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Growth in U.S. Fish Farming is Good News for U.S. Soybean Farmers » Beyond the Bean Online

Growth in U.S. Fish Farming is Good News for U.S. Soybean Farmers » Beyond the Bean Online | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
RT @UnitedSoy: NOAA: U.S. aquaculture sector grew in 2010-2011. What’s that mean for soybean farmers? http://t.co/scpoDzFaKp #USSoyNews
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Pirates and Slaves: How overfishing in Thailand fuels human trafficking and the plundering of our oceans | Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF)

Pirates and Slaves: How overfishing in Thailand fuels human trafficking and the plundering of our oceans | Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF) | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
New @ejfoundation report on how overfishing has led to widespread #modernslavery in fishing industry in #Thailand: http://t.co/qN1ogVojVM
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'No take zones' in English Channel would benefit marine wildlife and the fishing industry

'No take zones' in English Channel would benefit marine wildlife and the fishing industry | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
Marine conservationists are increasingly pinning their hopes on marine protected areas (MPAs) to save threatened species and reduce over-fishing.
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New Technology: High Density Aquaculture System - Startup Ireland

New Technology: High Density Aquaculture System - Startup Ireland | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
AquaFarm is a novel modular recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) that enables low cost farming of aquatic species...
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NORWAY: Aqua Nor 2015 Travel Award - Call for Applications

NORWAY: Aqua Nor 2015 Travel Award - Call for Applications | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

In 2014 the Nor-Fishing Foundation established the Nor-Fishing Foundation Travel Award, which enables one person from the developing world to visit Aqua Nor or Nor-Fishing, an important national and international meeting place to get updated on innovation and technology in the fisheries industry.

 

The Travel Award covers the cost of air travel from the winner’s home to Trondheim, where the selected candidate will spend a week as a guest of the Nor-Fishing Foundation, including hotel accommodation and some spending money. The winner will also be invited to the main events during the exhibition where he can make contact with a wide network of experts.

The successful candidate should be involved in aquaculture in some way, either as a fish farmer, educator, senior public official, or similar. The winner will be expected to write reports about the experience and to promote Aqua Nor in a general way after returning to the home country.

 

The deadline for the application is 1 June 2015 and the winner will be announced by the end of June 2015.

 

Aqua Nor will take place in Trondheim, Norway, 18-21 August 2015.

Applications can be sent by air mail to:

 

The Nor-Fishing Foundation
Klostergaten 90
7030 Trondheim, Norway
(mark the envelope: “Nor-Fishing Foundation Travel Award”)

 

or by e-mail: mailbox@nor-fishing.no

 

For further information, please contact:

 

Mr. Erik Hempel, Director of Communications, Tel.: +47 9084 1124, E-mail: erik.hempel@hempelco.com

 


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NOAA Approves Industry Compromise On Cod Restrictions | Aquaculture Directory

NOAA Approves Industry Compromise On Cod Restrictions | Aquaculture Directory | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
NOAA has approved a sector exemption request from the Gloucester Fishing Community Preservation Fund (GFCPF), which will utilize the sector system to preserve 30 metric tons of cod in exchange for relaxing some of the Gulf of Maine cod Interim Management Measures enacted in November 2014.
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Rising consumption of ready-to-eat products propelling growth in the meat, poultry and seafood packaging market in the US explored in new market research report | Aquaculture Directory

Rising consumption of ready-to-eat products propelling growth in the meat, poultry and seafood packaging market in the US explored in new market research report | Aquaculture Directory | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
The popular demand for flexible packaging materials such as plastic films and vacuum pouches is seen among consumers and retailers alike. Many retail companies enter into partnerships with these packaging companies to preserve the quality and taste of food products in retails shops and increases the product visibility.
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Norwegian Seafood Exports Reduced In February | Aquaculture Directory

Norwegian Seafood Exports Reduced In February | Aquaculture Directory | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
Norway exported seafood worth NOK 5.1 (€0.594) billion in February. This represents a 6 percent, or NOK 318 (€37.015) million reduction compared to February 2014, reports the Norwegian Seafood Council.
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Fisheries Agencies Report Positive Outlook for 2015 Ocean Salmon Fishing Season

