The Marine Environmental Mapping Programme (MAREMAP) aims to achieve common, national objectives in seafloor and shallow geological mapping addressing themes such as habitat mapping, Quaternary science, coastal and shelf sediment dynamics and the assessment of human impacts and geohazards in the marine environment. MAREMAP will work towards integration of common geoscience objectives across NERC organisations.
MAREMAP is a joint initiative led by the British Geological Survey (BGS), the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) and the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS), with partners from the University of Southampton, Channel Coastal Observatory, the University of Plymouth, the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA), the Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) and Marine Scotland.
MAREMAP was launched at the National Maritime Muesum in London in June 2010.
Just before a volcano spews hot ash and lava in an eruption, it might in some cases emit a high-frequency “scream.”
A study by the University of Washington of the 2009 explosion of Alaska’s Redoubt Volcanorecorded such a “harmonic tremor,” which researchers believe could provide clues as to what happens during cycles of eruptions.
Sometimes, preceding a volcanic eruption are a series of small earthquakes, which researchers believe might cause the higher frequencies, which cannot be heard by humans, that then stop before the actual explosion.
“The frequency of this tremor is unusually high for a volcano, and it’s not easily explained by many of the accepted theories,” Alicia Hotovec-Ellis, a University of Washington doctoral student, said in a statement of the Redoubt Volcano’s 2009 eruption.
Here’s how the University of Washington describes Hotovc-Ellis’ perspective of how “the screams” might occur:
The source of the earthquakes and harmonic tremor isn’t known precisely. Some volcanoes emit sound when magma – a mixture of molten rock, suspended solids and gas bubbles – resonates as it pushes up through thin cracks in the Earth’s crust.
But Hotovec-Ellis believes in this case the earthquakes and harmonic tremor happen as magma is forced through a narrow conduit under great pressure into the heart of the mountain. The thick magma sticks to the rock surface inside the conduit until the pressure is enough to move it higher, where it sticks until the pressure moves it again.
Each of these sudden movements results in a small earthquake, ranging in magnitude from about 0.5 to 1.5, she said. As the pressure builds, the quakes get smaller and happen in such rapid succession that they blend into a continuous harmonic tremor.
“Because there’s less time between each earthquake, there’s not enough time to build up enough pressure for a bigger one,” Hotovec-Ellis said. “After the frequency glides up to a ridiculously high frequency, it pauses and then it explodes.”
Humans are not likely to hear such a scream in nature because the frequency of the tremor starts at 1 hertz and gets up to about 30 hertz. Humans begin hearing frequencies at 20 hertz, according to the study. But, as the university pointed out, lying above such an area prior to an eruption to hear the sound when it reaches an audible level wouldn’t be advisable.
Listen to such a “scream” as it starts off slowly and the frequency builds:
While we don't quite have a cast of millions, looking around at all the people pounding on keyboards to help make this project possible, it sometimes feels like a cast of millions. Want to join in? We are always looking for volunteers! We're currently looking for graphical artists, computer programers, educators to help us on a set of specific projects.
Education: Can I use Plankton Portal in the classroom?
Of course! Plankton Portal, just like all the Zooniverse projects, offers students a unique opportunity to explore real scientific data, while making a contribution to cutting-edge research. Each image is marked by multiple volunteers, so it’s okay if students don't identify and mark all of the plankton correctly. That being said, the task itself is simple enough that we believe most people can take part and make a worthwhile contribution regardless of age.
What resources are there to support use in the classroom?
Videos are a great tool to introduce students to the fascinating, diverse, and sometimes bizarre undersea world of plankton. Here are a couple of our favorites.
The secret life of plankton (TED Education video) by Tierney Thys, Christian Sardet, Noe Sardet and Sharif MirshakPlankton Chronicles by Christian Sardet, Noe Sardet and Sharif MirshakThere’s no such thing as a jellyfish by Steve Haddock, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
The Zooniverse recently launched ZooTeach where educators can find and share educational resources relating to Plankton Portal and the other Zooniverse citizen science projects. Check out resources created for Plankton Portal. Have any ideas for how to use the project in the classroom? Please share your lesson ideas or resources on ZooTeach!
How can I keep up to date with education and Plankton Portal?
Plankton Portal Blog and @PlanktonPortal twitter feed are great places to keep up to date with the latest science results, but there is also a Zooniverse Education Blog as well as the @zooteach Twitter feed.
We have thousands of specimen images, labels and ledgers from museum collections and the biologists who maintain those collections. These contain information about the where and when a species was found in the past. We need you to help us transcribe that data and make it available for further use in biodiversity and conservation research. Along the way, you will be possibly be finding species that have never been observed anywhere else!
