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Siemens (2009). Complexity, Chaos, and Emergence

"Complexity and chaos are somewhat vague and misunderstood concepts. Terms like “emergence”, “adaptive systems”, “self-organizing systems”, and others are often tossed about with such casualness and authority as to suggest the speaker(s) fully understand what they mean."

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Ligpat's curator insight, August 24, 2013 7:20 PM

Una nueva mirada... Transferir teorías físicas a la teoría educativa.. ¿Irreal? No, necesario sí. 

Aprendizaje emergente
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Learning across Cultures

Learning across Cultures | Aprendizaje emergente | Scoop.it

Roy Williams, Jenny Mackness, Simone Gumtau Learning across Cultures.pdf

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We have identified a number of new types of open, and in principle trans-disciplinary curricula: massive open online courses (MOOCs), interactive spaces (MEDIATE), trans- disciplinary installations (The Brain) – as well as resonances with much earlier curricula innovations, in Montessori education.


We propose new methodologies and approaches that may help us to describe, evaluate, manage and design these new dynamic curricula, based on recently published research, in Footprints of Emergence (2). To do justice to these dynamic changes, we developed a new learning topography – a 3D graphics ‘footprint’ template which acknowledges and integrates open or emergent learning as well as prescribed learning (or core knowledge). The framework is applied to a range of learning events."

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Engestrom, Wenger and Emergent Learning

Engestrom, Wenger and Emergent Learning | Aprendizaje emergente | Scoop.it
In a recent great discussion in CPsquare about the changing role of the learning facilitator, Brenda Kaulback posted this video of Yrjo Engestrom being interviewed about his work by Chris Jones Thi...
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Dave Cormier: Seeing rhizomatic learning and MOOCs through the lens of the Cynefin framework

Dave Cormier: Seeing rhizomatic learning and MOOCs through the lens of the Cynefin framework | Aprendizaje emergente | Scoop.it

The Change11 course has brought me many realizations, but none so useful as the Cynefin framework. As i suggested in my last post, i’ve been working on bringing it into my decision making at my day job. In the last four weeks it’s occurred to me that it is also an excellent way to help clarify some of my thinking around learning as well. In trying to describe rhizomatic learning, there are two critical challenges that I’ve not been able to voice properly.

1. How is this not simply anarchy?
2. How are people supposed to understand the basics?

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IRRODL Vol 12, No 7 (2011) Special Issue - Emergent Learning, Connections, Design for Learning

The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning Vol 12, No 7 (2011)  (http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/issue/view/49 Special Issue - Emergent Learning, Connections, Design for Learning:

 

Research Articles:

- Designing for learning: Online social networks as a classroom environment. Gail Casey, Terry Evans 1-26

- Pointillist, cyclical, and overlapping: Multidimensional facets of time in online education. Pekka Ihanainen, John Moravec 27-39

- Emergent learning and interactive media artworks: Parameters of interaction for novice groups. Marta Kawka, Kevin Larkin, Patrick Alan Danaher 40-55

 - Aligning the quantum perspective of learning to instructional design: Exploring the seven definitive questions. Katherine Joyce Janzen, Beth Perry, Margaret Edwards 56-73

- A pedagogy of abundance or a pedagogy to support human beings? Participant support on massive open online courses. Rita Kop, Hélène Fournier, John Sui Fai Mak 74-93

- Using mLearning and MOOCs to understand chaos, emergence, and complexity in education. Inge de Waard, Sean Abajian, Michael Sean Gallagher, Rebecca Hogue, Nilgün Keskin, Apostolos Koutropoulos, Osvaldo C. Rodriguez 94-115

 

Research Notes:

- "Chaos rules" revisited. David Murphy

- Emergent, self-directed, and self-organized learning: Literacy, numeracy, and the iPod Touch. 
Carlo Antonio Ricci

 

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"Chaos rules" revisited | Murphy | The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning

Abstract

About 20 years ago, lost in the midst of my PhD research, I mused over proposed titles. I was pretty pleased with myself to come up with ‘Chaos Rules’ (the implied double meaning was deliberate) or, more completely, Chaos Rules: An Exploration of The Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education. I used the then emerging theories of chaos and complexity to underpin my analysis. So it was with not just a little excitement that I read the call for contributions to this Special Issue. What follows is a ‘walk through’ my thesis, with an emphasis on the contribution of chaos and complexity theory.