Fisheries Agencies Report Positive Outlook for 2015 Ocean Salmon Fishing Season | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
Media Contacts: Jennifer Simon, CDFW Ocean Salmon Project, (707) 576-2878 Andrew Hughan, CDFW Communications, (916) 322-8944 Kirsten Macintyre, CDFW Communications, (916) 322-8988 At the annual sal...
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Gender: Fisheries

Gender: Fisheries | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
Women's work in fishing households is often informal and rarely remunerated. Women's most prominent role - in small-scale and industrial fisheries - is in post-harvest, processing and marketing.
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What’s fishy about the European ban on Sri Lankan fisheries? | DailyFT - Be Empowered

What’s fishy about the European ban on Sri Lankan fisheries? | DailyFT - Be Empowered | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
The ban’s strongest and most devastating impact will be borne by Sri Lanka’s fishing community – over 192,000 households are dependent on fishing as a
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Fish farming in amazonia is environmentally unviable

Fish farming in amazonia is environmentally unviable | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
Fish farming in amazonia is environmentally unviable, 978-3-659-42700-8, This book is written in an extremely didactic manner, with pedagogical features, approaches the Search player, even one that does not have a theoretical foundation in Amazon...
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EUROPEAN UNION: Assessing ecosystem services in coastal and marine waters

EUROPEAN UNION: Assessing ecosystem services in coastal and marine waters | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

A JRC-organised session on coastal and marine ecosystem services generated a lot of interest and positive feedback from the participants at last month’s annual Association of the Sciences of Limnology & Oceanography (ASLO) 2015 meeting in Granada, Spain.

 

This year’s ASLO meeting, the theme of which was “Aquatic Sciences: Global And Regional Perspectives — North Meets South”, was attended by more than 5 000 scientists from all over the world.

 

There was standing room only at the JRC-organised session, entitled “Bridging the gap between ecosystem modelling and ecosystem services’ assessment in coastal and marine waters”. The JRC chaired the session and made two of the six presentations, which were complemented by sessions from French, Spanish and US research organisations. The session was very well received and generated lively discussions among the attendees.

 

The oceans and the coastal zones are considered to be the largest contributors to the total economic value of the biosphere through ecosystem services such as the provision of fish, water purification, carbon sequestration and recreation. However, the modelling and quantification of these services is relatively limited compared to terrestrial assessments. Ecosystem modelling assesses the structure and functioning of marine and coastal ecosystems, and is therefore a very suitable tool for assessing the related ecosystem services.

 

It is hoped that the improved assessment of coastal and marine ecosystem services will help raise awareness about the inherent value of the biosphere, and put a halt to the further degradation/destruction of this natural capital.

 

 

Further information

 

2015 Aquatic Sciences Meeting: http://sgmeet.com/aslo/granada2015/

 

JRC Session schedule: Bridging the gap between ecosystem modelling and ecosystem services’ assessment in coastal and marine waters http://www.sgmeet.com/aslo/granada2015/sessionschedule.asp?SessionID=113

 

 


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Environmental audit for cod | Aquaculture Directory

Environmental audit for cod | Aquaculture Directory | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
A new tool can document sustainability in cod and haddock fishing in the North Atlantic. A European Good Practice standard has been created.
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FAO GLOBEFISH -

FAO GLOBEFISH - | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

As part of its efforts to interact closely with the global fisheries and seafood industry, FAO will participate in the up-coming North Atlantic Seafood Forum (NASF) in Bergen, Norway 3- 5 March. Headed by Arni Mathiesen - Assistant Director General for Fisheries and Aquaculture, FAO will be present with several high-level representatives. Mr. Mathiesen will deliver an NASF opening address March 4th addressing “Outlook for world seafood trade to 2030”.

 

Says Assistant Director General Mathiesen: “2015 is an exciting year for us at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Not only does FAO itself celebrate 70 years, but we also mark the twentieth anniversary of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. We are proud to mark this important milestone for sustainable fisheries here with you at the 10th NASF this year”.    

