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Economic impacts of aquatic parasites on global finfish production | The Advocate

Economic impacts of aquatic parasites on global finfish production | The Advocate | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

Obligate and opportunistic parasites play a critical role in determining the productivity, sustainability and economic viability of global finfish aquaculture enterprises. Without stringent and appropriate control measures, the impacts of these pathogens can often be significant.

Estimating the true impacts of each parasite event, however, is complicated, as costs can be affected by a diverse assortment of environmental and management factors. The factors can range from direct losses in production to the more indirect costs of longer-term control and management of infections and the wider, downstream socioeconomic impacts on livelihoods and satellite industries associated with the primary producer.

Certain parasite infections may be predictable, as they occur regularly, while others are unpredictable because they arise sporadically. In each case, there can be costs for treating and managing infections once they are established, but for predictable infections, there also are costs associated with prophylactic treatment and management. This article provides an overview of issues and estimates of economic impacts drawn from a larger study.

 


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John Bostock's curator insight, October 4, 2015 5:28 AM

The article only covers finfish aquaculture, but estimates of US$ 1-9 billion show what a major issue this is for the sector. It would be interesting to work out what percentage of this figure is spent each year on research and development to find solutions (my guess is between 1 and 10%); what the risk/benefit analysis of that investment looks like; and more importantly, who benefits and who has the incentives (and means) to invest...

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Ocea, Bremnes Seashore team up for thermal, green sea-lice solution | Undercurrent News

Ocea, Bremnes Seashore team up for thermal, green sea-lice solution | Undercurrent News | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

Norwegian salmon farmer Bremnes Seashore has teamed up with aquaculture equipment and solutions provider Ocea to jointly develop the latter’s environmental friendly delousing solution, reported Norwegian media

 

Under a newly signed deal, the two companies have agreed to together further develop Ocea’s Thermolicer, which Ocea is bringing for the first time to Norway, said iLaks.no.

 

As part of the deal, Ocea will also supply Bremnes Seashore a new 400 metric ton feeding fleet, a renovation of a feeding station and other equipment for a combined value of NOK 28 million.

 

Ocea has worked on Thermolicer, a thermal solution for delousing fish, since 2007. It has patented the technique, which is being applied commercially in Chile already. The technique is now ready for commercial use in Norway, said the company.

 

Thermolicer works by pumping the fish into a lukewarm water bath for under 30 seconds. The lice cannot withstand the sudden temperature change and dies. The fish is then released lice-free into the sea, while the lice is collected and destroyed.

 

The technique has yielded very good results in Chile, with very low mortality both right after the treatment and over a longer period, said Ocea’s Karl Petter Myklebust.

 

Together with Bremnes, the company wants to further develop the process, with a focus on increasing its capacity while maintaining the fish’s wellbeing.


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John Bostock's curator insight, June 12, 2014 11:43 AM

In the interest of balance - here's another very interesting approach for sea lice treatment

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Do anti-parasitic medicines used in aquaculture pose a risk to the Norwegian aquatic environment? - Environmental Science & Technology (ACS Publications)

Do anti-parasitic medicines used in aquaculture pose a risk to the Norwegian aquatic environment? - Environmental Science & Technology (ACS Publications) | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

Aquaculture production is an important industry in many countries and there has been a growth in the use of medicines to ensure the health and cost effectiveness of the industry. This study focussed in the inputs of sea lice medication to the marine environment. Diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron, emamectin benzoate, cypermethrin and deltamethrin were measured in water, sediment and biota samples in the vicinity of 5 aquaculture locations along the Norwegian coast. Deltamethrin and cypermethrin were not detected above the limits of detection in any samples. Diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron and emamectin benzoate were detected, and the data was compared the UK Environmental Quality Standards. The concentrations of emamectin benzoate detected in sediments exceed the environmental quality standard (EQS) on 5 occasions in this study. The EQS for teflubenzuron in sediment was exceeded in 67% of the samples and exceeded for diflubenzuron in 40% of the water samples collected. A crude assessment of the levels detected in the shrimp collected from one location and the levels at which chronic effects are seen in shrimp would suggest that there is a potential risk to shrimp. It would also be reasonable to extrapolate this to any species that undergoes moulting during its life cycle.


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John Bostock's curator insight, June 7, 2014 4:44 PM

The significance of these findings will no doubt be disputed, but substantial use of pesticides in the marine environment is not desirable. It was good therefore to see the innovations from Aqua Pharma  in treatment delivery and control.at the recent Aquaculture UK exhibition. 

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SLICE: A Sustainable Treatment Against Sea Lice

SLICE: A Sustainable Treatment Against Sea Lice | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
ANALYSIS - Robin Wardle, Global strategic Marketing Director and Chris Haacke, Global Marketing Director, MSD Animal Health talk to Lucy Towers, TheFishSite.com Editor about MSD's sustainable sea lice treatment, SLICE.

