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Molecular mirror images assigned: Safer drugs thanks to a new solution to a 150-year-old chemistry problem?

Molecular mirror images assigned: Safer drugs thanks to a new solution to a 150-year-old chemistry problem? | architectonics | Scoop.it
Just like gloves, molecules come in so-called left-handed and right-handed versions. Until now, however, it could be determined only with great difficulty whether a certain molecule is right-handed or left-handed.
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Randomized Treatments May Be More Effective at Stopping Disease Outbreaks: Scientific American

Randomized Treatments May Be More Effective at Stopping Disease Outbreaks: Scientific American | architectonics | Scoop.it

"Herding cats is a cakewalk compared with getting people to take flu vaccine shots in the last weeks of summer—work, school, limited pharmacy hours, beach days and countless other factors conspire to interfere. As a result, vaccinations tend to trickle in over many months. Rather than resisting this tendency, some mathematicians now think that public health officials may one day embrace it. A bit of randomness in treatment schedules may actually help manage a disease outbreak."

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"The extreme vulnerability of interdependent spatially embedded networks"

"The extreme vulnerability of interdependent spatially embedded networks" | architectonics | Scoop.it
Critical order

Havlin and his colleagues focused on idealized scenarios. They found that randomly structured networks — such as social networks — degrade slowly as nodes are removed, which in the real world might mean there is time to diagnose and address a problem before a system collapses. By contrast, the connections of orderly lattice structures have more critical nodes, which increase the instability. The problem is that such orderly networks are always operating near an indefinable edge, Havlin says.

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Meet The Dread Pirate Roberts, The Man Behind Booming Black Market Drug Website Silk Road

Meet The Dread Pirate Roberts, The Man Behind Booming Black Market Drug Website Silk Road | architectonics | Scoop.it
Increasingly sophisticated anonymity tools have created a bustling online narcotics market and everything that goes with it: turf wars, illegal guns, attacks on competitors--and one philosophyspewing, multimillionaire drug lord: the Dread Pirate...
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Meshnet activists rebuilding the internet from scratch - New Scientist

Meshnet activists rebuilding the internet from scratch - New Scientist | architectonics | Scoop.it

Worried about the NSA snooping on your email? Maybe you need to start creating your own personal internet.

 

Each node in the mesh, consisting of a radio transceiver and a computer, relays messages from other parts of the network. If the data can't be passed by one route, the meshnet finds an alternative way through to its destination. Ryan says the plan is for the Seattle meshnet to extend its coverage by linking up two wireless nodes across Lake Union in downtown Seattle. And over the country at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, student Alexander Bauer is hoping to build a campus meshnet later this year. That will give his fellow students an alternative communications infrastructure to the internet."

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Chain reaction shattered huge Antarctica ice shelf

Chain reaction shattered huge Antarctica ice shelf | architectonics | Scoop.it

"It took decades for global warming to slowly melt the surface of the Larsen B Ice Shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula, forming nearly 3,000 lakes. But at the end of the Antarctic summer of 2002, all the lakes drained away in the space of a week. And then the 2,700-square-kilometre ice shelf, which was some 220 metres thick and probably had existed for some 12,000 years, rapidly disintegrated into small icebergs, leaving glaciologists scratching their heads."

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“Our conclusion is there is a small but definite chance that RSA and classic Diffie-Hellman will not be usable for encryption purposes in four to five years,” said Stamos

“Our conclusion is there is a small but definite chance that RSA and classic Diffie-Hellman will not be usable for encryption purposes in four to five years,” said Stamos | architectonics | Scoop.it

"The encryption systems used to secure online bank accounts and keep critical communications private could be undone in just a few years, security researchers warned at the Black Hat conference in Las Vegas yesterday. Breakthroughs in math research made in the past six months could underpin practical, fast ways to decode encrypted data that’s considered unbreakable today.

 

Philippe Courtot, CEO of security company Qualys, singled out Stamos’s presentation in a brief speech that opened the Black Hat conference on Wednesday. 'The RSA protocol that is the foundation of security on the Internet is likely to be broken in the very near future,' he said, noting that while the computer security industry was underpinned by just a handful of key encryption schemes, 'we are very slow at adapting them.'"

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More evidence that colored light after sunset has effects on mammalian health

More evidence that colored light after sunset has effects on mammalian health | architectonics | Scoop.it

"When it comes to some of the health hazards of light at night, a new study suggests that the color of the light can make a big difference.

In a study involving hamsters, researchers found that blue light had the worst effects on mood-related measures, followed closely by white light.

 

But hamsters exposed to red light at night had significantly less evidence of depressive-like symptoms and changes in the brain linked to depression, compared to those that experienced blue or white light.

 

The only hamsters that fared better than those exposed to red light were those that had total darkness at night.

 

The findings may have important implications for humans, particularly those whose work on night shifts makes them susceptible to mood disorders, said Randy Nelson, co-author of the study and professor of neuroscience and psychology at The Ohio State University.

 

"Our findings suggest that if we could use red light when appropriate for night-shift workers, it may not have some of the negative effects on their health that white light does," Nelson said.

 

The study appears in the Aug. 7, 2013, issue of The Journal of Neuroscience.