 

 

The Code, laying forth principles and standards for national and international efforts to ensure sustainable exploitation of aquatic living resources, was unanimously adopted at the FAO Conference on 31 October 1995 by all FAO Member countries.  

 

We believe that the debate and unanimous decision were quite progressive for the time. Even twenty years later, the principles of the Code are robust and form the basis for more recent international agreements, including instru ments in the fight against IUU fishing, and the guidelines on small-scale fisheries guidelines adopted last year. The Code is also important for eco-labelling issues, for which FAO has developed a number of guidelines for certification.  

 

Moreover, the Code is also the basis for the Blue Growth Initiative. FAO is actively promoting Blue Growth as a coherent approach for the sustainable, integrated and socio-economically sensitive management of oceans and wetlands, focusing on capture fisheries, aquaculture, ecosystem services, trade and social protection of coastal communities.  

Today, informed consumers are increasingly aware of and vocal about the need to safeguard our natural resources for future generations. Therefore, the Code of Conduct and the Blue Growth initiative are more important than ever to ensure consumers as well as industry stakeholders that their  choices are sustainable.  

 

 

We believe that industry is an important partner for FAO in working together to ensure that sustainable approaches meet an increased demand for fish and fish products for a growing population. As illustrated in the 2014 State of World Fisheries And Aquaculture (SOFIA), figures show that world capita fish consumption increased from an average of 9.9 kg in the 1960s, to 19.2 kg in 2012. And our most recent estimates indicate that this reached 20 kg per capita in 2014. As also reported in SOFIA, fish provide more than 2.9 billion people with about 20 percent of their animal protein, and 4.3 billion people with about 15 percent of such proteins.  

 

Meanwhile, the aggregate FAO Fish price index increased markedly from early 2002, reaching a record high in October 2013. And after some weakening since then, prices are rising once again.  

 

The latest SOFIA also reports that aquaculture continues  to grow, albeit at a slowing rate. According to FAO figures, aquaculture attained another all-time high in 2012, with 90. 4 million tonnes (valued at $137.7 billion USD).  

 

 

We believe that there are more opportunities than ever before for the fisheries sector to play a key role in ensuring food security for a world population expected to reach 9 billion by 2050. FAO’s mandate focuses on food security – the ability to produce enough safe fish for food at affordable prices for world populations. 

 

 

To meet these objectives, partnerships with industry are crucial. And as informed consumers make purchasing decisions that increasingly pose the difficult questions about sustainability and global impact when purchasing locally, partnerships between FAO, governments, partner institutions, and industry are even more relevant today than they were in the past.   

 

 

We look forward to close engagement with industry over these days at NASF, and in the years ahead, as we work in partnership to ensure the adoption of the principles of the Code of Conduct as the basis for the Blue Growth Initiative, while simultaneously producing enough safe and nutritious food fish to meet the  needs of our growing population.   

 

 

FAO representatives will participate in numerous discussions during the two days of the conference.  

 

For more information, please contact Jose Estors-Carballo, for communication issues, please contact Kimberly Sullivan


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Indonesian fisheries ministry imposes new limits on gear and fish harvests

Indonesian fisheries ministry imposes new limits on gear and fish harvests | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
The Indonesian fisheries ministry has introduced two divisive pieces of legislation aimed at increasing the sustainability of Indonesia’s depleted ocean fisheries.
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WORLDWIDE: Enhanced utilization of fish contributes to Arab food security

WORLDWIDE: Enhanced utilization of fish contributes to Arab food security | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

 

Food security will remain a significant issue for the Arab countries due to supply uncertainty and a growing population.

 

The Arab countries have to import more than half of their food commodities under conditions and the rising level of food prices for their imports. Such a rise in prices, especially in the poorer countries have pushed prices of food commodities, including seafood products, preventing the largest sections of the populations in several Arab countries to face extreme difficulties in feeding themselves.
While several Arab countries, particularly the Arabian Gulf countries, have the financial resources to purchase food commodities in spite of the falling price of oil, their main export commodity, it is nevertheless facing the issue of how to feed its rapidly growing population while also maintaining the prevailing living standards. While most Arab countries depend on imports to supplement their food supplies, they will have to increase their import bills thus ending an era of cheap food. The Arab countries are a highly import-oriented economy as they face a shortage of water resources for their agriculture, declining capture fisheries resources as well as rising costs of imports of raw materials. Besides, there is a large demand from a young, growing population.

