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Draft Genome Sequence of Non-Vibrio parahaemolyticus Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease Strain KC13.17.5, Isolated from Diseased Shrimp in Vietnam

Draft Genome Sequence of Non-Vibrio parahaemolyticus Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease Strain KC13.17.5, Isolated from Diseased Shrimp in Vietnam | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

A strain of Vibrio (KC13.17.5) causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp in northern Vietnam was isolated. Normally, AHPND is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, but the genomic sequence of the strain indicated that it belonged to Vibrio harveyi. The sequence data included plasmid-like sequences and putative virulence genes.


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John Bostock's curator insight, November 7, 2015 2:15 PM

The plot thickens further!

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Genetic variation for resistance to WSS, AHPND in Pacific white shrimp | The Advocate

Genetic variation for resistance to WSS, AHPND in Pacific white shrimp | The Advocate | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

White spot syndrome (WSS) and acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) have become the main causes of economic loss in shrimp production worldwide. Prevention of these diseases is very difficult to achieve, and efforts to control them have often seen inconsistent results. Moreover, some intensive production systems seem to favor their rapid spread.

In such scenarios, breeding for disease resistance is a viable option to deal with this issue in commercial shrimp culture. Breeding shrimp for disease resistance is worthwhile when there are no other simple, cost-effective control measures, and there are genetic differences for resistance to the pathogen.


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John Bostock's curator insight, October 4, 2015 5:34 AM

Good to see this research ongoing - clearly challenging though.

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Workshop on Biofloc Technology and Shrimp Disease December 2013 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Workshop on Biofloc Technology and Shrimp Disease December 2013 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

Disease continues to be one of the biggest challenges facing the global marine shrimp farming industry. Over the past thirty years improving shrimp farming technologies have enabled increasing intensification, improved growth rates and more sustainable farming practices. Nevertheless, catastrophic disease outbreaks have plagued growers in major producing countries worldwide culminating in the current epidemic of Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease.

An expanding number of anecdotal observations from production systems along with limited controlled research results, suggest that biofloc systems help to reduce incidence of shrimp and fish disease outbreaks. It has been suggested that this may be related to more stable and broad based microbial communities in these systems. Though intriguing, the reliability and scope of the data is limited and contrary examples have been reported.

The objective reporting, responsible and balanced consideration of the information available by members of the professional aquaculture community can provide a foundation for the establishment of research priorities and practical applications which may be applied towards holistic solutions for the grave disease problems currently facing the industry.

The goal of this workshop was to gather a group of interested and experienced people to discuss the issue, to summarize what we know and to define the major information gaps. In light of these presentations and discussions workshop outputs may serve to highlight recommended research priorities and potential practical means to reduce disease outbreaks.


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John Bostock's curator insight, June 20, 2015 10:27 AM

Rather late finding and posting this, but the report from this workshop is a great resource on shrimp health and recent research in shrimp system management

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Identification of Genes Involved in Taura Syndrome Virus Resistance in Litopenaeus Vannamei

Identification of Genes Involved in Taura Syndrome Virus Resistance in Litopenaeus Vannamei | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

Boube et al (2014). Identification of Genes Involved in Taura Syndrome Virus Resistance in Litopenaeus Vannamei. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health: Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 137-143.

 

The goal of the present research was to identify the genes that are differentially expressed between two lineages of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei displaying different susceptibilities to Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and to understand the molecular pathways involved in resistance to the disease. An oligonucleotide microarray was constructed and used to identify several genes that were differentially expressed in the two L. vannamei lineages following infection with TSV. Individual L. vannamei from either resistant or susceptible lineages were exposed via injection to TSV. Individuals were removed at 6 and 24 h postinfection, and gene expression was assessed with the in-house microarray. The microarray data resulted in the selection of a set of 397 genes that were altered by TSV exposure between the different lineages. Significantly differentially expressed genes were subjected to hierarchical clustering and revealed a lineage-dependent clustering at 24 h postinoculation, but not at 6 h postinoculation. Discriminant analysis resulted in the identification of a set of 11 genes that were able to correctly classify Pacific white shrimp as resistant or susceptible based on gene expression data.