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A pedagogy of abundance or a pedagogy to support human beings? Participant support on massive open online courses | Kop | The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning

Abstract

This paper examines how emergent technologies could influence the design of learning environments. It will pay particular attention to the roles of educators and learners in creating networked learning experiences on massive open online courses (MOOCs). The research shows that it is possible to move from a pedagogy of abundance to a pedagogy that supports human beings in their learning through the active creation of resources and learning places by both learners and course facilitators. This pedagogy is based on the building of connections, collaborations, and the exchange of resources between people, the building of a community of learners, and the harnessing of information flows on networks. This resonates with the notion of emergent learning as learning in which actors and system co-evolve within a MOOC and where the level of presence of actors on the MOOC influences learning outcomes.

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Emergent learning and interactive media artworks: Parameters of interaction for novice groups | Kawka | The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning

Abstract

Emergent learning describes learning that occurs when participants interact and distribute knowledge, where learning is self-directed, and where the learning destination of the participants is largely unpredictable (Williams, Karousou, & Mackness, 2011). These notions of learning arise from the topologies of social networks and can be applied to the learning that occurs in educational institutions. However, the question remains whether institutional frameworks can accommodate the opposing notion of “cooperative systems” (Shirky, 2005), systems that facilitate the creation of user-generated content, particularly as first-year education cohorts are novice groups in the sense of not yet having developed university-level knowledge.

This paper theorizes an emergent learning assessment item (Flickr photo-narratives) within a first-year media arts undergraduate education course. It challenges the conventional models of student–lecturer interaction by outlining a methodology of teaching for emergence that will facilitate student-directed and open-ended learning. The paper applies a matrix with four parameters (teacher-directed content/student-directed content; non-interactive learning task/interactive learning framework). This matrix is used as a conceptual space within which to investigate how a learning task might be constructed to afford the best opportunities for emergent learning. It explores the strategies that interactive artists utilize for participant engagement (particularly the relationship between the artist and the audience in the creation of interactive artworks) and suggests how these strategies might be applied to emergent generative outcomes with first-year education students.

We build upon Williams et al.’s framework of emergent learning, where “content will not be delivered to learners but co-constructed with them” (De Freitas & Conole, as cited in Williams et al., 2011, p. 40), and the notion that in constructing emergent learning environments “considerable effort is required to ensure an effective balance between openness and constraint” (Williams et al., 2011, p. 39). We assert that for a learning event within a Web 2.0 environment to be considered emergent, not only does there need to be an effective balance between teacher-directed content and student-directed content for knowledge to be open, creative, and distributed by learners (Williams et al., 2011), but there also need to be multiple opportunities for interaction and communication between students within the system and that these “drive the emergence of structures that are more complex than the mere parts of that system” (Sommerer & Mignonneau, 2002, p. 161).

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Brent Davis, Dennis J. Sumara (2009). Cognition, Complexity, and Teacher Education - Harvard Educational Review - Volume 67, Number 1 / Spring 1997 - Harvard Education Publishing Group

Brent Davis, Dennis J. Sumara  (2009). Cognition, Complexity, and Teacher Education - Harvard Educational Review - Volume 67, Number 1 / Spring 1997 - Harvard Education Publishing Group | Aprendizaje emergente | Scoop.it


Cognition, Complexity, and Teacher Education
Harvard Educational Review

Brent Davis, Dennis J. Sumara

 

Abstract
Drawing on recent developments in complexity theory, ecology, and hermeneutics, Brent Davis and Dennis Sumara present an "enactivist" model of cognition and contrast it to popular notions of what it means to learn and think that pervade formal education. They illustrate their model by drawing from their experiences during a year-long study in a small, inner-city elementary school. According to this model, cognition does not occur in individual minds or brains, but in the possibility for shared action. An enactivist theory of cognition, the authors suggest, requires teachers and teacher educators to reconceive the practice of teaching by blurring the lines between knower and known, teacher and student, school and community.

