Archaeobotany and Domestication
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Archaeobotany and Domestication
Crop origins evidence from archaeology and botany
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Silica extracted from rice husks makes for greener tyre

Silica extracted from rice husks makes for greener tyre | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it
TYRES are remarkable pieces of engineering. At high speed in slippery bends they provide only a few square centimetres of contact with the road, yet they help a...
Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

The author Sanjay Eksambekar is really branching out. From Neolithic cattle dung phytoliths to car tires!

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Dorian Q Fuller's curator insight, January 23, 2013 8:44 AM

archaeobotany meets industry

Jeremy Cherfas's comment, January 24, 2013 2:41 AM
I don't suppose the soil would make better use of those rice husks?
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PLOS ONE: Deep Sequencing of RNA from Ancient Maize Kernels

PLOS ONE: Deep Sequencing of RNA from Ancient Maize Kernels | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited – perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hypothesize that seeds offer a plausible refuge for long-term RNA survival, due to the fundamental role of RNA during seed germination. Using RNA-Seq on cDNA synthesized from nucleic acid extracts, we validate this hypothesis through demonstration of partial transcriptomal recovery from two sources of ancient maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

This could be a methodologial breakthrough, n terms of being able to recover past gene expression just gene sequences. However, there is still more methodological development needed, perhaps with high throughput genomics. Eventually this may provide a new source insights on domestication.

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Environmental change, agricultural innovation, and the spread of cotton agriculture in the Old World

Environmental change, agricultural innovation, and the spread of cotton agriculture in the Old World | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

► Cotton seeds from Uzbekistan are the earliest documented for temperate Eurasia. ► Transmission occurred before the Islamic Agricultural Revolution. ► Transmission occurred during intense local environmental and cultural change. ► Small-scale innovations are responsible for this diffusion to temperate climates. ► Processes specific to the transmission of fiber crops are explored.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

An updated database of old world archaeological cotton finds, and some nice plots of latitude against age, which indicte the very late spread of cotton from its sub-tropical origins.

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ScienceDirect.com - Journal of Archaeological Science - Six seasons of wild pea harvest in Israel; bearing on Near Eastern plant domestication

ScienceDirect.com - Journal of Archaeological Science - Six seasons of wild pea harvest in Israel; bearing on Near Eastern plant domestication | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

► Six repeated harvest seasons of wild pea showed no decline in sites’ grain yield. ► Site-specific factors influence the grain yield more than the repeated predation.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

The latest ms from the Abbo /Lev-Yadun stable of experimental apporaches to near Eastern crop domestication, on wild pea harvesting. It has some  useful data on yields, and some comments on the role of rodent predator pressure on wild seeds. I don't really see how it is against the protracted domestication model as their conclusion claims!

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Molecular analysis of the parallel domestication of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Mesoamerica and the Andes - Bitocchi - 2012 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

Molecular analysis of the parallel domestication of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Mesoamerica and the Andes - Bitocchi - 2012 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it
A reduction in genetic diversity in both of these gene pools was found, which was three-fold greater in Mesoamerica compared with the Andes. This appears to be a result of a bottleneck that occurred before domestication in the Andes, which strongly impoverished this wild germplasm, leading to the minor effect of the subsequent domestication bottleneck (i.e. sequential bottleneck).These findings show the importance of considering the evolutionary history of crop species as a major factor that influences their current level and structure of genetic diversity. Furthermore, these data highlight a single domestication event within each gene pool. Although the findings should be interpreted with caution, this evidence indicates the Oaxaca valley in Mesoamerica, and southern Bolivia and northern Argentina in South America, as the origins of common bean domestication.
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Morphological diversity in breadfruit (Artocarpus, Moraceae): insights into domestication, conservation, and cultivar identification - Springer

Morphological diversity in breadfruit (Artocarpus, Moraceae): insights into domestication, conservation, and cultivar identification - Springer | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