The latest Tweets from Just Dive Ltd (@JustDiveLtd). Just Dive Ltd are delighted to bring PADI Scuba Diving experiences & courses to a pool near you for all the family! All across Glasgow & the west!. Paisley, Glasgow, Scotland
Orangutans are highly intelligent creatures who require mental stimulation to keep from growing bored and depressed. Every orangutan is a unique individual with his or her own particular likes and dislikes, and freedom of choice is critical to their well-being. They like to choose everything from their afternoon snack to their daytime companions and sleeping area. What they do each day depends on how they feel, and the more choices they have, the better. Just like humans, orangutans like options. The quality of life of orangutans living in zoos and sanctuaries is dependent on the amount and type of enrichment they receive on a daily basis. With the Apps for Apes project, we propose to introduce Apple iPad technology to orangutans in order to provide them with unlimited enrichment opportunities. The iPad is a perfect device for orangutans, as they have an innate ability to work with touchscreen technology. This has been demonstrated in facilities such as Zoo Atlanta, the Great Ape Trust and the Smithsonian National Zoo. With proper guidance, orangutans will be able to use their devices just like humans do– to spend their time doing things that they enjoy. They will have access to music, musical instruments, cognitive games, art, painting, drawing, photos and videos. Among other things, they will be able to see photos and videos of other orangutans.
Animals Asia is devoted to ending the barbaric practice of bear bile farming and improving the welfare of animals in China and Vietnam. We promote compassion and respect for all animals and work to bring about long-term change.
Founded in 1998, the Animals Asia team has been rescuing moon bears since 1994 and is the only organisation with a bear sanctuary in China. Our founder and CEO, Jill Robinson MBE, Dr.med.vet. h.c., is widely recognised as the world’s leading expert on the cruel bear bile industry, having campaigned against it since 1993.
Today, Animals Asia has rescued over 400 bears, caring for them at its award-winning bear sanctuaries in China and Vietnam. From its small beginnings in Hong Kong, Animals Asia has grown into a respected international NGO with over 300 staff and offices in Australia, China, Germany, Italy, the UK, US and Vietnam.
A network of GPS receivers, some outfitted with $8 accelerometers, is part of a prototype system being tested in Southern California to monitor for earthquakes and other natural hazards.
PLAY VIDEOThe Mystery Of The Earth's Core ExplainedWe've been to the moon but we've barely scratched the surface of our own planet!DCI
The technology is not new. Receivers that pick up signals from the constellation of Global Positioning System satellites circling Earth and calculate timing and distance have reshaped dozens of industries including farming, construction, mining and package delivery, in addition to providing air, sea, and land navigation data.
What is different is the linking of GPS receivers into a real-time network that complies and analyzes their information. The system can then be used to detect earthquakes and extreme weather in the making.
PHOTOS: Changing Face of Earth in 2013
“By adding small inexpensive sensors used in popular electronic devices to existing GPS … we can greatly enhance our response to natural hazards, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, severe weather and flooding,” said researcher Yehuda Bock with the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, Calif.
“The goal is to save lives during natural hazards,” Bock told reporters at the American Geophysical Union conference in San Francisco this week.
Japan had a GPS monitoring system in place during its devastating 2011 earthquake and tsunami, but it relied on traditional seismic data that initially caused scientists to underestimate the strength of the earthquake and the size of the resulting tsunami.
“They initially estimated the magnitude of the earthquake to be magnitude 7 after 30 seconds. Only after nine minutes did they turn it into a 7.9 earthquake. It took 2.5 hours to finally estimate that it was as large as it was” -- a magnitude 9, Bock said.
“Our system improves on the traditional seismic monitoring … by estimating the ground motions and permanent displacements,” he said. “Ground seismic systems only measure the shaking.
PHOTOS: 2013 Top 20 Earth Images Contest
A large earthquake on the southern San Andrea Fault, for example, would take about 1.5 to two minutes to reach Los Angeles, precious time that could be used to issue alerts.
The system also can quickly assess potential damage to buildings, bridges, and other structures due to ground displacement after an earthquake.
For meteorological monitoring, GPS receivers are outfitted with temperature and pressure sensors to provide a continuous map of atmosphere water vapor.
“A GPS station fundamentally is measuring the amount of time it takes signals to travel from the GPS satellites to the receiving station on the ground. That travel time also is affected by the amount of moisture in the air, so every time we calculate the position of a GPS station, we’re also measuring the water vapor,” said Angelyn Moore, a research scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.
“Using GPS for weather is not new. What’s new is that there are now sufficient numbers of stations in the southern California region operating near real-time for us to evaluate the benefit,” she said.
The first test run of the system occurred in July when meteorologists tracked a summer monsoon as it moved across southern California. Equipped with real-time information about the storm’s progress based on GPS signals, forecasters accurately predicted a flash flood and issued a warning.
The new project aims to add sensors to an existing 550 stations with real-time networks located along the west coast of the United States, an area susceptible to earthquakes and tsunamis. So far, 17 enhanced GPS stations are operational, Bock said.
“We hope to expand it throughout the west coast,” he said.