FAO reports that the combined total fish production of the 22 states from all sources in 2012 reached 3.9 million tonnes of which 1.1 million tonnes (28.2 %) from marine and freshwater aquaculture. The combined total imports of seafood commodities in 2011 reached 961,000 tonnes valued at US$2.32 billion while the combined exports were 721,000 tonnes valued at US $1.69 billion resulting in a substantially negative trade balance in quantity by 240,000 tonnes and in value by $630,000. Moreover, most of the Arab exports are Moroccan canned products to outside the Arab region and most of the imports are from outside the region. Inter- regional trade is rather limited. The per capita of seafood consumption is around 10 kg/annum while the international average is 19.2 kg/annum.

Although fisheries and aquaculture do not contribute significantly to the overall economies of most Arab states, but it provides significant employment, food security and livelihood to many scattered fishing communities in coastal areas. The negative impact of climate change on fisheries resources is already evident in the declining catches from capture fisheries. The artisanal and small scale fisheries sector which land over 85 percent of fish will be severely affected by climate change in their coastal areas especially that they inhabit about 18,000 km of 34,000 km the total length of the coastal zones in the Arab region.

The Arab countries demand seafood productsto supplement other food commodities for a fast growing population. The UN Population Division estimates that in 2015 the population of the Arab countries will reach 385 million people and is projected to rise to 604 million people by 2050.

The Arab region’s populations are increasing and capture fisheries resources are decreasing. Aquaculture production is on the rise to narrow the gap between supply and demand. The rising demand for fish and fishery products prompted countries to look for additional sources to increase supplies. There are some opportunities available to the Arab countries as challenges they will have to meet in order that they could develop improved ways to enhance the utilization of their fish landingsto increase supplies to help ease the food security situation and lower imports. Fish utilization includes by products from processing produces and other areas where losses can be transformed into gains. Discarding creates pollution hazardous to the environment. In general, waste and discards constitute between 30-60 % of the whole fish weight depending on species and contain 15-20 % protein. Preservation of by-catch, better utilization from fisheries processing can turn post-harvest and post-processing activities from losses to gains. With food security concerns the Arab countries with improved management and utilization of their catches and landings increase supplies and generate income as a bonus from post-harvest activities and decrease hazards of pollution to the environment.

Relationship of fisheries to food security

Fisheries and aquaculture make an important contribution to the animal protein supplies of many communities in both the industrialized and developing worlds. In 2012 world fish supplies are at around 19.2 kg per capita with a slight upward trend due to the rapidly increasing contribution from aquaculture.

The role of fish in enhancing food security lies in the importance of fish in supplementing the minimum diet of populations at large, and in particular, of sectors having low purchasing power. In addition, fish has a role to play in food security even if fish workers themselves cannot afford to eat them, as long as the fishery provides them with income sufficient to buy affordable food commodities. In most of the Arab countries especially those with high population growth rate, high per capita food consumption from local production supplemented by imports, may only be able to continue this trend as long as the importers (governments or private sectors) are able to allocate foreign currencies to continue to meet the cost of fish imports.

Fishing and fisheries contributes more than any other animal production activity to the protein intake in most of the developing regions of the world including most of the Arab countries. Fish and fishery products are important for the food security and the alleviation of poverty of many coastal populations in some sections of the populations. But, by all accounts, many wild marine and freshwater resources are on the decline and this is a source of growing economic and social problems. Fisheries, including aquaculture, provide a vital source of food, employment, recreation, trade and economic wellbeing for people throughout the world, both for present and future generations. In the Arab countries fisheries, especially in rural remote areas, are an important economic sector and aquaculture is becoming of importance, both contributing, albeit at different levels, to national development through employment, trade and food security.