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Using mLearning and MOOCs to understand chaos, emergence, and complexity in education | de Waard | The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning

In this paper, we look at how the massive open online course (MOOC) format developed by connectivist researchers and enthusiasts can help analyze the complexity, emergence, and chaos at work in the field of education today. We do this through the prism of a MobiMOOC, a six-week course focusing on mLearning that ran from April to May 2011. MobiMOOC embraced the core MOOC components of self-organization, connectedness, openness, complexity, and the resulting chaos, and, as such, serves as an interesting paradigm for new educational orders that are currently emerging in the field. We discuss the nature of participation in MobiMOOC, the use of mobile technology and social media, and how these factors contributed to a chaotic learning environment with emerging phenomena. These emerging phenomena resulted in a transformative educational paradigm.

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Siemens (2009). Complexity, Chaos, and Emergence

"Complexity and chaos are somewhat vague and misunderstood concepts. Terms like “emergence”, “adaptive systems”, “self-organizing systems”, and others are often tossed about with such casualness and authority as to suggest the speaker(s) fully understand what they mean."

more...
Ligpat's curator insight, August 24, 2013 7:20 PM

Una nueva mirada... Transferir teorías físicas a la teoría educativa.. ¿Irreal? No, necesario sí. 

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Emergent learning: the designer’s role, the learner’s experience

Emergent learning: the designer’s role, the learner’s experience | Aprendizaje emergente | Scoop.it
Discussions about our recently published paper, Footprints of Emergence,  continue, particularly with respect to the relationship between curriculum design intentions and the learner experience. We...
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Vídeo: Dave Snowden "The Cynefin Framework"

The Cynefin Framework is central to Cognitive Edge methods and tools. It allows executives to see things from new viewpoints, assimilate complex concepts, an...
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Emerald | Executive Development | Planned and Emergent Learning: A Framework and a Method

Describes learners according to how they have responded to the twin challenge of taking responsibility for planning their own learning and squeezing learning out of this emerging experience. Typifies learners as sleepers, warriors, adventurers and sages. Provides a range of development processes for each.

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Emergent, self-directed, and self-organized learning: Literacy, numeracy, and the iPod Touch | Ricci | The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning

Abstract

This paper uses narrative and storying to retell how two girls ages 5 and 7 continue to make use of an iPod touch to expand their literacy and numeracy. The paper explores the stopwatch and alarm features within the clock application, as well as the weather application, and the Internet browsing capability of the iPod touch. It also explores some of the challenges and inequities inherent in using this type of technology. The paper concludes with the author’s belief that it is important to allow learners freedom to explore and freely play with the technology and that emergent, self-directed, and self-organized learning is a natural and gentle approach to lifelong learning.

Becoming literate and numerate is infinitely complicated, yet very simple. It is infinitely complicated because there are so many variables within and without the individual who is learning these skills that understanding the process fully is nearly impossible. Yet, it is simple because so many successfully become literate and numerate so naturally. Relating to this point Schuerwegen (2011) writes,

Ergo, when a child grows up in a reading, writing, counting environment, especially an electronically driven society such as ours, he will one day find the need to pick up all these skills, at least as much as he needs them. (p. 22)

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Using mLearning and MOOCs to understand chaos, emergence, and complexity in education | de Waard | The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning

Abstract

In this paper, we look at how the massive open online course (MOOC) format developed by connectivist researchers and enthusiasts can help analyze the complexity, emergence, and chaos at work in the field of education today. We do this through the prism of a MobiMOOC, a six-week course focusing on mLearning that ran from April to May 2011. MobiMOOC embraced the core MOOC components of self-organization, connectedness, openness, complexity, and the resulting chaos, and, as such, serves as an interesting paradigm for new educational orders that are currently emerging in the field. We discuss the nature of participation in MobiMOOC, the use of mobile technology and social media, and how these factors contributed to a chaotic learning environment with emerging phenomena. These emerging phenomena resulted in a transformative educational paradigm.

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Aligning the quantum perspective of learning to instructional design: Exploring the seven definitive questions | Janzen | The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning

Abstract

Emergent learning describes learning that occurs when participants interact and distribute knowledge, where learning is self-directed, and where the learning destination of the participants is largely unpredictable (Williams, Karousou, & Mackness, 2011). These notions of learning arise from the topologies of social networks and can be applied to the learning that occurs in educational institutions. However, the question remains whether institutional frameworks can accommodate the opposing notion of “cooperative systems” (Shirky, 2005), systems that facilitate the creation of user-generated content, particularly as first-year education cohorts are novice groups in the sense of not yet having developed university-level knowledge.