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John Bostock's curator insight, September 1, 2014 1:32 PM

This looks like useful progress for future management of TSV

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Recent insights into host–pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp - Shekhar - 2014 - Journal of Fish Diseases

Recent insights into host–pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp - Shekhar - 2014 - Journal of Fish Diseases | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

Viral disease outbreaks are a major concern impeding the development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. The viral disease due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed in early 1990s still continues unabated affecting the shrimp farms and cause huge economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand viral pathogenesis and shrimp response to WSSV at the molecular level. Identification and molecular characterization of WSSV proteins and receptors may facilitate in designing and development of novel therapeutics and antiviral drugs that may inhibit viral replication. Investigations into host–pathogen interactions might give new insights to viral infectivity, tissue tropism and defence mechanism elicited in response to WSSV infection. However, due to the limited information on WSSV gene function and host immune response, the signalling pathways which are associated in shrimp pathogen interaction have also not been elucidated completely. In the present review, the focus is on those shrimp proteins and receptors that are potentially involved in virus infection or in the defence mechanism against WSSV. In addition, the major signalling pathways involved in the innate immune response and the role of apoptosis in host–pathogen interaction is discussed.


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EMS Survey Now Available Online

EMS Survey Now Available Online | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

The Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA) is calling on shrimp farms in Asia and Latin America to fill out a survey designed to collect information on early mortality syndrome (EMS). The survey is now available online, the organization announced on June 19.

 

This comprehensive survey is the crux of a GAA case study launched in March to identify the practices that prevent and/or manage EMS at shrimp farms. The study will act as a foundation for recommendations to the global aquaculture community for better shrimp-farming practices.

 

The study will be conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of the survey. All shrimp farms in countries affected or threatened by EMS -- including China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, India and Mexico -- are encouraged to participate by completing an online form.

 


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John Bostock's curator insight, June 20, 2014 11:55 AM

For the attention of all shrimp farmers!

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Inbreeding and disease in tropical shrimp aquaculture: a reappraisal and caution

Inbreeding and disease in tropical shrimp aquaculture: a reappraisal and caution | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

NACA recommends that anyone involved in shrimp aquaculture - particularly hatcheries but also anyone procuring PL - read a paper by Roger Doyle, recently published in Aquaculture Research which discusses the link between inbreeding and disease in tropical shrimp aquaculture:

 

"The disease crisis facing shrimp aquaculture may be propelled, in part, by an interaction between management practices that cause inbreeding, and the amplification by inbreeding of susceptibility to disease and environmental stresses. The study describes and numerically simulates gene flow from Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei hatcheries that employ a ‘Breeder Lock’ to discourage use of their PL as breeders, through ‘copy hatcheries’ that breed the locked PL, to inbred shrimp in farm ponds. Re-analysis of published data shows that inbreeding depression under stress is exceptionally strong in shrimp. Inbreeding is currently overlooked as a problem because: (1) procedures recommended for well-managed hatcheries do not consider their implications for the copy hatcheries that supply most farmed shrimp (estimated 70%), (2) inbreeding in hatcheries is often reported as zero even though zero is the mathematical expectation of the usual estimator (Fis, fixation index) whatever the true genealogy of the broodstock. Simulation shows, however, that inbreeding can be estimated with Wang's trioML estimator, that Fis can differentiate Breeder Locked from copy PL and that simple tests can verify the lock status of PL. The importance of inbreeding should be re-evaluated in the context of disease and environmental stress. Unrecognized inbreeding may increase the incidence, prevalence and lethality of WSSV, IHHNV, EMS (AHPND) and other diseases."

 

DOI: 10.1111/are.12472


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John Bostock's curator insight, May 24, 2014 4:39 AM

Interesting and challenging paper.

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EMS Spreads to Central East China

EMS Spreads to Central East China | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

From Shrimpnews.com:

In March 2014, white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) began dying shortly after being stocked in shrimp ponds around Ningbo, a city in the central province of Zhejiang.

 

The Ningbo Ocean and Fishery Bureau recruited So Huang Jie, an expert in the prevention and treatment of shrimp diseases, to diagnose the problem.  Huang came to the conclusion that the mortalities were caused by EMS or Early Mortality Syndrome, which, previously, had not occurred that far north.  The disease struck ponds covered with greenhouses, causing great concern among other farmers getting ready to stock their outdoor ponds.  Seedstock, purchased in southern China, was suspected of carrying the disease to the ponds.  Recognized seedstock brands seemed to result in a much lower incidence of EMS than off-brands.  Polyculture of shrimp with fish or turtles decreased the incidence of EMS.


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John Bostock's curator insight, May 1, 2014 6:19 AM

Bad news for China

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GAA Publishes EMS Report ‘Managing The Perfect Killer’

GAA Publishes EMS Report ‘Managing The Perfect Killer’ | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

This is a 17-page report titled “Early Mortality Syndrome In Shrimp: Managing ‘The Perfect Killer’.” The report is based on a presentation given by GAA President George Chamberlain as part of a GAA-organized webinar conducted in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, on Dec. 10, 2013. The webinar, for which 600 seafood and aquaculture professionals registered to attend, provided the latest news and information on the shrimp disease. Also participating in the webinar were in Don Lightner and Huu Loc Tran, both of the University of Arizona.


