How can we address the complexity and cost of applying science to societal challenges?
Open science and collaborative R&D may help –. Open science has been described as “a research accelerator” . Open science implies open access  but goes beyond it: “Imagine a connected online web of scientific knowledge that integrates and connects data, computer code, chains of scientific reasoning, descriptions of open problems, and beyond …. tightly integrated with a scientific social web that directs scientists' attention where it is most valuable, releasing enormous collaborative potential.” .