This paper theorizes an emergent learning assessment item (Flickr photo-narratives) within a first-year media arts undergraduate education course. It challenges the conventional models of student–lecturer interaction by outlining a methodology of teaching for emergence that will facilitate student-directed and open-ended learning. The paper applies a matrix with four parameters (teacher-directed content/student-directed content; non-interactive learning task/interactive learning framework). This matrix is used as a conceptual space within which to investigate how a learning task might be constructed to afford the best opportunities for emergent learning. It explores the strategies that interactive artists utilize for participant engagement (particularly the relationship between the artist and the audience in the creation of interactive artworks) and suggests how these strategies might be applied to emergent generative outcomes with first-year education students.

We build upon Williams et al.’s framework of emergent learning, where “content will not be delivered to learners but co-constructed with them” (De Freitas & Conole, as cited in Williams et al., 2011, p. 40), and the notion that in constructing emergent learning environments “considerable effort is required to ensure an effective balance between openness and constraint” (Williams et al., 2011, p. 39). We assert that for a learning event within a Web 2.0 environment to be considered emergent, not only does there need to be an effective balance between teacher-directed content and student-directed content for knowledge to be open, creative, and distributed by learners (Williams et al., 2011), but there also need to be multiple opportunities for interaction and communication between students within the system and that these “drive the emergence of structures that are more complex than the mere parts of that system” (Sommerer & Mignonneau, 2002, p. 161).

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"Emergent Learning" Is an Oxymoron

"Emergent Learning" Is an Oxymoron | Aprendizaje emergente | Scoop.it

When people talk about “emergent learning” these days, this is not generally what they mean. What they generally mean is some form of rapid consensus-building in which a group of people can share observations and make coordinated decisions without any one person filling the role of executive command and control. This is, no doubt, an important phenomenon to understand and try to cultivate. However, it is not emergence. A democratic decision-making process is not sufficient for an action to be called “emergent.”...

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Footprints of emergence | Williams | The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning

Footprints of emergence | Williams | The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning | Aprendizaje emergente | Scoop.it

It is ironic that the management of education has become more closed while learning has become more open, particularly over the past 10-20 years. The curriculum has become more instrumental, predictive, standardized, and micro-managed in the belief that this supports employability as well as the management of educational processes, resources, and value. Meanwhile, people have embraced interactive, participatory, collaborative, and innovative networks for living and learning. To respond to these challenges, we need to develop practical tools to help us describe these new forms of learning which are multivariate, self-organised, complex, adaptive, and unpredictable. We draw on complexity theory and our experience as researchers, designers, and participants in open and interactive learning to go beyond conventional approaches. We develop a 3D model of landscapes of learning for exploring the relationship between prescribed and emergent learning in any given curriculum. We do this by repeatedly testing our descriptive landscapes (or footprints) against theory, research, and practice across a range of case studies. By doing this, we have not only come up with a practical tool which can be used by curriculum designers, but also realised that the curriculum itself can usefully be treated as emergent, depending on the dynamics between prescribed and emergent learning and how the learning landscape is curated.

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Emergent learning and learning ecologies in Web 2.0 | Williams | The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning

Emergent learning and learning ecologies in Web 2.0 | Williams | The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning | Aprendizaje emergente | Scoop.it

This paper describes emergent learning and situates it within learning networks and systems and the broader learning ecology of Web 2.0. It describes the nature of emergence and emergent learning and the conditions that enable emergent, self-organised learning to occur and to flourish. Specifically, it explores whether emergent learning can be validated and self-correcting and whether it is possible to link or integrate emergent and prescribed learning. It draws on complexity theory, communities of practice, and the notion of connectivism to develop some of the foundations for an analytic framework, for enabling and managing emergent learning and networks in which agents and systems co-evolve. It then examines specific cases of learning to test and further develop the analytic framework.

The paper argues that although social networking media increase the potential range and scope for emergent learning exponentially, considerable effort is required to ensure an effective balance between openness and constraint. It is possible to manage the relationship between prescriptive and emergent learning, both of which need to be part of an integrated learning ecology.

 

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