the cooperative model of enterprise may well be one of the answers to the global economic crisis, Green told IPS, “Without doubt the cooperative business model offers a proven solution to this global economic crisis we are mired in.”

In the UK, she said, schools have become one of the fastest-growing parts of the cooperative economy.


“Renewable energy cooperatives have been springing up all over the globe, and of course media is another area which benefits from the cooperative model because it ensures independent journalism remains viable,” she noted.

 

ddrrnt's insight:

https://twitter.com/toughLoveforx/status/356034145530556418

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Climate Change Promises Tough Times for Asia and Africa - Report

Climate Change Promises Tough Times for Asia and Africa - Report | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

Urbanisation is increasing rapidly, especially in the developing world, with many more people living in slums and informal settlements, Kyte told IPS from London.

 

As climate change disrupts rainfall patterns and generates more extreme weather in the coming decades, leading to poor crop yields, rural populations will flood cities. Escalating numbers of urban poor will suffer, with temperatures magnified by the "heat island effect" of the constructed urban environments.

 

Safe drinking water will also be harder to find, especially after floods, contributing to greater water-borne diseases such as cholera and diarrhoea.

Coastal regions like Bangladesh and India's two largest coastal cities, Kolkata and Mumbai, will face extreme river floods, more intense tropical cyclones, rising sea levels and very high temperatures.

 

"Huge numbers of urban poor will be exposed in many coastal cities," Kyte said.

 

"We face a huge challenge over the next 20 years to... redesign our cities to protect them from climate change," Kyte predicted, even as cities already face a huge infrastructure investment gap.

 

One trillion dollars a year needed to be invested every year by 2020 by some estimates, Kyte said, adding that "to build climate resilience into cities will take another 300 to 500 million dollars a year".

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What Can Children Tell Us About Growing Up Poor?

What Can Children Tell Us About Growing Up Poor? | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

In Frontline's latest documentary, Poor Kids, children are all too aware of their family's financial situation. With one in five children living below the poverty line, Poor Kids explores daily life of living hand to mouth and not having enough, through the eyes of children. We spoke with the film's writer, producer and director, Jezza Neumann. (...)


The tragedy here is that they're all too well aware that this isn't good. So, what you see is children who know this isn't the way it should be, but have no way of changing it for themselves. (...)


With a subject like poverty, it's a really difficult subject to get people to listen to and to get people to care about. Also, people have a lot of stigmas attached to it and a lot of misconceptions. And in turn, people often feel stigmatized about being poor. They don't want to talk about it. Because, then quite often people will want to judge.


BY: KELLY CHEN

20 Nov 2012

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The Crowd Sourced City | Sustainable Cities Collective

The Crowd Sourced City | Sustainable Cities Collective | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

Though larger, Detroit’s problems are analogous to many other cities throughout the United States. The Detroit region has been promised so many revivals, renaissances, and renewals; the city is as littered with failed urban revitalization projects as it is empty houses. Yet Detroiters are quietly working to solve problems on their own. People are rebuilding their neighborhoods without large sums of money, much organizational support, or assistance from city government. Call it the crowd-sourced city, and it is a slow process, but a beautiful one. Empty industrial buildings have become artists’ spaces and markets, vacant lots, farms and gardens, abandoned apartments, condos, and empty buildings filled with new offices. Neighborhood organizations are quietly utilizing online tools to better connect members. The old barriers of race and class remain but a tentative regional discussion has begun. What is the future of the region? Can the pattern of growth in the region continue as it has during the past 60 years?


by ECPA Urban Planning

Sustainable Cities Collective

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Can Aid Agencies and Development Banks Effectively Help the Urban Poor?

Can Aid Agencies and Development Banks Effectively Help the Urban Poor? | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

The Asian Coalition for Community Action is challenging the top-down Big Aid funding model by providing small grants to low-income communities for the initiatives of their choosing.


Since 2009, ACCA has developed a working finance system in which urban poor organizations have the power to choose what they will undertake. ACCA has provided small grants to 950 community-initiatives to upgrade "slums" or informal settlements in 165 cities in 19 nations. Up to $3,000 of grant finance is available, and communities use this to, for example, construct or improve their water supply systems or toilets, drains, roads, paths or bridges, community centers, household waste management, playgrounds or parks. Up to $40,000 has been available for larger initiatives at the city scale. (...)


If large, centralized development assistance agencies cannot work directly with urban poor groups and their community organizations, can they learn to work with and through intermediary institutions, which are on the ground financing, working with, and accountable to urban poor groups? (...)



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Why We Need a Better 'Science of Cities'

Why We Need a Better 'Science of Cities' | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

In his just-released Planet of Cities, Shlomo Angel argues that urban policy-makers and planners must do more to meet the challenge of urbanization. Angel, who is a member of the Urbanization Project at New York University and who conducted his research as a visiting fellow at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, provides a detailed, data-driven analysis filled with maps of world urbanization patterns, as well as charts and tables documenting the challenges facing global cities. He took time out from his busy schedule to talk to Atlantic Cities about the key challenges facing our increasingly urban world.


RF: We live in an expanding urban world. How much and what kind of expansion can we anticipate? What parts of the world will see the most of it, and how can we best cope?


SA: In the coming decades, say between 2010 and 2050, cities in industrialized countries will add 170 million to their populations while developing countries will add 2.5 billion, or 15 times that. The largest shares of this growth, 25 percent each, will be in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent, and an additional 15 percent will be in China.


