Archaeology Artic...
Follow
Find tag "archaeology"
7.8K views | +0 today
Archaeology Articles and Books
The latest research in archaeology and related subjects - exciting and engaging
Curated by David Connolly
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by David Connolly
Scoop.it!

Early Mixed Farming of Millet and Rice 7800 Years Ago in the Middle Yellow River Region, China

Early Mixed Farming of Millet and Rice 7800 Years Ago in the Middle Yellow River Region, China | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it

The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP) in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture.

 

Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP.

 

Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization.

 

Citation: Zhang J, Lu H, Gu W, Wu N, Zhou K, et al. (2012) Early Mixed Farming of Millet and Rice 7800 Years Ago in the Middle Yellow River Region, China. PLoS ONE 7(12): e52146. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052146

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by David Connolly
Scoop.it!

Usage of New Methods on Education and Culture in Archaeology

Archaeology is among others fields that can use of different sciences for cultural description which discover unknown past generation life. Most of the methods as excavation in archaeology which before were taught, were not completely,so this old methods cause to lose a lots of information that are important for getting result. Usage of new technology in teaching canhelp archaeologist to find culture of ancestor better than before and also it has useful effect on higher education .In this paper has been considered the effect of new technology instead of old methods in archaeology teaching at higher education by experimental result. This new methods including teach to use of Remote Sensing Technology, photo satellite and photo map. The research has shown that mentioned methods cause to expand cultural area and make easy to find archaeology surrounding and on the other hand to give rise to student become familiar with new technology also relation between archaeology and the other science.

 

By this methods archaeologist and students can save there information which are lost before.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by David Connolly
Scoop.it!

Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography

The dog was the first domesticated animal but it remains uncertain when the domestication process began and whether it occurred just once or multiple times across the Northern Hemisphere. To ascertain the value of modern genetic data to elucidate the origins of dog domestication, we analyzed 49,024 autosomal SNPs in 1,375 dogs (representing 35 breeds) and 19 wolves. After combining our data with previously published data, we contrasted the genetic signatures of 121 breeds with a worldwide archeological assessment of the earliest dog remains. Correlating the earliest archeological dogs with the geographic locations of 14 so-called “ancient” breeds (defined by their genetic differentiation) resulted in a counterintuitive pattern. First, none of the ancient breeds derive from regions where the oldest archeological remains have been found. Second, three of the ancient breeds (Basenjis, Dingoes, and New Guinea Singing Dogs) come from regions outside the natural range of Canis lupus (the dog’s wild ancestor) and where dogs were introduced more than 10,000 y after domestication. These results demonstrate that the unifying characteristic among all genetically distinct so-called ancient breeds is a lack of recent admixture with other breeds likely facilitated by geographic and cultural isolation. Furthermore, these genetically distinct ancient breeds only appear so because of their relative isolation, suggesting that studies of modern breeds have yet to shed light on dog origins. We conclude by assessing the limitations of past studies and how next-generation sequencing of modern and ancient individuals may unravel the history of dog domestication.

more...
Fico Ventilatory's comment, September 5, 2012 9:43 AM
Thank you.... I'm on a personal Quest to Understand what i feel is a largely overlooked contributing factor to the success of Modern Humans: the co-evolution of Canids & Homo Sapiens Sapiens.... Just as a thought hobbyist... I'm following your topic... most things ancient and/or intellectual pique my curiosity...
David Connolly's comment, September 5, 2012 1:12 PM
Thanks as well.
will search out more
Scooped by David Connolly
Scoop.it!

Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it

Using DNA from a finger bone, the genome of an archaic hominin from southern Siberia has been sequenced to about 1.9-fold coverage.

Excellent that some researchers open up their data like this. 

Full article

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by David Connolly
Scoop.it!