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Huge canyon under Greenland ice

Huge canyon under Greenland ice | architectonics | Scoop.it
One of the biggest canyons in the world has been found beneath the ice sheet that smothers most of Greenland.
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Study relies on twins and their parents to understand height-IQ connection

Study relies on twins and their parents to understand height-IQ connection | architectonics | Scoop.it

"The fact that taller people also tend to be slightly smarter is due in roughly equal parts to two phenomena—the same genes affect both traits and taller people are more likely than average to mate with smarter people and vice versa—according to a study led by the University of Colorado Boulder.

 

The study did not find that environmental factors contributed to the connection between being taller and being smarter, both traits that people tend to find attractive.

 

The modest correlation between height and IQ has been documented in multiple studies stretching back to the 1970s. But the reasons for the relationship between the two traits has not been well understood."

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Copper identified as culprit in Alzheimer's disease

Copper identified as culprit in Alzheimer's disease | architectonics | Scoop.it

'Copper appears to be one of the main environmental factors that trigger the onset and enhance the progression of Alzheimer's disease by preventing the clearance and accelerating the accumulation of toxic proteins in the brain. That is the conclusion of a study appearing today in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

 

"It is clear that, over time, copper's cumulative effect is to impair the systems by which amyloid beta is removed from the brain," said Rashid Deane, Ph.D., a research professor in the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) Department of Neurosurgery, member of the Center for Translational Neuromedicine, and lead author of the study. "This impairment is one of the key factors that cause the protein to accumulate in the brain and form the plaques that are the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease."'

 

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Hyperboria - Encrypted networking for everyone

Hyperboria - Encrypted networking for everyone | architectonics | Scoop.it

"Hyperboria is a global decentralized network of "nodes" running cjdns software. The goal of Hyperboria is to provide an alternative to the internet with the principles of security, scalability and decentralization at the core. Anyone can participate in the network by locating a peer that is already connected."

 

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Extinctions of large animals sever the Earth's 'nutrient arteries'

Extinctions of large animals sever the Earth's 'nutrient arteries' | architectonics | Scoop.it
In the study, the researchers use a new mathematical model to calculate the effect of mass extinctions of big animals around 12,000 years ago, focusing on a case study of the Amazon forest. They estimate that extinctions back then reduced the dispersal of phosphorus in the Amazon by 98%, with far-reaching environmental consequences that remain to this day. The model also enables them to forecast the likely environmental effects of the extinction of large animals currently under threat in Africa and Asian forests.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2013-08-big-animals-crucial-soil-fertility.html#jCpIn the study, the researchers use a new mathematical model to calculate the effect of mass extinctions of big animals around 12,000 years ago, focusing on a case study of the Amazon forest. They estimate that extinctions back then reduced the dispersal of phosphorus in the Amazon by 98%, with far-reaching environmental consequences that remain to this day. The model also enables them to forecast the likely environmental effects of the extinction of large animals currently under threat in Africa and Asian forests.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2013-08-big-animals-crucial-soil-fertility.html#jCpv

"In the study, the researchers use a new mathematical model to calculate the effect of mass extinctions of big animals aroudn 12,000 years ago, focusing on a case study of the Amazon forest. They estimate that extinctions back then reduced the dispersal of phosphorus in the Amazon by 98%, with far-reaching environmental consequences that remain to this day. The model also enables them to forecast the likely environmental effects of the extinction of large animals currently under threat in Africa and Asian forests."

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US Gov’t Forces Snowden’s Encrypted Email Service to Shut Down

US Gov’t Forces Snowden’s Encrypted Email Service to Shut Down | architectonics | Scoop.it

"This experience has taught me one very important lesson: without congressional action or a strong judicial precedent, I would _strongly_ recommend against anyone trusting their private data to a company with physical ties to the United States."

Sincerely,

Ladar Levison
Owner and Operator, Lavabit LLC

 

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'We conclude that reputation is key to the evolution of punishment.'

"The threat of punishment usually promotes cooperation. However, punishing itself is costly, rare in nonhuman animals, and humans who punish often finish with low payoffs in economic experiments. The evolution of punishment has therefore been unclear.

 

Recent theoretical developments suggest that punishment has evolved in the context of reputation games. We tested this idea in a simple helping game with observers and with punishment and punishment reputation (experimentally controlling for other possible reputational effects). We show that punishers fully compensate their costs as they receive help more often. T

 

The more likely defection is punished within a group, the higher the level of within-group cooperation. These beneficial effects perish if the punishment reputation is removed. We conclude that reputation is key to the evolution of punishment." [Evolution. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

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New evidence that cosmic impact caused Younger Dryas extinctions (the end of mammoths and the Clovis culture)

New evidence that cosmic impact caused Younger Dryas extinctions (the end of mammoths and the Clovis culture) | architectonics | Scoop.it

"A period of rapid, intense cooling, known as the Younger Dryas, took place about 13,000 years ago. Scientists think this sudden change in climate caused the extinction of many large mammals, such as the mammoth, and was the reason for the disappearance of North America's Clovis people.

 

According to one hypothesis, a cosmic impact caused the climate to cool. Using data from the Greenland ice core, Michail Petaev and his colleagues at Harvard University have found what appears to be evidence of this impact. Their research appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences."

 

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