Although the genome of Haloferax volcanii contains genes (flgA1-flgA2) that encode flagellins and others that encode proteins involved in flagellar assembly, previous reports have concluded that H. volcanii is nonmotile. Contrary to these reports, we have now identified conditions under which H. volcanii is motile. Moreover, we have determined that an H. volcanii deletion mutant lacking flagellin genes is not motile. However, unlike flagella characterized in other prokaryotes, including other archaea, the H. volcanii flagella do not appear to play a significant role in surface adhesion. While flagella often play similar functional roles in bacteria and archaea, the processes involved in the biosynthesis of archaeal flagella do not resemble those involved in assembling bacterial flagella but, instead, are similar to those involved in producing bacterial type IV pili. Consistent with this observation, we have determined that, in addition to disrupting preflagellin processing, deleting pibD, which encodes the preflagellin peptidase, prevents the maturation of other H. volcanii type IV pilin-like proteins. Moreover, in addition to abolishing swimming motility, and unlike the flgA1-flgA2 deletion, deleting pibD eliminates the ability of H. volcanii to adhere to a glass surface, indicating that a nonflagellar type IV pilus-like structure plays a critical role in H. volcanii surface adhesion.