Over millennia of breadfruit cultivation, hundreds of named cultivars have been developed that display a high degree of morphological diversity. The current study was undertaken to evaluate morphological diversity within the National Tropical Botanical Garden’s breadfruit germplasm collection, the largest and most diverse breadfruit collection in the world. A set of 57 standardized morphological descriptors including 29 leaf, 22 fruit, four seed, and two male inflorescence characteristics were used to describe and contrast 221 accessions of breadfruit including accessions of Artocarpus camansi Blanco, A. altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg, A. mariannensis Trécul, early generation A. altilis × A. mariannensis hybrids, and domesticated A. altilis × A. mariannensis hybrids. A morphological transition from heavily seeded fruit covered with flexible spines to fewer seeded, smoother skinned fruit of similar size was observed in the domestication of A. altilis from A. camansi. Further selection of true seedless, smooth-skinned cultivars of A. altilis appears to have occurred with human migrations from Melanesia into Polynesia. Cultivars from Micronesia exhibit morphological characteristics indicative of hybridization with the endemic species A. mariannensis. These data were used to generate a multi-access cultivar identification key on the Lucid platform that can be used to identify trees of known cultivars or to predict nearest cultivar relationships for previously undescribed cultivars. Overall, this study provides new insights into the morphological changes that occurred during domestication, helps visualize the diversity that exists across geographical regions, and provides a framework for cultivar identification and germplasm conservation.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

Provides a nice clear set of pathways into domestication and variation of breadfruits.

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Geographical variation of foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. based on rDNA PCR–RFLP - Springer

Geographical variation of foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. based on rDNA PCR–RFLP - Springer | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

The rDNA PCR–RFLP of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) germ-plasm collected throughout Eurasia and from a part of Africa was investigated with five restriction enzymes according to our previous study. Foxtail millet germ-plasms were classified by length of the rDNA IGS and RFLP; clear geographical differentiation was observed between East Asia, the Nansei Islands of Japan-Taiwan-the Philippines area, South Asia and Afghanistan-Pakistan. We also found evidence of migration of foxtail millet landraces between the areas. We calculated diversity index (D) for each region and found that center of diversity of this millet is East Asia such as China, Korea and Japan.

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Dorian Q Fuller's curator insight, January 11, 2013 11:02 AM

While the high diversity in East Asia is unsurprising given the origins there, what is of note is the lack of diversity in both India and Southeast Asia, suggested ral bottlenecks and limited reintroductions to those regions. Also there is a clear divide between SE Asia and South Asia (with Burma grouping with India) which is to be noted. This division parallels that in rice which has led me to postulate japonica introduction to India via central Asia (also supported by archaeological evidence: see http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12520-010-0035-y ;). Curiously the  South Asian type is also evident in the Himalayas (e.g. Bhutan) despite the presence of Sino-Tibetan that one would expect to have carried diversity from central China.

Dorian Q Fuller's curator insight, January 11, 2013 11:04 AM

Interesting to see the genetic similarity between Indian and eastern African foxtail millets. Although I suppose this could be due to recent/colonial introductions rather than anything ancient.

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One problem, two questions, three books about the vanishing diversity of cultivated plants - Springer

One problem, two questions, three books about the vanishing diversity of cultivated plants - Springer | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

The review deals with three books focused on two questions dealing with a single problem: how human cultures and crop cultures are interrelated? The two questions dealt with are: Is there a conflict between the evolution of cultivated plants and the present trend of our cultural (including social, economical, ideological or political) evolution? If yes, what can be done to diminish this conflict? The three books focused on these questions deal with (1) growing number of endangered crops on global scale (Khoshbakht and Hammer, Threatened Crop Species Diversity. Shahid Beheshti University Press, Teheran 2010), (2) massive erosion of locally and regionally important crop varieties and associated traditional knowledge followed by collapse of whole agroecosystems and landscapes on a country scale (Antofie, A red list of crop plant varieties for Romania—Lista rosie a varietatilor plantelor de cultura din Romania. Publ. House Lucian Blaga Univ., Sibiu 2011), and (3) the growing number of endangered human communities (ethnic, cultural and linguistic islands) which preserved for centuries many valuable genetic resources (Hammer et al. 2011).

