applied genomics
Follow
Find
154 views | +0 today
 
Scooped by Norman Warthmann
onto applied genomics
Scoop.it!

Genetic roulette in a new world - Research - University of Cambridge

Genetic roulette in a new world - Research - University of Cambridge | applied genomics | Scoop.it
What happened in 2003 was of course that the genetic code – that is the sequence of bases in DNA – was revealed for the entire human genome, but even more astonishing is what happened next. Even computing science can't match that ...
more...
No comment yet.
applied genomics
putting it to use!
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Norman Warthmann
Scoop.it!

GMO-free bioscience to feed Africa's farming families

GMO-free bioscience to feed Africa's farming families | applied genomics | Scoop.it
For 600 million rural people across Africa, the food they grow is the food they eat. A new plant breeding academy in Kenya is using advanced genomic technologies to produce more robust and nutritious crops, writes Howard-Yana Shapiro.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Norman Warthmann
Scoop.it!

Transcriptome analysis of mature-fruit abscission control in olive

Norman Warthmann's insight:

Mature-fruit abscission (MFA) is a genetically controlled process, through poorly characterized mechanisms in fleshy fruit that include extensive transcriptional changes.....

Here [they] use pyrosequencing to characterize the transcriptomes of the olive abscission-zone (AZ) during cell separation in order to understand MFA control at a stage of AZ-activation ....

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Ag Biotech News
Scoop.it!

Soil microbial properties in Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn cropping systems - Lupwayi & Blackshaw (2013) - Appl Soil Ecol

Soil microbial properties in Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn cropping systems - Lupwayi & Blackshaw (2013) - Appl Soil Ecol | applied genomics | Scoop.it

Growing Bt crops reduces the use of insecticides applied to them, but these crops could affect soil microorganisms and their activities. We evaluated the effects of Bt (Cry1Ab) corn... and deltamethrin... insecticide application on soil microbial biomass C (MBC), β-glucosidase enzyme activity (final season only), bacterial functional diversity, and bacterial community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) in corn monoculture in five seasons.We also determined if growing Bt corn in crop rotation would alter these effects.

 

Statistical analysis of pooled data across seasons did not show any effects of Bt technology, insecticide application or crop rotation on soil microbial biomass or diversity even though differences between seasons and between the rhizosphere and bulk soil were observed.

 

Annual analyses of results also showed that neither the Bt technology nor insecticide application affected soil MBC, enzyme activity, or functional diversity of bacteria in corn rhizosphere, but shifts in bacterial CLPPs due to Bt trait were observed in one year.

 

Crop rotation effects on soil microbial properties were not observed in most cases. Where effects were observed, Bt corn grown in rotation resulted in greater MBC, enzyme activity and functional diversity than Bt corn grown in monoculture or conventional corn grown in rotation, and these effects were observed only in bulk soil.

 

Therefore, the Bt technology is safe with respect to the non-target effects measured in this study. However, the effects of repeated use of Bt crops over many years on the soil environment should continue to be monitored.


Via Alexander J. Stein
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from my universe
Scoop.it!

Fragrance of the rice grain achieved via artificial microRNA-induced down-regulation of OsBADH2

Fragrance of the rice grain achieved via artificial microRNA-induced down-regulation of OsBADH2 | applied genomics | Scoop.it

Chen M et al, 2012 - Plant Breeding Volume 131, Issue 5, pages 584–590

 

"2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is the principal compound responsible for grain fragrance in rice. In fragrant rice cultivars, BADH2 (betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase 2) is inactivated. Here, we describe the effect of amiRNA (artificial microRNA) transgenesis targeted at BADH2......"

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Norman Warthmann
Scoop.it!

UA Geneticists Help Solve Barley Genome Puzzle | UANews

UA Geneticists Help Solve Barley Genome Puzzle | UANews | applied genomics | Scoop.it
As part of an international consortium, scientists led by UA plant sciences professor Rod Wing have helped decipher the genetic alphabet of the barley plant.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Plants and Microbes
Scoop.it!