Opportunities to boost fish supply to support food security

The Arab region fish processing waste and losses range between 10 to 12% of landings per year, higher in the shrimp fishery. Improving food security efforts require making better use of by-products from processing fisheries by reducing waste and losses and increasing the percentage of seafood products used for direct human consumption. Converting low-value resources into products for direct human-consumption contributes more to food security and income generation than to fish meal. Several fishing techniques are now employed to reduce and/or retrieve bycatch and process it on board/on shore and /or exporting undesired species where these have a market and with improvements in utilization more fish supplies could become available on the market.There are several sources for the fisheries sector to contribute to the supply of seafood commodities beside catching fish from capture fisheries or raising fish from aquaculture. Some of these sources include:

1. Reduction of post-harvest losses:
It is estimated that 64 percent of the World’s fish harvest is still caught in the wild, and the harvesting has reached, and in many areas exceeded, sustainable rates. This, in part, is because the means of exploitation has become so efficient. Fishing fleets use sonar, radar, aircraft and satellites to track shoals. Winches and motors, hand drift nets typically containing more than 18 tonnes of fish. This enables trawlers to increase not only catches but also the by-catch species that are inadvertently netted but are unwanted and consequently, discarded. Therefore, improving food security efforts requires making better use of fish produced by reducing post-harvest losses and increasing the percentage of fish used for direct human consumption. It is estimated that post-harvest losses caused by spoilage amount between 5-10 percent per year of total Arab landings. Converting low-value resources, into products for direct human consumption, rather than reducing them to fishmeal, would also contribute to greater food security. Post-Harvest losses are mainly caused by: - Inappropriate use of preservation methods,

 

- Distribution and marketing system cannot cope during glut periods,

 

- Physical loss from discarding of bycatch,

 

- Absence or shortage of cold storage facilities,

 

- About 25% of catch is processed into fish meal or oil.

 

Solutions to reduce post-harvest losses include:

 

- Wiser use of resources by reducing spoilage and discards,

 

- Converting low-value resources into products for human consumption,

 

- Improved fish handling on-board and on-land, processing, preservation and transportation,

 

- With more fish scarcity, discards and bycatch may become more commercially desirable.

 

2.Better utilization of by-catch:

 

The increasing demand for fish and fishery products prompt countries to consider ways to further utilize available resources capable of contributing to human food supplies. The fuller utilization of fishery resources, especially with regard to the utilization of products now being discarded as reject catches or as wasted by-products, is receiving increased attention worldwide. It is estimated that in some fisheries, especially shrimp fisheries in the Arabian Gulf area, has been estimated to be over 50 percent of the total catch. Options for by-catch utilization include the reduction of untargeted species by using exclusion devices (BRD) to allow fish to mature and be harvested as food fish and the recovery of by-catch and its handling on board or on shore.

3. Preservation of bycatch on board:


Bycatch caught by vessels is mostly discarded over board mainly because: no space on board, undesirable or unmarketable species. Reduction of quantity of bycatch during fishing operation should have priority by using various techniques such as BRD. Efforts should be made by fishermen to preserve any bycatch on-board to reduce the volume by mincing to fish silage, or partly processed for human consumption or for production of fish meal and oil onshore. Some bycatch species which are unmarketable locally may be suitable for export to other markets. Fish products for human consumption are more profitable than for manufacturing into fish meal and oil.

4. Preservation of bycatch on shore:


After landing, sorting, processing etc. of bycatch adequate man-power, equipment and infrastructure is required. Locally marketable fish to be delivered to market and locally undesired fish could find a market abroad. Unmarketable fish could be processed into a variety of accepted seafood products for local consumption or export or into fish meal and preservation on-board and full utilization on shore will help generate extra income to fishermen as a bonus from the sea. 