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Prepare Your Business to Get FundedStart getting prepared to get funded in exchange for equity by following these steps:Form a corporation to get "investment ready".Ensure that each person who has equity in your business comprehends and agrees to incorporating the business and to seeking capital through equity crowdfunding by having a formal meeting and creating a document that has a memorandum of understanding of the company's intent to incorporate and to seek investors via equity crowdfunding.Perform a self-audit on the business, and then prepare financial statements. After doing so, keep the financial statements updated. You will likely want to involve a CPA when preparing your financial statements even though it is not required unless you want to get more than $100,000 in capital.Compute your company's value. There are multiple valuation methods that your CPA can describe them to you. This information is important since the SEC requires you to disclose the valuation method used.Determine what ownership percentage in your company you will give up to get capital through equity crowdfunding via truCrowd.Document how many total shares you might want to authorize and issue and assign a dollar value to those shares.Your corporation needs to have a maximum number of authorized shares from which you will issue a portion to your investors. Make sure that you and the other owner(s) have a sufficient portion of shares in the corporation.
Scientists at the University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 discovered a way to produce hydrogen up to 50 times faster than nature does. Using a diamond anvil cell (a tiny high pressure cooker) and aluminum oxide (Al2o3), water (H20), and the mineral, olivine ((Mg, Fe)2SiO4), they produced produced hydrogen in a matter of hours instead of weeks.
Essentially, it is water, rock, and aluminum oxide put under extreme pressure (2 kilobars) and heat ( 200 to 300 degrees Celsius) to produce hydrogen.
HYdrogen is the lightest and most abundant element in the Universe. Seventy five percent (75%) of the chemical elemental mass of the Universe is hydrogen. This latest discovery is very relevant to the energy industry where hydrogen is one viable energy source.
Using hydrogen as a fuel has many advantages. It is abundant. It is environmentally safe since the byproduct of hydrogen fuel cells is water and water vapor. And the power generated by hydrogen is much greater than that of regular gasoline.
Hydrogen fuel cells do not need combustion to produce energy, which also makes them safe and efficient.
Hydrogen Production : The Quick Way
Scientists in Lyon, a French city famed for its cuisine, have discovered a quick-cook recipe for copious volumes of hydrogen (H2).
The breakthrough suggests a better way of producing the hydrogen that propels rockets and energizes battery-like fuel cells. In a few decades, it could even help the world meet key energy needs — without carbon emissions contributing to the greenhouse effect and climate change.
It also has profound implications for the abundance and distribution of life, helping to explain the astonishingly widespread microbial communities that dine on hydrogen deep beneath the continents and seafloor.
Describing how to greatly speed up nature's process for producing hydrogen will be a highlight among many presentations by Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) experts at the American Geophysical Union's annual Fall Meeting in San Francisco Dec. 9 to 13.
The DCO is a global, 10-year international science collaboration unraveling the mysteries of Earth's inner workings — deep life, energy, chemistry, and fluid movements.
Muriel Andreani, Isabelle Daniel, and Marion Pollet-Villard of University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 discovered the quick recipe for producing hydrogen:
In a microscopic high-pressure cooker called a diamond anvil cell (within a tiny space about as wide as a pencil lead), combine ingredients: aluminum oxide, water, and the mineral olivine. Set at 200 to 300 degrees Celsius and 2 kilobars pressure — comparable to conditions found at twice the depth of the deepest ocean. Cook for 24 hours. And voilà.
Dr. Daniel, a DCO leader, explains that scientists have long known nature's way of producing hydrogen. When water meets the ubiquitous mineral olivine under pressure, the rock reacts with oxygen (O) atoms from the H2O, transforming olivine into another mineral, serpentine — characterized by a scaly, green-brown surface appearance like snake skin. Olivine is a common yellow to yellow-green mineral made of magnesium, iron, silicon, and oxygen.
The process also leaves hydrogen (H2) molecules divorced from their marriage with oxygen atoms in water.
Another evening, another eerie glow atop Italy's Mount Etna. The eruptions rocketing from volcanic craters atop Etna's summit suffuse dark nights with a fiery aura as lava jets into the air.
The volcano erupted again this past weekend, tossing lava bombs that looked like fireworks from afar. The blast from Etna's New Southeast Crater is the latest in a string of spectacular eruptions.
Mount's Etna's busy pace produces enough lava each year to fill Chicago's Willis Tower (the former Sears Tower), a 2012 study found. Whether it's a few fast-flowing lava flows or a fiery fountain, the volcano's outbursts have been a constant companion for Sicilians for more than 2,000 years.
It is the latest scandal to emerge in the controversy over deforestation caused by companies building oil plantations.
Why did someone do this to me? Baby orangutan looks at the stumps of its missing fingers that were sliced off with a machete during forest clearancesSura, four months, was found wounded in Tumbang Koling, in Indonesian Borneo, after a forest was cleared for a new oil palm plantationLatest in a series of deforestation projects that has affected orangutanEnvironmentalists warn it will have devastating affect on the population.
A four-month-old Orangutan is recovering after having the tips of his fingers hacked off, allegedly during forest clearances for a new oil palm plantation in Indonesian Borneo.
Sura, who was discovered by a resident of the Tumbang Koling village in East Kotawaringin Regency, is being nursed back to health by specialists at the Nyaru Menteng Rescue centre.
Vets carried out a full health check and discovered three of his fingers had been severed by either a knife or machete.
Sura now needs to be cared for by a full-time babysitter.
British charity Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation is helping fund the centre and Sura's care.
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