Nature: Plant science: The chestnut resurrection (2012)

Nature: Plant science: The chestnut resurrection (2012) | applied genomics | Scoop.it

Review of progress in breeding blight resistant chestnuts

 

"Once king of eastern forests, the American chestnut was wiped out by blight. Now it is poised to rise again."


Via Plant Breeding and Genomics News, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Ethnobotany: plants and people
Scoop.it!

Parallel domestication of the Shattering1 genes in cereals : Nature Genetics : Nature Publishing Group

Parallel domestication of the Shattering1 genes in cereals : Nature Genetics : Nature Publishing Group | applied genomics | Scoop.it
A key step in domestication of cereals was loss of seed shattering. Jianming Yu and colleagues show that seed shattering is controlled by alleles at Sh1 in sorghum.

Via Dorian Q Fuller, Eve Emshwiller
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Ethnobotany: plants and people
Scoop.it!

Multiple origins of the determinate growth habit in domesticated common bean Phaseolus vulgaris

Multiple origins of the determinate growth habit in domesticated common bean Phaseolus vulgaris | applied genomics | Scoop.it

Using a gene for a domestication trait (determinate growth) to study the multiple domestications of common bean.

"Background and Aims The actual number of domestications of a crop is one of the key questions in domestication studies. Answers to this question have generally been based on relationships between wild progenitors and ..."

 

Link to Annals of Botany paper (behind paywall)


Via Eve Emshwiller
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Plants and Microbes
Scoop.it!

PLoS ONE: A Genetic Mechanism for Emergence of Races in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici: Inactivation of Avirulence Gene AVR1 by Transposon Insertion (2012)

PLoS ONE: A Genetic Mechanism for Emergence of Races in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici: Inactivation of Avirulence Gene AVR1 by Transposon Insertion (2012) | applied genomics | Scoop.it

Compatible/incompatible interactions between the tomato wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) and tomato Solanum lycopersicum are controlled by three avirulence genes (AVR1–3) in FOL and the corresponding resistance genes (I–I3) in tomato.

 

The three known races (1, 2 and 3) of FOL carry AVR genes in different combinations. The current model to explain the proposed order of mutations in AVR genes is: i) FOL race 2 emerged from race 1 by losing the AVR1 and thus avoiding host resistance mediated by I (the resistance gene corresponding to AVR1), and ii) race 3 emerged when race 2 sustained a point mutation in AVR2, allowing it to evade I2-mediated resistance of the host.

 

Here, an alternative mechanism of mutation of AVR genes was determined by analyses of a race 3 isolate, KoChi-1, that we recovered from a Japanese tomato field in 2008. Although KoChi-1 is race 3, it has an AVR1 gene that is truncated by the transposon Hormin, which belongs to the hAT family.

 

This provides evidence that mobile genetic elements may be one of the driving forces underlying race evolution. KoChi-1 transformants carrying a wild type AVR1 gene from race 1 lost pathogenicity to cultivars carrying I, showing that the truncated KoChi-1 avr1 is not functional. These results imply that KoChi-1 is a new race 3 biotype and propose an additional path for emergence of FOL races: Race 2 emerged from race 1 by transposon-insertion into AVR1, not by deletion of the AVR1 locus; then a point mutation in race 2 AVR2 resulted in emergence of race 3.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Agriculture, Environment and Trade
Scoop.it!

Kenya's farmers spot opportunities in warming climate - AlertNet

Kenya's farmers spot opportunities in warming climate - AlertNet | applied genomics | Scoop.it

Some women start to grow vegetables as temperatures creep higher, while others struggle on with maize...


Via CGIAR Climate, Lee Pearson
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Norman Warthmann
Scoop.it!

Genetic roulette in a new world - Research - University of Cambridge

Genetic roulette in a new world - Research - University of Cambridge | applied genomics | Scoop.it
What happened in 2003 was of course that the genetic code – that is the sequence of bases in DNA – was revealed for the entire human genome, but even more astonishing is what happened next. Even computing science can't match that ...
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from my universe
Scoop.it!