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Ouch! An isopod grabbed my tongue - Australian Museum

Ouch! An isopod grabbed my tongue - Australian Museum | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
Biting your tongue takes on a whole new meaning when it comes to these parasites, says marine biologist Melissa Beata Martin.

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John Bostock's curator insight, October 11, 2013 8:23 AM

I think there will be quite a few fish farmers who don't share Melissa's enthusiasm for these parasites, but good to know they are getting some research attention

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Drug resistance in sea lice: a threat to salmonid aquaculture: Trends in Parasitology

Drug resistance in sea lice: a threat to salmonid aquaculture: Trends in Parasitology | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

New paper from Stian Mørch Aaen, Kari Olli Helgesen, Marit Jørgensen Bakke, Kiranpreet Kaur and Tor Einar Horsberg; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, School of Veterinary Science, Sea Lice Research Centre, Oslo, Norway Drug-resistant sea lice are emerging in several salmonid-producing countries.Of the five compound groups available, resistance has been reported towards three.Efforts are being put into investigating genetic markers, physiology and biochemistry.The sensitivity status of sea lice populations could thus be monitored more easily.

 

Sea lice are copepod ectoparasites with vast reproductive potential and affect a wide variety of fish species. The number of parasites causing morbidity is proportional to fish size. Natural low host density restricts massive parasite dispersal. However, expanded salmon farming has shifted the conditions in favor of the parasite. Salmon farms are often situated near wild salmonid migrating routes, with smolts being particularly vulnerable to sea lice infestation. In order to protect both farmed and wild salmonids passing or residing in the proximity of the farms, several measures are taken. Medicinal treatment of farmed fish has been the most predictable and efficacious, leading to extensive use of the available compounds. This has resulted in drug-resistant parasites occurring on farmed and possibly wild salmonids.


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John Bostock's curator insight, January 31, 2015 12:07 PM

Further useful insights into the problems of drug resistance when combating parasites

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Using Mussels to Protect Salmon against Amoebic Gill Disease

Using Mussels to Protect Salmon against Amoebic Gill Disease | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it
UK - The use of shellfish and seaweed to consume waste produced by fish farms, particularly in farms attached to other ocean structures is being researched as a means for improving and protecting the marine environment.

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John Bostock's curator insight, June 7, 2014 6:02 PM

Early stage results, but could have interesting implications

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Reducing sea lice re-infestation risk from harvest water at a salmon farm site in Ireland using a bespoke sieving and filtration system

Reducing sea lice re-infestation risk from harvest water at a salmon farm site in Ireland using a bespoke sieving and filtration system | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

Water samples from the harvest water outflow of a salmon farm harvest line were sampled at different stages for the presence of sea lice before and after filtration to establish the quantity of sea lice that escaped back into the water column. During the processing of fish through the harvest line the mechanical abrasion experienced by the fish cause sea lice to be knocked off into the harvest outflow water, these lice have the potential to re-infest remaining stock on site. The use of two types of filtration systems at a harvesting site where in-situ culling is on-going reduces the risk of re-infestation. In this site the sieve system was particularly effective. The reduction in sea lice numbers achieved by filtering discharge water using sieves was 89.5% using 1 mm screens and was over 99% using 80 μm filters.


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John Bostock's curator insight, May 11, 2014 7:02 PM

Straightforward but effective...

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Aquaculture 2013: New Treatment Found for Parasites in Pacific Bluefin Tuna

Aquaculture 2013: New Treatment Found for Parasites in Pacific Bluefin Tuna | Aquaculture Directory | Scoop.it

 Pacific bluefin tuna has one of the fastest growing aquaculture industries due to its high price and strong demand. However, in recent years, farmed juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan have been affected by parasites, leading to high mortalities, writes Lucy Towers, TheFishSite Editor, live from 'Aquaculture 2013: To the Next 40 Years of Sustainable Global Aquaculture' conference, in Gran Canaria, Spain.

 

The two different parasites affecting Pacific bluefin tuna are cordicola orientalis, which affects the gills and cordicola opisthorchis, which affects the heart, stated S. Shirakashi, Kinki University, Japan, during his presentation.The parasites lay eggs which accumulate in the gill lamellae and clog blood vessels, therefore causing high mortality among juveniles.Dr Shirakashi stated that tuna showed no sign of infection in the hatchery but did once transferred to sea cages.

He also observed that no, or low, infection was seen after seven months.

 

In order to find a treatment for Cordicola, Dr Shirakashi trialed Praziquantel (PZQ) in various doses. After being administered orally for three days, PZQ killed the majority of worms. The number of eggs also declined, but only in the higher dose. Overall, Dr Shirakashi stated that a minimum dose of 3.75 - 7.5 mg/kg BW/D is needed in order to be effective. He also noted that the drug proved safe to use and effective after only a short exposure. As the drug has not been approved for use in the treatment of cordicola, an application for approval has now been sent to the Japanese government.

 


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John Bostock's curator insight, November 10, 2013 1:07 PM

Let's hope this is approved quickly so that further progress can be made