PLoS ONE: Neandertal Humeri May Reflect Adaptation to Scraping Tasks, but Not Spear Thrusting

PLoS ONE: Neandertal Humeri May Reflect Adaptation to Scraping Tasks, but Not Spear Thrusting | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it
Unique compared with recent and prehistoric Homo sapiens, Neandertal humeri are characterised by a pronounced right-dominant bilateral strength asymmetry and an anteroposteriorly strengthened diaphyseal shape. Remodeling in response to asymmetric forces imposed during regular underhanded spear thrusting is the most influential explanatory hypothesis. The core tenet of the “Spear Thrusting Hypothesis”, that underhand thrusting requires greater muscle activity on the right side of the body compared to the left, remains untested. It is unclear whether alternative subsistence behaviours, such as hide processing, might better explain this morphology. To test this, electromyography was used to measure muscle activity at the primary movers of the humerus (pectoralis major (PM), anterior (AD) and posterior deltoid (PD)) during three distinct spear-thrusting tasks and four separate scraping tasks. Contrary to predictions, maximum muscle activity (MAX) and total muscle activity (TOT) were significantly higher (all values, p<.05) at the left (non-dominant) AD, PD and PM compared to the right side of the body during spear thrusting tasks. Thus, the muscle activity required during underhanded spearing tasks does not lend itself to explaining the pronounced right dominant strength asymmetry found in Neandertal humeri. In contrast, during the performance of all three unimanual scraping tasks, right side MAX and TOT were significantly greater at the AD (all values, p<.01) and PM (all values, p<.02) compared to the left. The consistency of the results provides evidence that scraping activities, such as hide preparation, may be a key behaviour in determining the unusual pattern of Neandertal arm morphology. Overall, these results yield important insight into the Neandertal behavioural repertoire that aided survival throughout Pleistocene Eurasia.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by David Connolly
Scoop.it!

Providing An Archaeological Bird's-eye View - an Overall Picture of Ground‐based Means to Execute Low‐altitude Aerial Photography (LAAP) In Archaeology

Providing An Archaeological Bird's-eye View - an Overall Picture of Ground‐based Means to Execute Low‐altitude Aerial Photography (LAAP) In Archaeology | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it
Since the beginning of aerial photography, researchers have used all kinds of devices ranging from pigeons, kites, poles and balloons to rockets in order to take cameras aloft and remotely gather aerial data needed for a combination of research goals...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by David Connolly
Scoop.it!

PLoS ONE: Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: Implications for Pre-Hispanic Animal Trade and the Timing of Turkey Domestication

PLoS ONE: Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: Implications for Pre-Hispanic Animal Trade and the Timing of Turkey Domestication | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it

Late Preclassic (300 BC–AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by David Connolly from LiveLatin
Scoop.it!

Ancient Roman paintings, Theatrical Woman masks, Pompeii

Ancient Roman paintings, Theatrical Woman masks, Pompeii | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it

Females from antiquity


Via Eunice Ayala, Olivia Jane
more...
Scooped by David Connolly
Scoop.it!

The role of cult and feasting in the emergence of Neolithic communities. New evidence from Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey.

The role of cult and feasting in the emergence of Neolithic communities. New evidence from Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey. | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it

Göbekli Tepe is one of the most important  archaeological discoveries of modern times, pushing back the origins of monumentality beyond the emergence of agriculture. We are pleased to present a summary of work in progress by the excavators of this remarkable site and their latest thoughts about its role and meaning. At the dawn of the Neolithic,hunter-gatherers congregating at Göbekli Tepe created social and ideological cohesion through the carving of decorated pillars, dancing, feasting—and, almost certainly, the drinking of beer made from fermented wild crops.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by David Connolly
Scoop.it!

The Murray Springs Clovis site, Pleistocene extinction, and the question of extraterrestrial impact

ome of the evidence for the recent hypothesis of an extraterrestrial impact that caused late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions [Firestone et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:16016–16021] was based upon samples collected at Murray Springs, a Clovis archaeological site in southeastern Arizona. Here we describe sampling and analyses of magnetic separates from within, above, and below the lower Younger Dryas boundary (LYDB) black mat at Murray Springs, as well as radiation measurements from the LYDB at Murray Springs and two other well-stratified Clovis sites. The main magnetic fraction at Murray Springs is maghemite. Magnetic microspherules have terrestrial origins but also occur as cosmic dust particles. We failed to find iridium or radiation anomalies. The evidence for massive biomass burning at Murray Springs is addressed and found to be lacking. We could not substantiate some of the claims by Firestone and others, but our findings do not preclude a terminal Pleistocene cosmic event.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by David Connolly
Scoop.it!