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

On lost crops and the Khoshbakht & Hammer book, see also my blog from last year: http://archaeobotanist.blogspot.co.uk/2012/01/obscure-crops-of-2011-and-obscure-book.html

 

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Journal of Arid Environments - Special Issue on “Ancient Agriculture in the Middle East” dedicated to Daniel Zohary

Journal of Arid Environments -  Special Issue on “Ancient Agriculture in the Middle East” dedicated to Daniel Zohary | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

In her review of Daniel Zohary's contribution to botanical research, Barbara Pickersgill (2004) correctly stated that he is “one of the most versatile economic botanists of our generation”. Prof. Zohary's research reflects his broad ranging interests and extensive knowledge – the variation and evolution of plants, the origin of cultivated species, genetic resources in plants and their conservation. Through a combination of field and laboratory research, merging archaeobotanical information, molecular biology and an innovative theoretical approach, Daniel Zohary has produced seminal studies on the genetics, origin and process of domestication of the Near Eastern founder crops (cereals, legumes), fruit trees and vegetables. The culmination of this research, combining data from this ‘core area’ and regions to the East and West, is eloquently presented in the book Domestication of Plants in the Old World, the 4th edition of which will be published this year, co-authored with Maria Hopf and Ehud Weiss. This publication will join its predecessors as an invaluable resource for all interested in cultivated plants.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

Dan Zohary has been both a pioneer and an indefatigable promoter of study of crop wild progenitors and the integration of modern botany and genetics with archaeobotany.  He is certainly due a dedicated feitschrift..

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exoriente e.V.

exoriente e.V. | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it
Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

An important little journal for preliminary field reports and ideas about the Neolithic Near East is now available for download. All issues through 2010.

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Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, Online First™ - SpringerLink

Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, Online First™ - SpringerLink | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

Finger millet, Eleusine coracana (Linn.) Gaertn. is usually considered to have been domesticated in tropical Africa. Nonetheless, it diffused across much of the Old World in prehistory, reaching Taiwan, the Himalayas, and Sumatra. The archaeobotanical record remains extremely patchy and the routes and dates of its arrival in many locations remain unknown. The paper makes use of comparative linguistics to begin the resolution of some of these issues. It reviews the archaeobotanical data which exists and then compiles tables of African and Asian names for finger millet. The paper identifies locally common linguistic roots, but there are no very widespread terms, suggesting there may a constant reborrowing of names with its near relative, goosegrass, Eleusine indica. A synthesis of the diffusion of finger millet is given at the end of the paper.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

One of the linguistics contributions to a forthcoming special issue on the archaeology of millets.

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Cave dwelling nettle discovered in China

Cave dwelling nettle discovered in China | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it
South West China, Myanmar and Northern Vietnam contain one of the oldest exposed outcrops of limestone in the world. Within this area are thousands of caves and gorges. It is only recently that botanists have sought to explore the caves for plants.
Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

just thought this was fun; could have been a fibre sources for "cave people"? There are those plausible stone spindle whorls from Late  Pleistocene caves in Hunan...

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Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it
The Geophysical Monograph Series encompasses all of the scientific areas of concern to the Union. It publishes monographic works and compilations of papers on a single topic. Volumes frequently focus on multidisciplinary problems.
Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations brings together a collection of studies on the history of complex interrelationships between humans and their environment by integrating Earth science with archeology and anthropology. It includes studies led by archaeologists as well as geologists, climatologists, and volcanologists.

 

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Ethnobiology Letters • Volume 3 • 2012

The Society of Ethnobiology is pleased to announce the completion of the third volume of Ethnobiology Letters (EBL), a gold open access, fully online journal for short communications.The volume opens and closes with a letter about the ethics of publishing from our new editor James Welch, who was recently elected to the Society's Board of Director's seat for Outreach-Inreach Coordinator

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Shiroakaza

Shiroakaza | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

Shiroakaza, the japanese name of Chenopodium Album: among the most adaptable and resilient plants, it helped sustain mankind for thousands of years. This blog is the account of my findings and research on the subject of sustainable living: how to grow my own food in a temperate/continental climate and make my own energy with the least possible effort, practically starting from zero not being a farmer myself. You might call it a survival garden, I don't. This has to be a permanent success story

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

Interesting blog with some yield and processing "experiments" with minor crops and wild foods.