Declining Fruit and Vegetable Nutrient Composition: What Is the Evidence?

Declining Fruit and Vegetable Nutrient Composition: What Is the Evidence? | applied genomics | Scoop.it
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Ag Biotech News
Scoop.it!

This GMO Apple Won't Brown. Will That Sour The Fruit's Image? - NPR (2014)

This GMO Apple Won't Brown. Will That Sour The Fruit's Image? - NPR (2014) | applied genomics | Scoop.it

If you (or your children) turn up your nose at brown apple slices, would you prefer fresh-looking ones that have been genetically engineered? Neal Carter, president of Okanagan Specialty Fruits... certainly hopes so. His company has created the new, non-browning, "Arctic" apples, and he's hoping for big orders from despairing parents and food service companies alike.

 

Food service companies, he says, would no longer have to treat their sliced apples with antioxidant chemicals like calcium ascorbate to keep them looking fresh. The cost savings "can be huge," he says. "Right now, to make fresh-cut apple slices and put them in the bag, 35 or 40 percent of the cost is the antioxident treatment. So you could make a fresh-cut apple slice 30 percent cheaper." ... 

 

The non-browning trait was created by inserting extra copies of genes that the apple already possessed. These genes normally create an enzyme called polyphenol oxidase, which is responsible for the chemical reaction that causes browning... The USDA has studied the apple and released a preliminary conclusion that Arctic apples are pretty much as harmless as conventional ones... 

 

Okanagan Specialty Fruits does not plan to grow large quantities of apples itself. It will license its variety to commercial growers, charging them a one-time fee of $1,500 per acre of trees. Carter says this is comparable to the license fees that growers currently pay for the right to produce patented varieties such as Gala or Fuji.

 

Carter is convinced that most consumers will be curious to try the apple. The company conducted focus groups... and asked them, "Would you buy it?" "Typically, it's about 80-20," says Carter. "80 percent say, 'Fantastic, bring it on.' And 20 percent say, 'Hmm. I don't think I like genetic engineering.' But they all eat it. Even if they were a nay-sayer that was never going to eat any GM fruit, they will eat a slice... 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2014/01/08/260782518/this-gmo-apple-wont-brown-will-that-sour-the-fruits-image


Via Alexander J. Stein
more...
Alexander J. Stein's curator insight, January 8, 6:02 PM

Gala and Fuji - conventional apple varieties - are patented and growers have to pay fees for them?! 

Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Ag Biotech News
Scoop.it!

China sacks officials over Golden Rice controversy - Nature (2012)

China has sacked three officials for breaching Chinese laws and ethical regulations during a trial in which children were fed genetically modified rice. The trial’s legitimacy was questioned in August by the environmental group Greenpeace. A three-month investigation, led by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), culminated in the decision on 6 December to sack two members of the CDC’s own staff — Yin Shi’an, the principal investigator of the Chinese arm of the project, in Beijing, and Hu Yuming at the CDC's regional office in Hunan province, where the study took place — as well as Wang Yin, head of science and technology at the Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences...


Via Alexander J. Stein
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Ethnobotany: plants and people
Scoop.it!

The Wild Life of American Cities

The Wild Life of American Cities | applied genomics | Scoop.it

Flora of cities becoming more and more similar...


Via Eve Emshwiller
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Agriculture, Environment and Trade
Scoop.it!

Committee advises halt to Indian Bt crop trials - SciDev.Net

Committee advises halt to Indian Bt crop trials - SciDev.Net | applied genomics | Scoop.it

An expert panel, appointed by the Supreme Court of India, has recommended a ten-year moratorium on all Bt food crop trials.


Via Lee Pearson
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Ethnobotany: plants and people
Scoop.it!

Is naked barley an eastern or a western crop? The combined evidence of archaeobotany and genetics

VEGETATION HISTORY AND ARCHAEOBOTANY.