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John Bostock's curator insight, February 18, 2014 1:42 PM

A good summary of where are are now with EMS

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GAA: Free Webinar On Early Mortality Syndrome In Shrimp: Managing 'The Perfect Killer'

GAA: Free Webinar On Early Mortality Syndrome In Shrimp: Managing 'The Perfect Killer' | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

10 Dec 2013 - The world’s foremost authorities on early mortality syndrome in shrimp will address efforts to better understand and manage the disease and its impact on shrimp supplies in this free one-hour webinar organized by the Global Aquaculture Alliance and featuring GAA President George Chamberlain and Don Lightner, the University of Arizona pathologist who identified the cause of EMS.A 30-minute presentation will be followed by a 30-minute question-and-answer session (10 am Indochina time).


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John Bostock's curator insight, December 6, 2013 1:59 PM

Book your place on this webinar if you are at all concerned about this disease issue.

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Seminar: EMS in Shrimp - University of Malaya 30 November 2013 - ASEM Aquaculture: Health

Seminar: EMS in Shrimp - University of Malaya 30 November 2013 - ASEM Aquaculture: Health | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

The Malaysian Society of Marine Science (MSMS), Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), Biovalence Sdn. Bhd. and Blue Archipelago shall be jointly hosting a One-Day Seminar on EMS which has led to a major reduction of shrimp produced in farms with annual losses of over USD 1 billion. This seminar shall address the potential mechanism of EMS, the most up-to-date research from leading labs as well as practical measures on how to control the outbreak and still make profits.

Researchers, technicians, shrimp farmers, government officers, suppliers, feed millers and other parties involved in the shrimp culture industry are encouraged to participate in this seminar that brings experts from USA, Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia together for a round-table Q & A session with farmers and researchers.

 


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John Bostock's curator insight, October 31, 2013 5:39 AM

Highly recommended if you can make it.

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Smart Shrimp Aquaculture Workshop 20-22 January 2016, Thailand

Smart Shrimp Aquaculture Workshop 20-22 January 2016, Thailand | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
Shrimp farming industry is currently passing through a challenging phase, mostly because of disease conditions like the Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND), still popular worldwide as EMS - the Early Mortality Syndrome, and that caused by the microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). These are widespread in Thailand and are feared to take new forms across diverse farming situations. Many shrimp farmers have no clue as to how this critical situation could be controlled. To manage these and the emerging challenges, farmers at the regional level need to be updated with the latest research, and also acquire adequate expertise and practical skills to efficiently organize their resources for achieving improved production levels. This workshop on Smart shrimp farming is organized jointly by Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand; Asian Pacific Chapter of the World Aquaculture Society; and Blue Aqua International Ltd., Bangkok, Thailand. 
 
The workshop will bring together world’s leading experts who will present many proven solutions to stem the EMS tide and set the goal for a more prosperous shrimp farming using the latest technological advancements on the topic. It is hoped that the event will be greatly beneficial for participants to generate a wealth of information from and apply these techniques for improving shrimp production in their aquaculture enterprises.

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Aquaculture Magazine - Current status of shrimp diseases in Asia

Aquaculture Magazine - Current status of shrimp diseases in Asia | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
Excerpt from Thirteenth Meeting of the Asia Regional Advisory Group on Aquatic Animal Health NETWORK OF AQUACULTURE CENTRES IN ASIA-PACIFIC 28 February 2015

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John Bostock's curator insight, July 23, 2015 3:53 PM

Nice overview by leading expert Tim Flegel 

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A two tube, nested PCR detection method for AHPND bacteria - News

A two tube, nested PCR detection method for AHPND bacteria - News | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

A new method for the detection of AHPND bacteria AP4 has been published. The advantage of the AP4 method over the previously published AP3 method is that the it has 100 times higher sensitivity. Because of its higher sensitivity, the bacterial culture enrichment step needed when using the AP3 with low levels of AHPND bacteria may be omitted. However, the AP4 method should not be considered as a replacement for the AP3 method but simply as an alternative choice for the users to choose should they need a more sensitive detection method.

 

The AP4 PCR method was developed entirely by Thai scientists working in Thailand at Centex Shrimp,the Shrimp-virus interaction laboratory, BIOTEC and Aquatic Animal Health Research Center and Charoen Pokphand Co. Ltd. It was also supported entirely by research funding from Thailand. 


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John Bostock's curator insight, March 10, 2015 6:13 AM

Sorry - a little late spotting and publishing this.