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Neolithic farming in north-western Europe: archaeobotanical evidence fromIreland

Neolithic farming in north-western Europe: archaeobotanical evidence fromIreland | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

This paper presents new insights into the appearance of agriculture at the north-western edge of Europe, focussing on archaeobotanical evidence from Neolithic Ireland (4000–2500 cal BC). Previous studies were based upon a limited plant macro-remains dataset, as much of the Irish evidence is unpublished. A research project, 'Cultivating Societies', was implemented to examine the nature, timing and extent of agricultural activity in Neolithic Ireland through collation and analysis of different strands of published and unpublished archaeological and environmental evidence, with a particular focus on plant macro-remains, pollen, settlement and 14C data. This paper will focus on results of plant macro-remains analyses. Remains from a total of 52 excavated sites were collated and analysed, representing the most comprehensive study to date of Neolithic plant remains from this region. Cereals were present at many locations and site types, sometimes in large quantities and most often at sites dating to the earlier Neolithic (3750–3600 cal BC). Emmer wheat was the dominant crop, at least at this time. Other crops included naked and hulled barley, naked wheat, einkorn wheat and flax. Analysis of arable weeds indicates that early plots were not managed under a shifting cultivation regime, which has new implications for understanding Neolithic settlement practises and how communities engaged with landscapes. The variety of crops cultivated in Neolithic Ireland is similar to that in Britain, reflecting a decreasing diversity in crop types as agriculture spread from south-east to north-west Europe.

 
Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

Shows the narrowness of the early famring package that reached Ireland around 4000-3800 BC, like that in Britain, but marginally different. If the patterns in the UK radiocarbon record can be taken as a guide, this narrow package, of mostly emmer and naked barley, was not to last: the Bronze saw a reintroduction of a broader agricultural package (see Stevens and Fuller in Antiquity Sept 2009: http://www.antiquity.ac.uk/ant/086/ant0860707.htm)

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PLOS Genetics: New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties

PLOS Genetics: New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

The apple, one of the most ubiquitous and culturally important temperate fruit crops, provides us with a unique opportunity to study the process of domestication in trees. The number and identity of the progenitors of the domesticated apple and the erosion of genetic diversity associated with the domestication process remain debated. The Central Asian wild apple has been identified as the main progenitor, but other closely related species along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe may have contributed to the genome of the domesticated crop. Using rapidly evolving genetic markers to make inferences about the recent evolutionary history of the domesticated apple, we found that the European crabapple has made an unexpectedly large contribution to the genome of the domesticated apple. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the domesticated apple being currently more similar genetically to this secondary genepool than to the ancestral progenitor, the Central Asian wild apple. We found that domesticated apples have evolved over long time scales, with contributions from at least two wild species in different geographic areas, with no significant erosion of genetic diversity. This process of domestication and diversification may be common to other fruit trees and contrasts with the models documented for annual crops.

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Starch grains analysis of stone knives from Changning site, Qinghai Province, Northwest China

Starch grains analysis of stone knives from Changning site, Qinghai Province, Northwest China | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

► Discuss the function of stone knife and plants use using the starch grains analysis. ► Indicate the stone knives may have been used for a variety of activities. ► Reveal that diverse crops were cultivated at Changning site in Qinghai Province 4000 years ago.

A total of 153 starch grains were retrieved from three stone knives, from which we identified starches from legumes, the Triticeae tribe, foxtail millet (Setaria italica), broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), roots and tubers.

 

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

No surprising claims, and this would seem an approach with potential for relating tools to activities. Still it would be nice to see this alongside flotation samples from the same site for a more holistic view of plant activities.

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Domestication and geographic origin of Oryza sativa in China: insights from multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation of O. sativa and O. rufipogon - Wei - 2012 - Molecular Ecology - Wiley Online...

Domestication and geographic origin of Oryza sativa in China: insights from multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation of O. sativa and O. rufipogon - Wei - 2012 - Molecular Ecology - Wiley Online... | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it
Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

Well, another genetic study indicating the hybridization of indica and japonica after separate starts to cultivation from separate wild stocks. However, this study also repeats the fallacy of a Pearl River origin from japonica based on misguided reliance on only the present timeplace of genetic diversity. ARCHAEOBOTANY and the fossil record MATTERS! See my earlier comments: http://archaeobotanist.blogspot.co.uk/2012/10/a-genome-map-that-is-not-map-of-origins.html

 