 5. Range of seafood products suitable for direct human consumption:
There is a range of products that may receive additional processing into other seafood products with additives for direct human consumption as well as generating extra income. These may be made from law-value fishes or from leftovers of processing such as:  - Trimmings, fins, heads, sides; tails, intestines, swim bladder, ribs, livers, gall bladder, backbones, some popular bony fishes, etc. from which fish sticks, fish snacks, fish sausages, fish nuggets, fish fingers, patties, melts, paste, strips, burgers, loaves, hot dogs, cold cuts, cakes, salads, etc. can be made.

 

- Some of these products may be prepared as required by the local markets either breaded, marinated, buttered, seasoned, spiced, sauced, etc. and

 

- Any of the above products which may not be marketable locally may find markets abroad after packaging in attractive consumer pack coupled with an effective marketing strategy.

 

- Utilization of waste from tuna, small and large pelagic species, sharks and seashells.

 

Several countries in the NENA region catch several species of tuna, sardines; mackerel and anchovies. Canning plants normally utilize the main product and discard the offal as waste. The resulting left-overs may also be used to make other productsfor human consumption, for export and local markets or for fish meal.

6.Utilization of waste from shrimp fisheries:


The shrimp fishery in the Arabian Gulf area is responsible for a large proportion of bycatch mostly discarded at sea. If preserved and landed its by-product and waste from processing could provide a good income generation activity:

 

- Waste from shrimp range from 50-70 % of whole shrimp. Valuable waste is produced from peeling and heading which can be used to generate extra income;

 

- Shrimp meal is used in aquaculture and in poultry feed to produce deep colored egg yolks which is important for sustainability;

 

- Chitin/chitosan, available in the shrimp heads, skeleton and shells, may be used in poultry feed to increase weight by 12 %;

 

- As a chemical, it inhibit fungal infestation of plants, in recycling water and for several medical uses; and

 

- It is non-allergic, harmless and has great potential in external and internal surgery applications. 

 

7. Range of products from waste and losses not suitable for human consumption


In general, waste and discards constitute between 30-60 % of the whole fish weight depending on the species and contain 15-20 % protein.After full utilization of main fish and other aquatic animals for direct human consumption for local or export markets there is a range of byproducts that may be made from processing activities. These by-products include:

 

- Fish skins, scales, undesired small bony fishes; waste from crustacean; waste from canneries of small and large pelagic species; jelly fish, shark parts, seashells and other offal;

 

- Undesired products for direct human consumption may be converted into various other products which generate extra income for fishermen, farmers, processers and traders; and

 

- These products include pet and livestock feed, industrial and pharmaceutical products that could be manufactured from bycatch, by-products and waste.

 

Fish Scales are about 4-10 % of fish. It is a major component of fish processing waste and often discarded with other fish waste. Scales also has some potential uses:

 

 

- Scales may be used for heavy metal removal and and as coagulant for the recovery of protein pigments from waste water;

 

- Preparing high value products including protein bars, cereal bars, protein drinks, smoothies, and joint health and pharmaceutical products;

 

- Food supplement to improve low bone mineral density in malnutrition and joint diseases;

 

Fish scales are used as raw material in collagen-based products such as skin moisturizers, anti-aging creams, wrinkle removers, hand creams, cleaning gels, Botox knock-offs and are safe to humans. Fish scales are used in cosmetics, decorations, jewelry making and ornamentation.

8.Quality leather goods from fish skins:


Fish supply more than food. Its skin provides flexible and waterproof material used into making several products which can generate good income:

 

- After consuming the meat, skins are saved, cleaned with detergents and turned into various products;

 

- These include boots, mittens, bags, parkas, shoes, purses; hats, belts, garments in several colors for human use;

 

- Authentic, genuine fish leather are recycled from skins of fish such as carp, perch, seabass, tilapia and salmon;

 

- Major brands such as Prada, Gucci, Ferragamo, Dior; Nike and Puma use fish leather; and

 

- They are also suitable for bookbinding, jewelry making and several other uses.

 

9. Utilization of by-products as fish meal, fish silage for pet , poultry and livestock feed Small boney fish caught in trawls and other trash fish and offal from processing that are not suitable for human consumption could find other uses :

 

 

- Main utilization of such waste should be milled into manufacturing fish meal mainly for aquaculture;

 

- Arab region markets for pet foods such as cats, dogs, birds, and aquatic pets etc. is growing and will help generate extra income; and

 

- Production of livestock and poultry is increasing. Some countries utilize dried fish for animal feed due to its high protein content.

