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Close Encounters of the Third Domain: The Emerging Genomic View of Archaeal Diversity and Evolution

Close Encounters of the Third Domain: The Emerging Genomic View of Archaeal Diversity and Evolution | archea | Scoop.it

Ettema, Thijs J. G., Lionel Guy, Anders E. Lind, Joran Martijn, Jimmy H. Saw and Anja Spang. “Close Encounters of the Third Domain: The Emerging Genomic View of Archaeal Diversity and Evolution.” Archaea vol. 2013(2013): n. pag. Web. 24 March 2014.

 

 

SARAH WEISS's insight:

Archea are the recently discovered third domain of life.  It is believed to be the progenitor to the eukaryotic domain of life.  Recent studies using genomic sequencing are revealing new data on archaeal lineages.  This new data has provided insights into the diversity, biology, ecological relevance and origins of archea.  These aspects are discussed in this article.

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NOAA Ocean Explorer

NOAA Ocean Explorer | archea | Scoop.it

 Brazelton, William J. "Microscopic Citizens of the Lost City." The Ocean Explorer. NOAA, 25 Aug. 2010 Web. 24 March 2014.

SARAH WEISS's insight:

Another ocean explorer link on NOAA's website with basic useful information about the biology and discovery of Archea

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Life in extreme environments: Hydrothermal vents

Life in extreme environments: Hydrothermal vents | archea | Scoop.it

Zierenberg, Robert A., and Michael W.W. Adams. "Life In Extreme Environments: Hydrothermal Vents." Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 97.24 (2000): 12961. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 Mar. 2014.

SARAH WEISS's insight:

This article describes the hydrothermal vent ecosystem.  It also explains chemosynthesis, Archea's form of metabolism.  It is a well rounded article containing a lot of basic information about the hydrothermal vents and Archea's important role in it.  Also information on the biology of Archea.

 

Notes:  I found out about this article on Madison College databases but had to go directly to the PNAS website to locate the article.

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Life's Undersea Beginnings.

Cone, Joseph. "Life's Undersea Beginnings." Earth 3.4 (1994): 34.Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 Mar. 2014.

SARAH WEISS's insight:

In 1977 Jack Corliss discovered an undersea hydrothermal vent and the ecosystem there.  This spawned the quest to discover what was the base of this system and where life on Earth originated.  It is hypothesized in the sea and the thermophilic life (Archea) are seen as a window into the past to understand these origins.    This article discusses different theories on where life on Earth may have originated and how.

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Thermodynamic Stability And Folding Of Proteins From Hyperthermophilic Organisms.

Luke, Kathryn A., Catherine L. Higgins, and Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede. "Thermodynamic Stability And Folding Of Proteins From Hyperthermophilic Organisms." FEBS Journal 274.16 (2007): 4023-4033. Academic Search Complete. Web. 18 Mar. 2014.

SARAH WEISS's insight:

Archea found in the hydrothermal vents are thermophiles, meaning they exist in extreme temperatures.  This article goes into the unique function of proteins in thermophile cells that makes life for these cells possible.  Slow protein unfolding is theorized by the researches as one of the key ways that enables survival in extreme environments.   Diagrams of structural models of the proteins are included in this article.

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Expanding the limits of life

Bradley, Alexander S. "Expanding The Limits Of Life." Scientific American 301.6 (2009): 62-67. Academic Search Complete. Web. 18 Mar. 2014.

 
SARAH WEISS's insight:

The undersea vents provide a new frontier of discovery.  Through looking at these environments scientists believe that they have an insight into the origins of life.  This article discusses this connection through looking at a specific undersea vent called the Lost City Hydrothermal Field.  The conditions here seem to emulate what may have been the conditions on Earth when life began over 3.5 million years ago.  Archea are considered some of the oldest possibly unchanged forms of life on this planet so study of the origins of life are intertwined with understanding this life form.

 
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When the going gets dense: microbial life under extreme pressure ...

When the going gets dense: microbial life under extreme pressure ... | archea | Scoop.it
In the deep ocean, temperatures range from near freezing (2-3 ºC) to piping hot (> 400 ºC near hydrothermal vents). Piezophiles occupy almost the entire spectra of temperatures known to support life (with the exception of ...
SARAH WEISS's insight:

This is not an academic article and I do intend for it to count towards my resource list.  I have kept it here, however, because it had useful information in it about archea's structure, location and lifecycle.

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Archaea shape up

Ooij, Christiaan. "Archaea: Archaea Shape Up." Nature Reviews Microbiology 9.5 (2011): 312- 313. Academic Search Complete. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.

 

SARAH WEISS's insight:

 

What determines the varying cell shapes of Archea is not well understood. These researches discover that crenactin, an actin orthologue (involved in the cytoskeleton of cells), is in rod-shaped archea. Proteins that make up the cytoskeleton of archea can be used to trace its origin. The significance of this discovery is that eukaryotes possibly share a common ancestry with crenarchaeota and that the presence of this protein in archea suggests that it might have been a vital evolutionary building block for present day eukaryotes.