PLoS ONE: Hand to Mouth in a Neandertal: Right-Handedness in Regourdou 1

PLoS ONE: Hand to Mouth in a Neandertal: Right-Handedness in Regourdou 1 | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it

We describe and analyze a Neandertal postcranial skeleton and dentition, which together show unambiguous signs of right-handedness. Asymmetries between the left and right upper arm in Regourdou 1 were identified nearly 20 years ago, then confirmed by more detailed analyses of the inner bone structure for the clavicle, humerus, radius and ulna.

 

The total pattern of all bones in the shoulder and arm reveals that Regourdou 1 was a right-hander. Confirmatory evidence comes from the mandibular incisors, which display a distinct pattern of right oblique scratches, typical of right-handed manipulations performed at the front of the mouth.

 

Regourdou's right handedness is consistent with the strong pattern of manual lateralization in Neandertals and further confirms a modern pattern of left brain dominance, presumably signally linguistic competence. These observations along with cultural, genetic and morphological evidence indicate language competence in Neandertals and their European precursors.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by David Connolly
Scoop.it!

PLoS ONE: Paleoamerican Diet, Migration and Morphology in Brazil: Archaeological Complexity of the Earliest Americans

PLoS ONE: Paleoamerican Diet, Migration and Morphology in Brazil: Archaeological Complexity of the Earliest Americans | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it
During the early Holocene two main paleoamerican cultures thrived in Brazil: the Tradição Nordeste in the semi-desertic Sertão and the Tradição Itaparica in the high plains of the Planalto Central. Here we report on paleodietary singals of a Paleoamerican found in a third Brazilian ecological setting – a riverine shellmound, or sambaqui, located in the Atlantic forest. Most sambaquis are found along the coast. The peoples associated with them subsisted on marine resources. We are reporting a different situation from the oldest recorded riverine sambaqui, called Capelinha. Capelinha is a relatively small sambaqui established along a river 60 km from the Atlantic Ocean coast. It contained the well-preserved remains of a Paleoamerican known as Luzio dated to 9,945±235 years ago; the oldest sambaqui dweller so far. Luzio's bones were remarkably well preserved and allowed for stable isotopic analysis of diet. Although artifacts found at this riverine site show connections with the Atlantic coast, we show that he represents a population that was dependent on inland resources as opposed to marine coastal resources. After comparing Luzio's paleodietary data with that of other extant and prehistoric groups, we discuss where his group could have come from, if terrestrial diet persisted in riverine sambaquis and how Luzio fits within the discussion of the replacement of paleamerican by amerindian morphology. This study adds to the evidence that shows a greater complexity in the prehistory of the colonization of and the adaptations to the New World.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by David Connolly
Scoop.it!

When and where was proto-Indo-European? | john hawks weblog

When and where was proto-Indo-European? | john hawks weblog | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it

John Hawks examines a new study by Remco Bouckaert and colleagues who attempt to place the origin of Indo-European languages by essentially plotting the "spread" of languages from a common source.  

But is all as it seems.   Is Anatolia really the location for  Indo-European ?  

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by David Connolly
Scoop.it!

PLoS ONE: Form and Function of Early Neolithic Bifacial Stone Tools Reflects Changes in Land Use Practices during the Neolithization Process in the Levant

PLoS ONE: Form and Function of Early Neolithic Bifacial Stone Tools Reflects Changes in Land Use Practices during the Neolithization Process in the Levant | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it

For many, climate change is no longer recognized as the primary cause of cultural changes in the Near East. Instead, human landscape degradation, population growth, socioeconomic adjustments, and conflict have been proposed as the mechanisms that shaped the Neolithic Revolution. However, as Bar-Yosef noted, even if there is chronological correlation between climate changes and cultural developments, what is important is to understand how Neolithic societies dealt with these improving or deteriorating environments.

more...
No comment yet.