 

10. Pet and livestock feed & fish meal and Oil from fish by-products

 

In terms of added-value from fish waste, the least attractive means of by-product utilization is as a fertilizer.

 

- Some Arab countries try to develop an arable agricultural industry;

 

- Second to irrigation, important fertilizers are the main cost constraint;

 

- Large quantities of sun-dried fish are used as soil conditioners which is a good outlet for bycatch to sun dry unmarketable fish for fertilizers;

 

- Fish fertilizers provide an excellent source of nutrition for plants and the soil; and Fish fertilizers also help improve microorganisms in the soil and help increase crop growth and microbial activity.


Conclusions

All Arab countries, with varying degrees, consider food security to be the most important and in some countries vital to their national and social security. With a rapidly growing population and a mixed current regional political situation and amidst a generally poor performing economies it is necessary for the Arab countries to protect and increase domestic production of food commodities, including seafood commodities at publicly affordable prices to ensure food security in an atmosphere of globalization and liberalization of international trade.

Food security for Arab countries is considered one of the most important challenges and is vital to insure sufficient and affordable food commodities for the masses because:

 

 

- Arab countries has a rapidly growing population which could reach 604 million people by 2050;

 

- In addition to supplies of seafood, better utilization of bycatch, by-products and waste from post-harvest activities increases market supplies and generate extra income for fishermen, fish farmers, processers and traders;

 

- Less bycatch means less time for sorting through target catch and the targeted catch would keep better quality and price;

 

- In order to increase supplies, a comprehensive approach required for proper handling, processing and marketing techniques and product(s) development;

 

- Better utilization of resulting by-products contributes to extra food supplies for human consumption and income as well as for other useful industrial uses; and

 

- Public and private initiatives are needed for improvements in utilizing bycatch and waste mainly in the small-scale sector as well as the planned aquaculture projects planned by several Arab countries.

 

The above set of measures may be taken, in part or in whole, by Arab fisheries companies and responsible institutions and the private sector which are responsible for producing more fish domestically, in order to reach better and more sustainable growth in fish production. These measures may be to not only increase fish and fishery products on the markets as a means of reducing or controlling the rise in prices but also may help reduce imports thus preserving hard currencies especially for Arab countries that are pressed for foreign exchange.

However, it should be noted that these measures may not present suitable solutions equally for all countries. However, what is clear is that the fastest and easiest way to help households in a food prices is to have a system that can distribute cash to people quickly and efficiently. This of course assumes that people can then purchase the food that is available. It is important to recognize that food availability is a concern to many Arab governments.

Article by Izzat H. Feidi, Fisheries Consultant  

Pictures from Arab Agriculture Year Book 2015

 


© FAO GLOBEFISH


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EGYPT: Delivering Unwelcome Species to the Mediterranean

EGYPT: Delivering Unwelcome Species to the Mediterranean | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

Egypt’s plan to expand the Suez Canal threatens the sea’s fragile biodiversity.

 

The Mediterranean Sea is among the world’s great environmental jewels. The sea is highly saline, almost entirely enclosed by land and contains immense biodiversity. Scientists have long worried that its health is imperiled. Swelling coastal populations and ship traffic have brought overfishing and pollution. Climate change threatens to roil the waters still further.

 

One threat that is now gaining particular attention: the arrival of invasive species. One of the Mediterranean’s few outlets is the 146-year-old Suez Canal, which links it to the Red Sea and the ocean beyond. This creates a vital shipping route between Europe and Asia. But scientists fear that an expansion of the canal could bring more invasive species to the Mediterranean’s fragile waters.

 

Last year, Egypt announced plans to quickly build 45 more miles of waterway — a parallel canal, in part — so that ships can pass through more quickly than they do now. With the existing canal, they often must wait because the channel is narrow — about 1,000 feet wide at its slimmest point.

