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Archaeology Articles and Books
The latest research in archaeology and related subjects - exciting and engaging
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Usage of New Methods on Education and Culture in Archaeology

Archaeology is among others fields that can use of different sciences for cultural description which discover unknown past generation life. Most of the methods as excavation in archaeology which before were taught, were not completely,so this old methods cause to lose a lots of information that are important for getting result. Usage of new technology in teaching canhelp archaeologist to find culture of ancestor better than before and also it has useful effect on higher education .In this paper has been considered the effect of new technology instead of old methods in archaeology teaching at higher education by experimental result. This new methods including teach to use of Remote Sensing Technology, photo satellite and photo map. The research has shown that mentioned methods cause to expand cultural area and make easy to find archaeology surrounding and on the other hand to give rise to student become familiar with new technology also relation between archaeology and the other science.

 

By this methods archaeologist and students can save there information which are lost before.

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PLoS ONE: Neandertal Humeri May Reflect Adaptation to Scraping Tasks, but Not Spear Thrusting

PLoS ONE: Neandertal Humeri May Reflect Adaptation to Scraping Tasks, but Not Spear Thrusting | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it
Unique compared with recent and prehistoric Homo sapiens, Neandertal humeri are characterised by a pronounced right-dominant bilateral strength asymmetry and an anteroposteriorly strengthened diaphyseal shape. Remodeling in response to asymmetric forces imposed during regular underhanded spear thrusting is the most influential explanatory hypothesis. The core tenet of the “Spear Thrusting Hypothesis”, that underhand thrusting requires greater muscle activity on the right side of the body compared to the left, remains untested. It is unclear whether alternative subsistence behaviours, such as hide processing, might better explain this morphology. To test this, electromyography was used to measure muscle activity at the primary movers of the humerus (pectoralis major (PM), anterior (AD) and posterior deltoid (PD)) during three distinct spear-thrusting tasks and four separate scraping tasks. Contrary to predictions, maximum muscle activity (MAX) and total muscle activity (TOT) were significantly higher (all values, p<.05) at the left (non-dominant) AD, PD and PM compared to the right side of the body during spear thrusting tasks. Thus, the muscle activity required during underhanded spearing tasks does not lend itself to explaining the pronounced right dominant strength asymmetry found in Neandertal humeri. In contrast, during the performance of all three unimanual scraping tasks, right side MAX and TOT were significantly greater at the AD (all values, p<.01) and PM (all values, p<.02) compared to the left. The consistency of the results provides evidence that scraping activities, such as hide preparation, may be a key behaviour in determining the unusual pattern of Neandertal arm morphology. Overall, these results yield important insight into the Neandertal behavioural repertoire that aided survival throughout Pleistocene Eurasia.
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PLoS ONE: Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: Implications for Pre-Hispanic Animal Trade and the Timing of Turkey Domestication

PLoS ONE: Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: Implications for Pre-Hispanic Animal Trade and the Timing of Turkey Domestication | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it

Late Preclassic (300 BC–AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic.

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PLoS ONE: Hand to Mouth in a Neandertal: Right-Handedness in Regourdou 1

PLoS ONE: Hand to Mouth in a Neandertal: Right-Handedness in Regourdou 1 | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it

We describe and analyze a Neandertal postcranial skeleton and dentition, which together show unambiguous signs of right-handedness. Asymmetries between the left and right upper arm in Regourdou 1 were identified nearly 20 years ago, then confirmed by more detailed analyses of the inner bone structure for the clavicle, humerus, radius and ulna.

 

The total pattern of all bones in the shoulder and arm reveals that Regourdou 1 was a right-hander. Confirmatory evidence comes from the mandibular incisors, which display a distinct pattern of right oblique scratches, typical of right-handed manipulations performed at the front of the mouth.

 

Regourdou's right handedness is consistent with the strong pattern of manual lateralization in Neandertals and further confirms a modern pattern of left brain dominance, presumably signally linguistic competence. These observations along with cultural, genetic and morphological evidence indicate language competence in Neandertals and their European precursors.

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When and where was proto-Indo-European? | john hawks weblog

When and where was proto-Indo-European? | john hawks weblog | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it

John Hawks examines a new study by Remco Bouckaert and colleagues who attempt to place the origin of Indo-European languages by essentially plotting the "spread" of languages from a common source.  

But is all as it seems.   Is Anatolia really the location for  Indo-European ?  

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PLoS ONE: Form and Function of Early Neolithic Bifacial Stone Tools Reflects Changes in Land Use Practices during the Neolithization Process in the Levant

PLoS ONE: Form and Function of Early Neolithic Bifacial Stone Tools Reflects Changes in Land Use Practices during the Neolithization Process in the Levant | Archaeology Articles and Books | Scoop.it

For many, climate change is no longer recognized as the primary cause of cultural changes in the Near East. Instead, human landscape degradation, population growth, socioeconomic adjustments, and conflict have been proposed as the mechanisms that shaped the Neolithic Revolution. However, as Bar-Yosef noted, even if there is chronological correlation between climate changes and cultural developments, what is important is to understand how Neolithic societies dealt with these improving or deteriorating environments.

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