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Remnant genetic diversity detected in an ancient crop: Triticum dicoccon Schrank landraces from Asturias, Spain - Springer

Remnant genetic diversity detected in an ancient crop: Triticum dicoccon Schrank landraces from Asturias, Spain - Springer | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

Emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccon Schrank was one of the founder crops of Neolithic agriculture. Though its cultivation was largely replaced by hexaploid wheats 2000 years ago, pockets of small scale cultivation can still be found. One such area is the Asturias region of Northern Spain, where emmer wheat remains a traditional crop for high value specialist culinary uses, and farmers grow locally adapted landraces. In order to study the diversity of these landraces, we sampled emmer wheat from different regions of Asturias, and genotyped multiple plants from each village using nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites. A high level of variation was observed with markers from both genomes, including a novel chloroplast haplotype. A strong geographic structure was observed in the Asturian emmer wheats in both the chloroplast markers and the nuclear microsatellite data.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

a small bit of relict Neolithic crop diversity in northern Spain

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A nuclear phylogenetic analysis: SNPs, indels and SSRs deliver new insights into the relationships in the ‘true citrus fruit trees’ group (Citrinae, Rutaceae) and the origin of cultivated species

A nuclear phylogenetic analysis: SNPs, indels and SSRs deliver new insights into the relationships in the ‘true citrus fruit trees’ group (Citrinae, Rutaceae) and the origin of cultivated species | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

Nuclear phylogenetic analysis revealed that Citrus reticulata and Fortunella form a cluster that is differentiated from the clade that includes three other basic taxa of cultivated citrus (C. maxima, C. medica and C. micrantha). These results confirm the taxonomic subdivision between the subgenera Metacitrus and Archicitrus. A few genes displayed positive selection patterns within or between species, but most of them displayed neutral patterns.

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‘Well, Sextus, what can we do with this?’ The disposal and use of insect-infested grain in Roman Britain

‘Well, Sextus, what can we do with this?’ The disposal and use of insect-infested grain in Roman Britain | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

Beetle (Coleoptera) pests of stored products such as the granary weevil may have entered the archaeological record by various routes, including: (1) deliberate dumping, and usually burial, of spoilt grain with the aim of preventing further infestation of grain in storage; (2) the use of infested grain as human and animal food; (3) the incorporation of infested grain and living or dead grain pests into deposits by accident and by reworking. It is suggested that these routes, although outlined specifically for beetle grain pests, can stand as a model for the way other insects and biological remains became incorporated into the archaeological record. It also is suggested that the identification of these different depositional routes depends strongly on taking a multi-proxy (‘indicator group’ or ‘indicator package’) approach to the archaeological and biological record of urban sites.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

A study of pathways of beetle despoition, with particular reference to grain pests.

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The impact of the Neolithic agricultural transition in Britain: a comparison of pollen-based land-cover and archaeological 14C date-inferred ...

The impact of the Neolithic agricultural transition in Britain: a comparison of pollen-based land-cover and archaeological 14C date-inferred ... | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

Britain's landscapes were substantially transformed as a result of prehistoric agricultural clearance and deforestation. This process began in the Neolithic and is recorded in multiple different “archives”, notably those deriving from archaeological site excavations and from off-site pollen records. This paper assesses the extent to which these two independent sources show common trends and timing in terms of demographic and environmental change across Britain during the millennia prior to and after the appearance of the first farming communities. This period is analysed within the wider context of the 9000–3400 cal. BP time frame. We compare land-cover change aggregated from 42 pollen records employing a pseudo-biomisation approach with radiocarbon (14C) date probability density functions from archaeological sites, which have been inferred to indicate shifts in population density. We also compare these results with selected palaeoclimate records in order to test alternative drivers of landscape change. At a broad geographical scale, pollen and archaeological records reveal very similar phases between 9000 and 3400 cal. BP. Following an initial demographic shift and landscape opening during the Late Mesolithic (∼7600 cal. BP) conditions were stable until 6400 cal. BP. Around 6400–6000 cal. BP (Mesolithic–Neolithic transition) a new phase began of forest disturbance and population increase. By 6000–5300 cal. BP early Neolithic population growth is clearly evident in the archaeological record with significant impacts on woodland cover, which is evident in the pollen record, reaching a maximum between 5700 and 5400 cal. BP. Between 5300 and 4400 cal. BP the archaeological record is inferred to indicate reduced mid-late Neolithic landscape impact, and this is matched by evidence of woodland re-establishment in the pollen record. Between 4400 and 3400 cal. BP renewed late Neolithic woodland clearance coincided with further population increase, which continued into the early Bronze Age. A very similar pattern is evident using a smaller-scale dataset from Scotland alone. Thus, rather than being slow and progressive, the initial Neolithic cultural transformation of Britain's landscape was relatively rapid and widespread; however, after several centuries of expansion, this process was halted and even reversed, before recommencing during the later 3rd millennium BC (after ∼4500 cal. BP). The impact of Neolithic forest clearance is clearly detectable as a driver of regional-scale mid-Holocene landscape change, alongside variations in climate. The Neolithic agricultural transition began a long process of anthropogenically-driven land-cover change in the British Isles, which has continued up until the present-day.