Via Flora Moon
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polis: Mapping the Suburbanization of Poverty

polis: Mapping the Suburbanization of Poverty | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

One of the fundamental issues in American urbanism is the changing geography of poverty. American cities are famous around the world for having abandoned large portions of the central core, largely unthinkable in Europe and much of the world. Even if suburban historians are doing their best to remind us that poverty — along with economic, social and ethnic diversity — has always existed in suburbs, shifts in recent decades are fundamentally changing metropolitan life in many parts of the country.

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"Why should the poor live in slums if there are empty offices in the city?" asks Justin McGuirk

Curator Justin McGuirk tells us why his Golden Lion-winning installation about a community living in a vertical slum in Caracas could set an example for new forms of urban housing, in this movie we filmed at the Venice Architecture Biennale.


"Why should the majority of the poor in countries like Venezuela be forced to live in the slums around the edge of cities if there are empty office towers in the city centres?,” he says.

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In Praise of Slums - By Charles Kenny

In Praise of Slums - By Charles Kenny | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

Slum dwellers may be at the bottom of the urban heap, but most are better off than their rural counterparts. Although about half the world's population is urban, only a quarter of those living on less than a dollar a day live in urban areas. In Brazil, for example, where the word "poor" conjures images of both Rio's vertiginous favelas and indigenous Amazonian tribes living in rural privation, only 5 percent of the urban population is classified as extremely poor, compared with 25 percent of those living in rural areas.

 

... better quality of life is because of better access to services. Data from surveys across the developing world suggest that poor households in urban areas are more than twice as likely to have piped water as those in rural areas, and they're nearly four times more likely to have a flush toilet. In India, very poor urban women are about as likely to get prenatal care as the non-poor in rural areas. And in 70 percent of countries surveyed by MIT economists Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo, school enrollment for girls ages 7 to 12 is higher among the urban poor than the rural poor.

 

Banerjee and Duflo found that, among people living on less than a dollar a day, infant mortality rates in urban areas were lower than rural rates in two-thirds of the countries for which they had data. In India, the death rate for babies in the first month of life is nearly one-quarter lower in urban areas than in rural villages. So significant is the difference in outcomes that population researcher Martin Brockerhoff concludes that "millions of children's lives may have been saved" in the 1980s alone as the result of mothers worldwide moving to urban areas.

 

As Harvard University economist Edward Glaeser puts it, slums don't make people poor -- they attract poor people who want to be rich. So let's help them help themselves.

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New immigrants are the ‘hidden homeless’

New immigrants are the ‘hidden homeless’ | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

Anthony Rozario can smile about his subsidized apartment now, but the Bangladeshi father and his wife used to share a small Scarborough apartment with three adult children.

 

... a new study on immigrant housing warns that thousands of newcomers continue to live in “hidden homelessness” — in shared, overcrowded housing — an issue that has grown more acute, especially in Toronto, where affordable rental units are in short supply.

 

The national study by Metropolis, an international network of researchers in immigration policy, found most newcomers reported spending more than 50 per cent of income on housing, with 15 per cent spending 75 per cent or more.

 

“Financial difficulties force many newcomers to share accommodations that are often poor quality, overcrowded and unsafe,” says the report.

 

The report is based on national housing data and surveys of 600 migrants in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. In Toronto, where the average wage is $69,000, most newcomers surveyed had incomes under $20,000.

 

“New rooming houses are being created in the suburbs, in locations without rooming house regulations. Often illegal, suburban rooming houses can offer deplorable housing,” the report continued.

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"EduKare"- A new paradigm for struggling urban schools...

"EduKare"- A new paradigm for struggling urban schools... | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

Poverty, addiction, social problems, relationship problems, depression, family issues, learning disabilities, violence, gangs... all examples of powerful learning detractors. EduKare is a philosophy stating emphatically that unless kids are able to overcome the negative effects of these detractors, learning in a traditional sense is simply not going to happen.


Schools used to be places where people gathered; they were community hubs that hosted any number of events: church; community meetings; celebrations; elections; rallies; concerts or even just a family picnic at the park outside the school. The school was a non-threatening place where all were welcome and where people shared their thoughts, skills, resources and time. Somehow we've lost that spirit of community in our schools. EduKare aims to restore it.

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How slums can save the planet

How slums can save the planet | Arrival Cities | Scoop.it

The article starts with the story of architect Peter Calthorpe, one of the founders of the new urbanism: "In 1985 he introduced the concept of walkability in “Redefining Cities,” an article in the Whole Earth Review, an American counterculture magazine that focused on technology, community building and the environment."


A fact from the UN: one billion people live in cities and this number will double in the next 25 years.


A 2003 UN-Habitat report titled The Challenge of Slums, covers 37 case studies involving slums worldwide. The researchers talked with people in the slums and observed:


“Cities are so much more successful in promoting new forms of income generation, and it is so much cheaper to provide services in urban areas, that some experts have actually suggested that the only realistic poverty reduction strategy is to get as many people as possible to move to the city.”


The "magic of squatter cities" is seen in how their inhabitants steadily improve conditions. People get around by foot and bicycle.  Recycling is "a way of life" and in cities in Asia and Latin America entire industries based on gathering up old cardboard boxes have emerged. The article further explores how slums help form "unexpectedly green" cities. Definitely worth a full read if you're into this idea.

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