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What Archaea Have to Tell Biologists

Blum, Paul, Albrecht Klein, Felicitas Pfeifer and William B. Whitman. "What Archaea Have to Tell Biologists." Genetics 152.4 (1999): 1245-1248. Web. 24 March. 2014.

SARAH WEISS's insight:

There are 2 believed ancient domains of life, bacteria and archeabacteria (archea).  It is believed that archea hold the key to studying different lineages of life on Earth.  As its RNA has been sequenced it seems archea are closer related to eukaryotes than bacteria.  This seems like evidence for a split in the tree of life over 3 billion years ago.  The article goes on to further discuss the distribution of Archea world wide and its biology.

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Okeanos Explorer | Expeditions | Mid-Cayman Rise Expedition 2011 | Microbes

Okeanos Explorer | Expeditions | Mid-Cayman Rise Expedition 2011 | Microbes | archea | Scoop.it

Huber, Julie A. and Julie Meyer. "Okeanos Explorer | Expeditions | Mid-Cayman Rise Expedition 2011 | Microbes." The Ocean Explorer. NOAA, 4 Aug. 2011 Web. 24 March 2014.

SARAH WEISS's insight:

This article discusses how archea is the base of the hydrothermal vent ecosystem.  Archea are one of three domains of life Bacteria and  Eukarya being the other two.  A simple explanation of the biology of Archea is discussed.  This page also specifically discusses the Okeanos Explorer mission to explore the Mid-Cayman Rise hydrothermal vent.

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Archaea Are More Wonderful Than You Know | The Artful Amoeba, Scientific American Blog Network

Archaea Are More Wonderful Than You Know | The Artful Amoeba, Scientific American Blog Network | archea | Scoop.it

Frazer, Jennifer. "Archaea Are More Wonderful Than You Know." Scientific American. Scientific American Magazine., 12 Jan. 2013. Web. 3 March 2014.

SARAH WEISS's insight:

Scientist Carl Woese started using RNA as a method to classify bacteria.  When he tried this method with methane "eating" bacteria he discovered that they were an entire new domain of life (Archea).  The RNA of Archea may be more animal like than bacteria like.  The article discusses many of the unique qualities of the biology of Archea and where they can be found all over the planet.  A history of the discovery is also covered.

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Surviving Salt: How Do Extremophiles Do It?

Hoff, Mary. "Surviving Salt: How Do Extremophiles Do It?." Plos Biology 7.12 (2009): 1-2. Academic Search Complete. Web. 18 Mar. 2014.

SARAH WEISS's insight:

Ways in which archea might be able to survive in extremely salty environments that would kill most other organisms in discussed.  Archea in these places have an intracellular environment that is similar to the salty outer environment and this is seen as their survival mechanism.  The article goes into how proteins of these archea are different from those found in other domains of life and can survive inside these conditions.    The samples tested are from the Great Salt lake and the Dead Sea.  

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Association of Marine Archaea with the Digestive Tracts of Two Marine Fish Species

Van der Maarel, Marc J.E.C., and Rebekka R.E. Artz. "Association Of Marine Archaea With The Digestive Tracts Of Two Marine Fish Species." Applied & Environmental Microbiology 64.8 (1998): 2894.Academic Search Complete. Web. 18 Mar. 2014.

SARAH WEISS's insight:

When first discovered archea were thought to only live under extreme conditions such as the hot, gas rich environments of the undersea thermal vents.  Archea are now being discovered in all sorts of environments including cold ocean waters and the digestive tracts of fish.  This article goes into detail on how archea have been discovered in the digestive tracts of flounder and the grey mullet fish. It also discusses interesting information on the distribution of archea in the oceans.

 

Notes: I found out about this article using the Madison College Databases, however, the Article itself was accessed on the attached website b/c the database did not have access to it.

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Beneath the Sea

"Beneath the Sea." Films On Demand. Films Media Group, 2002. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.

SARAH WEISS's insight:

Bob Ballard, who had a hand in creating undersea exploration devices has been on numerous undersea explorations including the hydrothermal vents.  He was one of the discovers of the hydrothermal vent ecosystem.  The video covers how the vents were discovered and the biology of the vents.  It covers the basics of how Archea turn sulfurous chemicals into energy.

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Who lives in the sea floor?

Pearson, Ann. "Who lives in the sea floor?." Nature 454.7207 (2008): 952-953. Health Reference Center Academic. Web. 8 Feb. 2014.

SARAH WEISS's insight:

 

 

Archea are a discovery of the past 4 decades or so and would have never been conceived of before their discovery. Deep sea sediments are home to a staggering number of single celled organisms including Archea and Bacteria. Archea seem to be the more dominant which may be due to its ability to cope with energetic stress. Much research still needs to be done to understand these organisms and the next few decades are shaping up to be full of research opportunities on the subject.

 

Note, for some reason I cannot get the hyperlink to work on this source.  The source can be found through the Health Reference Center Academic search on the Madison college databases.

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