 
Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

Compare to the recent Antiquity paper of Stevens and Fuller (http://www.antiquity.ac.uk/ant/086/ant0860707.htm), and you will find that there is even more evidence that cereal agriculture and population declined in the later Neolithic in Britain. The discprency between this pollen study which shows re-clearance in the LNeolithic to early Bronze Age and the Steven and Fuller cereal-dating database could oimply that Late Neolithic impacts were more pastoral than arable.

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Tracking the Neolithic House in Europe

Tracking the Neolithic House in Europe | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

The Neolithic period sees the transformation from hunter-gatherer societies to farming groups, practising agriculture, domestication and sedentism. This lifestyle spread gradually from the Near East into Europe, and archaeologists  have long focused on observing the movements of plants, animals and people. However, the changes in domestic architecture of the time have not been examined from an explicitly comparative perspective. Tracking the Neolithic house in Europe: Sedentism, Architecture, and Practice explores the ways in which the transition to sedentism is played out in the earliest houses in the Near East and across Europe.

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Trends in cereal cultivation in the Czech Republic from the Neolithic to the Migration period (5500 b.c.–a.d. 580) - Online First - Springer

Trends in cereal cultivation in the Czech Republic from the Neolithic to the Migration period (5500 b.c.–a.d. 580) - Online First - Springer | Archaeobotany and Domestication | Scoop.it

This study summarises the current state of research on cultivated cereals from archaeological sites in the Czech Republic. We discuss the first appearances of particular cereals, their first proven cultivation (which usually happens much later) and their part within cereal husbandry. The questions of possible contamination of archaeobotanical material and problems concerning the identification of some cereal taxa are related to this topic. Trends in the importance of the cultivation of individual cereals are shown with generalized linear models (GLMs), based on an assemblage of 81 newly sampled sites. The results of GLM enable the division of the cereals into four groups characterised by: (1) species showing a gradual decrease in importance—Triticum monococcum (einkorn) and T. dicoccum (emmer), (2) species with progressively accumulating representation on sites during prehistory—Hordeum vulgare (common barley) and T. spelta (spelt), (3) those with a marked increase by the end of prehistory—T. aestivum/turgidum(naked wheat), Avena sp. (oats) and Secale cereale, (rye) and (4) a specific group including only Panicum miliaceum (broomcorn millet). There is a gradual increase in the diversity of cultivated cereals through time, starting with T. monococcum and T. dicoccum, followed by Hordeum, Panicum, T. spelta and T. aestivum/turgidum, Secale and Avena. Comparison of the chronological development of cereal cultivation in the area of the Czech Republic and surrounding countries shows a general correspondence with the trends observed in other parts of eastern-central Europe, although with some local specific differences. 

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

I note that we have another systematic review that supports a late arrival of Panicum miliaceum as a crop of on any importance. A few individual finds are present since the Neolithic, but rice finds start from the Middle Bronze Age, individual finds are much more frequnet from Middle Bronze Age and it is a major cereal from the Iron Age. Seteria italicca appears delayed further by comparison to broomcorn millet. For my view on Panicum see the recent treatment in World Archaeology

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Dorian Q Fuller's comment, September 24, 2013 12:18 PM
I meant to write "millet" not "rice" in the above.