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9th Symposium on Diseases on Asian Aquaculture (DAA9) - EMS/AHPND Special Session Announced

9th Symposium on Diseases on Asian Aquaculture (DAA9) - EMS/AHPND Special Session Announced | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

The Organizers of DAA9 will convene a special session on shrimp EMS/AHPND. If you want to know the latest on this emerging shrimp disease and become part of the Fish Health Section (FHS) of the Asian Fisheries Society (AFS) network, don’t miss this opportunity.

Prof Tim Flegel will facilitate the session in collaboration with FHS (AFS) and DAH (MARD) with an opening presentation titled “EMS/AHPND: a game changer for the future development of aquaculture”. This will be followed by presentations from other invited speakers and speakers selected from submitted abstracts. Prof Lightner, Dr Gomez-Gill, Dr Hirono, Prof Grace Lo and Prof Sorgeloos have confirmed making presentations at this session. We are expecting many more presentations from leading researchers from within and outside this region. The scope of the session will be broad and cover sequencing and analysis of genomic and epigenomic DNA of AHPND isolates; pathology, epidemiology and control; plus ongoing regional/international initiatives in Asia Pacific for dealing with the disease. The session will be  part of the 5 day DAA9 event and is open to all DAA9 registered delegates.


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John Bostock's curator insight, July 26, 2014 12:19 PM

This will be a very well attended event!

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The tidepool shrimp, Palaemon ritteri Holmes, constitutes a novel host to the white spot syndrome virus - Sánchez-Paz - 2014 - Journal of Fish Diseases

The tidepool shrimp, Palaemon ritteri Holmes, constitutes a novel host to the white spot syndrome virus - Sánchez-Paz - 2014 - Journal of Fish Diseases | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a lethal and contagious pathogen for penaeid shrimp and a growing number of other crustacean species. To date, there are no effective prophylactic or therapeutic treatments commercially available to interfere with the occurrence and spread of the disease. In addition, the significance of alternative vectors on the dispersal of this disease has been largely ignored and therefore the ecological dynamics of the WSSV is still poorly understood and difficult to ascertain. Thus, an important issue that should be considered in sanitary programmes and management strategies is the identification of species susceptible to infection by WSSV. The results obtained provide the first direct evidence of ongoing WSSV replication in experimentally infected specimens of the tidepool shrimp Palaemon ritteri. Viral replication was detected using a validated set of primers for the amplification by RT-PCR of a 141 bp fragment of the transcript encoding the viral protein VP28. It is therefore conceivable that this shrimp may play a significant role in the dispersal of WSSV.


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Alternative invention for shrimp bacterial pathogens wins patent - The Times of India

Alternative invention for shrimp bacterial pathogens wins patent - The Times of India | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

Drug-resistant bacteria and antibiotic residues have become a global concern in the shrimp industry. These two problems have been addressed with a single invention by a scientist from the College of Fisheries (CoF) here and it has been granted patent by Patent Office of Government of India. 

Dr Indrani Karunasagar, director, UNESCO Centre for marine Biotechnology and Associate Director of Research, has received the patent for ``the process of preparing a consortium of bacteriophages for controlling luminous bacterial disease in shrimp larvae.'' Like a virus, a lytic bacteriophage is a virus that infects and replicates within the bacteria and kills it. 


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John Bostock's curator insight, June 9, 2014 10:13 AM

Congratulations to Dr Karunasagar and best wishes for further development of the therapy...

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EMS Update: Impacts Continue, But Industry Gaining Against Disease

EMS Update: Impacts Continue, But Industry Gaining Against Disease | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

Global Aquaculture Alliance President George Chamberlain recently reported that as early mortality syndrome (EMS) continues to take a toll on the global shrimp-farming sector, advancing knowledge is progressively leading toward improved practices and better control of the disease.

 

In his May 20 presentation to members of the National Fisheries Institute Shrimp Council, Chamberlain updated the EMS status of primary production areas and passed on recommendations for management methods to reduce the impacts of EMS.


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John Bostock's curator insight, May 23, 2014 11:58 AM

Latest update on activities to address this significant shrimp disease problem.