 

Because of the Suez and its expansion, the Mediterranean Sea’s problem with invasive species is becoming “worse than anywhere else on earth,” said Bella Galil, a senior scientist with Israel’s National Institute of Oceanography.

 

Among the unpopular arrivals are venomous jellyfish, which have unnerved tourists and sometimes obstructed water intakes belonging to electric-power or desalination plants, in addition to harming the natural ecology. Another worrisome invader is the puffer fish, sometimes known as the silver-cheeked toadfish, which releases a neurotoxin that can harm other fish and humans who consume it.

 

The existing Suez Canal has already served as a conduit. Invasive species are particularly concentrated in the eastern part of the Mediterranean, in the vicinity of the Suez Canal. The canal is already seen as “as one of the most significant pathways of marine invasions globally,” and it has ushered more than 350 nonnative species — including the puffer fish — into the Mediterranean, according to a letter sent in December from Julia Marton-Lefèvre, then director general of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, to Karmenu Vella, the European commissioner in charge of the environment, maritime affairs and fisheries.

 

Dr. Galil said, “Marine invasions are forever,” because it is impossible to remove an invasive species from the sea after it has arrived. The sea and its complex food web, she added, are “teetering.”

 

Some invasive species hitch rides in the ballast water of ships, an issue that the International Maritime Organization is trying to address through new rules regarding the treatment of ballast water to remove stowaways. Others cling to ship hulls, but many creatures simply swim through the Suez Canal itself.

 

“The expansion of the Suez Canal (enlarging, deepening) will make the environment within the canal more stable and thus will be easier to new species to cross it and invade potentially the Mediterranean,” Michel Bariche, an expert on Mediterranean marine issues at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, said in an email.

 

Once they arrive, successful invasive species often outcompete natives, he said, because they tend to be more efficient at basic functions like obtaining food or reproducing.

 

Backers of the canal expansion cite strong economic opportunities. José Herrera, the parliamentary secretary for competitiveness and economic growth for the island nation of Malta, said that he expected the Suez expansion to benefit the Mediterranean region. “Having more traffic per se does not necessarily mean adverse effects,” he said. Malta, which lies along the major shipping lane through the sea between Europe and Asia, has been working to expand as a hub for shipping and logistics.

“Economic growth should always be promoted, but in sustainable ways,” Mr. Herrera said.

 

Dr. Galil said that the Suez project could learn from a similar expansion that is underway for the Panama Canal, which was built more than a century ago. The Panama Canal, she said, included an environmental impact assessment process that scientists participated in, and measures are in place to help prevent alien species from crossing between the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans.

 

“From a bio-invasion point of view, the Panama Canal is well run,” she said, noting that locks help prevent water transfers between the two oceans.

 

A study ( http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ddi.12260/pdf ) last fall in the journal Diversity and Distributions, however, has raised some concerns about increased opportunities for invasive species following the Panama Canal expansion.

 

But plans for the Suez continue unabated. Egypt is proceeding quickly with the expansion and has said, ambitiously, that it hopes to be done later this year.

 

The European Union is in touch with the Egyptian government about its plans, and watching closely. The environment, maritime affairs and fisheries arm of the European Commission is aware of the invasive species concerns, and has information suggesting that an environmental impact assessment is being carried out, according to Enrico Brivio, a spokesman.

 

Solutions to the invasive species problem could include the establishment of a barrier of salty water, in combination with locks, that would discourage some species from swimming through to the Mediterranean.

 

The invasive species issues come atop other, mounting problems affecting the Mediterranean, such as overfishing and climate change. Because the Mediterranean is enclosed almost entirely by land, climate change especially could be tough on native species.

 

“It means that species that might change their distribution and move farther north have an upper boundary,” said Catherine Longo, a project scientist with the Marine Science Institute at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

 

Correction: March 4, 2015
An earlier version of this article misstated the nature of Egypt’s plans to build a new waterway. The plans are for 45 additional miles of waterway, not a waterway 45 miles long. By KATE GALBRAITH - www.nytimes.com  PHOTO: Marcial Guillen/European Pressphoto Agency  


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