Forms of Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare (barley) that possess a naked caryopsis are an important human staple and are mainly found today in eastern Asia. However, naked barley has not always been an eastern crop: archaeobotanical data show that it was prevalent in Europe and the Near East during various periods in prehistory. In this review we have collated data on the incidence of hulled and naked barley at archaeological sites in Europe and the Near East from two sources: archaeobotanical literature reviews and an archaeobotanical database, both assembled by Helmut Kroll. We have also examined the incidence of hulled and naked barleys in extant germplasm collections. Our compilation of this archaeobotanical data has enabled us to elucidate long-term changes in the ratio of hulled to naked barley under cultivation in these regions; specifically, these records show that naked barley begins to disappear from the archaeobotanical record from the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age onwards in the Near East, and from the Iron Age/Roman periods onwards in Europe. We discuss the possible causes of this decline in naked barley cultivation in these regions, along with the present-day prevalence of naked barley landraces in eastern Asia, particularly in relation to genetic evidence, which shows that naked barley has a single origin.


Via Dorian Q Fuller, Eve Emshwiller
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Ethnobotany: plants and people
Scoop.it!

Genetic diversity: The hidden face of biodiversity

Genetic diversity: The hidden face of biodiversity | applied genomics | Scoop.it
Will future conservation policies have to take account of the genetic diversity within each species ?

Via Bioversity Library, Eve Emshwiller
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Ethnobotany: plants and people
Scoop.it!

Dienekes’ Anthropology Blog: Rice and Barley domestication news

Dienekes’ Anthropology Blog: Rice and Barley domestication news | applied genomics | Scoop.it

Dienekes' Blog posts on two papers that build on the controversies about barley and rice domestication:

(1) Tibet is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley by Fei Dai, & al. in PNAS, and
(2) A map of rice genome variation reveals the origin of cultivated rice, by Xuehui Huang et al.in Nature.

Both are open access.


Via Eve Emshwiller
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from All About Food
Scoop.it!

Nature comment: Plant perennials to save Africa's soils

Nature comment: Plant perennials to save Africa's soils | applied genomics | Scoop.it

Integrating perennials with food crops could restore soil health and increase staple yields. Examples include nitrogen-fixing trees, co-cropping with legumes and other strategies. 

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7416/full/489359a.html

 

"Sub-Saharan Africa's population is expected to reach 1.5–2 billion by 2050. Already the population is ballooning; in many areas, the risk of drought and flood is increasing; most soils are poor; and richer nations are buying up Africa's arable land for their own food or fuel security. African farmers have demonstrated the promise of perenniation. It is time to scale up its use and put it firmly on the research-and-development map."


Via Mary Williams, sonia ramos
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Plants and Microbes
Scoop.it!

The Grower: Transgenic tomato withstands bacterial spot, yields more fruit (2012)

The Grower: Transgenic tomato withstands bacterial spot, yields more fruit (2012) | applied genomics | Scoop.it

When a gene from bell and hot peppers is inserted into tomatoes, it not only imparts resistance to bacterial spot—a devastating tomato disease—it also bumps up yields.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Ag Biotech News
Scoop.it!

GM rice 'thrives in poor soils' - BBC (2012)

GM rice 'thrives in poor soils' - BBC (2012) | applied genomics | Scoop.it

A gene from wild Indian rice plants can significantly raise the yield of common varieties in nutrient-poor soils. Scientists from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) identified a gene that helps uptake of phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium, and transferred it into commercial strains. Their yield was about 60% above normal in phosphorus-poor soils, the team reports in the journal Nature. Large swathes of Asia have soil that is phosporus-deficient.


Via Alexander J. Stein
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from The #Agvocate
Scoop.it!

Australian grown GM bananas set for India

Australian grown GM bananas set for India | applied genomics | Scoop.it

Australian scientists have genetically modified bananas, so the fruit is not only fully of vitamins but also rich with iron.

 

They're now sharing the technology with Indian scientists and farmers to help address widespread anaemia in the country.

 

Professor James Dale, from the Queensland University of Technology, is leading the project.


Via AusFarmFwd
more...
No comment yet.