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Drug resistance in sea lice: a threat to salmonid aquaculture: Trends in Parasitology

Drug resistance in sea lice: a threat to salmonid aquaculture: Trends in Parasitology | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

New paper from Stian Mørch Aaen, Kari Olli Helgesen, Marit Jørgensen Bakke, Kiranpreet Kaur and Tor Einar Horsberg; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, School of Veterinary Science, Sea Lice Research Centre, Oslo, Norway Drug-resistant sea lice are emerging in several salmonid-producing countries.Of the five compound groups available, resistance has been reported towards three.Efforts are being put into investigating genetic markers, physiology and biochemistry.The sensitivity status of sea lice populations could thus be monitored more easily.

 

Sea lice are copepod ectoparasites with vast reproductive potential and affect a wide variety of fish species. The number of parasites causing morbidity is proportional to fish size. Natural low host density restricts massive parasite dispersal. However, expanded salmon farming has shifted the conditions in favor of the parasite. Salmon farms are often situated near wild salmonid migrating routes, with smolts being particularly vulnerable to sea lice infestation. In order to protect both farmed and wild salmonids passing or residing in the proximity of the farms, several measures are taken. Medicinal treatment of farmed fish has been the most predictable and efficacious, leading to extensive use of the available compounds. This has resulted in drug-resistant parasites occurring on farmed and possibly wild salmonids.


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John Bostock's curator insight, January 31, 12:07 PM

Further useful insights into the problems of drug resistance when combating parasites

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SLICE: A Sustainable Treatment Against Sea Lice

SLICE: A Sustainable Treatment Against Sea Lice | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
ANALYSIS - Robin Wardle, Global strategic Marketing Director and Chris Haacke, Global Marketing Director, MSD Animal Health talk to Lucy Towers, TheFishSite.com Editor about MSD's sustainable sea lice treatment, SLICE.

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Do anti-parasitic medicines used in aquaculture pose a risk to the Norwegian aquatic environment? - Environmental Science & Technology (ACS Publications)

Do anti-parasitic medicines used in aquaculture pose a risk to the Norwegian aquatic environment? - Environmental Science & Technology (ACS Publications) | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

Aquaculture production is an important industry in many countries and there has been a growth in the use of medicines to ensure the health and cost effectiveness of the industry. This study focussed in the inputs of sea lice medication to the marine environment. Diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron, emamectin benzoate, cypermethrin and deltamethrin were measured in water, sediment and biota samples in the vicinity of 5 aquaculture locations along the Norwegian coast. Deltamethrin and cypermethrin were not detected above the limits of detection in any samples. Diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron and emamectin benzoate were detected, and the data was compared the UK Environmental Quality Standards. The concentrations of emamectin benzoate detected in sediments exceed the environmental quality standard (EQS) on 5 occasions in this study. The EQS for teflubenzuron in sediment was exceeded in 67% of the samples and exceeded for diflubenzuron in 40% of the water samples collected. A crude assessment of the levels detected in the shrimp collected from one location and the levels at which chronic effects are seen in shrimp would suggest that there is a potential risk to shrimp. It would also be reasonable to extrapolate this to any species that undergoes moulting during its life cycle.


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John Bostock's curator insight, June 7, 2014 4:44 PM

The significance of these findings will no doubt be disputed, but substantial use of pesticides in the marine environment is not desirable. It was good therefore to see the innovations from Aqua Pharma  in treatment delivery and control.at the recent Aquaculture UK exhibition. 

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Aquaculture 2013: New Treatment Found for Parasites in Pacific Bluefin Tuna

Aquaculture 2013: New Treatment Found for Parasites in Pacific Bluefin Tuna | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

 Pacific bluefin tuna has one of the fastest growing aquaculture industries due to its high price and strong demand. However, in recent years, farmed juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan have been affected by parasites, leading to high mortalities, writes Lucy Towers, TheFishSite Editor, live from 'Aquaculture 2013: To the Next 40 Years of Sustainable Global Aquaculture' conference, in Gran Canaria, Spain.

 

The two different parasites affecting Pacific bluefin tuna are cordicola orientalis, which affects the gills and cordicola opisthorchis, which affects the heart, stated S. Shirakashi, Kinki University, Japan, during his presentation.The parasites lay eggs which accumulate in the gill lamellae and clog blood vessels, therefore causing high mortality among juveniles.Dr Shirakashi stated that tuna showed no sign of infection in the hatchery but did once transferred to sea cages.

He also observed that no, or low, infection was seen after seven months.

 

In order to find a treatment for Cordicola, Dr Shirakashi trialed Praziquantel (PZQ) in various doses. After being administered orally for three days, PZQ killed the majority of worms. The number of eggs also declined, but only in the higher dose. Overall, Dr Shirakashi stated that a minimum dose of 3.75 - 7.5 mg/kg BW/D is needed in order to be effective. He also noted that the drug proved safe to use and effective after only a short exposure. As the drug has not been approved for use in the treatment of cordicola, an application for approval has now been sent to the Japanese government.

 


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John Bostock's curator insight, November 10, 2013 1:07 PM

Let's hope this is approved quickly so that further progress can be made