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PmVRP15, a Novel Viral Responsive Protein from the Black Tiger Shrimp Promoted White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication

PmVRP15, a Novel Viral Responsive Protein from the Black Tiger Shrimp Promoted White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

The novel proteins that are up-regulated in shrimps following WSSV infection are typically viewed as interesting molecules to characterize their function in the shrimp immune system. For example, the novel viral responsive protein, hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP), was found to be highly up-regulated at both the transcript and protein levels in WSSV-infected shrimp hemocytes. Silencing of this gene in Penaeus monodon (PmHHAP) by dsRNA-interference (RNAi) caused damage to shrimp hemocytes and a severe decrease in their numbers, suggesting the important role of PmHHAP in hemocyte homeostasis. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and microarray analyses (our unpublished data) of WSSV-challenged P. monodon hemocytes identified the novel viral responsive protein (VRP) PmVRP15 as one of the most highly up-regulated genes in the acute phase of WSSV-infected hemocytes. Herein, we attempt to characterize the function of PmVRP15 from P. monodon by RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Fluorescence-labeling along with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to examine the localization of PmVRP15 in shrimp hemocytes. Overall, the likely importance of this novel protein in promoting viral propagation was suggested. - 

 

The cDNA of a novel viral responsive gene from the black tiger shrimp (P. monodon), PmVRP15, was cloned and sequenced to acquire the full-length cDNA coding sequence. Expression analysis showed PmVRP15 transcripts were mainly found in hemocytes and along with the PmVRP15 protein were highly up-regulated in WSSV-infected hemocytes. PmVRP15 protein was localized at or near the nuclear membrane of uninfected and WSSV-infected shrimp hemocytes. After RNAi-mediated PmVRP15 suppression, WSSV propagation and shrimp mortality were markedly decreased. The function of PmVRP15 is unknown but it possibly plays a role in WSSV propagation in shrimp hemocyte.


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John Bostock's curator insight, April 29, 2014 12:14 PM

Featured Article at "The Fish Site"

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Proceedings of the Expert Consultation on Genetic Erosion Risk Analysis for Shrimp Diseases in Asia - Publications

Proceedings of the Expert Consultation on Genetic Erosion Risk Analysis for Shrimp Diseases in Asia - Publications | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
Proceedings of the Expert Consultation on Genetic Erosion Risk Analysis for Shrimp Diseases in Asia, 2013

 

Shrimp aquaculture in tropical regions is facing a disease-induced catastrophe of lost production.  It is estimated that more than 40% of tropical shrimp production is lost to disease annually. The devastating impacts of disease on lost incomes, livelihoods, increased operational costs, trade restrictions and loss of consumer confidence has been a subject of many consultations and policy dialogues.  Discussions of disease crisis have to date been largely focused on identification of pathogens, guidelines and standards for disease detection and surveillance, regulations to limit trans-boundary movement of animals, and adoption of better management practices. 

There is reason to believe that current broodstock management practices may induce genetic erosion that increases susceptibility to disease and vulnerability to epizootics:

 

The basic tenet for this Expert Consultation is that an important aggravating factor in the disease crisis is an agro-economic system that locks shrimp breeders, hatcheries and farmers into behaviour that induces high levels of inbreeding.  If inbreeding does increase the severity and frequency of epidemics, this disease crisis will only get worse over vast areas of Asia, Central and South America, Africa and the Middle East until  it is addressed.


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John Bostock's curator insight, February 9, 2014 6:56 AM

A very important issue for aquaculture health management 

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Case Study: WSSV in Mozambique and Madagascar

Case Study: WSSV in Mozambique and Madagascar | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

Prepared by the Responsible Aquaculture Foundation and funded by the World Bank, this report is Case Study #3 of a series entitled "Lessons Learned in Aquaculture Disease Management."

Shrimp farms in Madagascar and Mozambique remained free from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) until 2011, when the virus likely spread from wild shrimp populations to the farms. The use of unscreened wild broodstock and high rates of water exchange to maintain water quality in ponds increased their vulnerability to WSSV infection. 
 
Recovery from the WSSV crisis will require the elimination of the use of wild broodstock and the establishment of a breeding center to produce broodstock genetically selected for resistance to WSSV. Farms will also have to install aeration to reduce or eliminate their dependence on water exchange. The regulatory framework needs to be upgraded to provide comprehensive aquatic animal health policies, adequately funded regulatory agencies and national reference laboratories.


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John Bostock's curator insight, November 25, 2013 12:23 PM

This should be essential reading for anyone managing a shrimp farm or working in shrimp health.

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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Special Issue, (June, 2012) | Diseases in Aquatic Crustaceans: Problems and Solutions for Global Food Security

Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Special Issue, (June, 2012) | Diseases in Aquatic Crustaceans: Problems and Solutions for Global Food Security | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
The online version of Journal of Invertebrate Pathology at ScienceDirect.com, the world's leading platform for high quality peer-reviewed full-text journals.

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John Bostock's curator insight, September 3, 2013 5:24 PM

Excellent collection of review articles concerning the implications of crustacean diseases for aquatic food production and trade