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What a gorilla can teach us about fighting sexism

What a gorilla can teach us about fighting sexism | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
Our great lessons in how to behave can come from the most unexpected sources. This week: Pay attention to an animal in a zoo. An actor on the stage. They can teach us about our attitudes toward women.
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animals and prosocial capacities
Prosocial capacities shared by humans and other species: empathy, reciprocity, altruism, bonding, play, tool use, communication
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Two Horses, One Language

Two Horses, One Language | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
What do we learn when we ride a fellow mammal who can read us at a deeper level than we can read ourselves?
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from All about water, the oceans, environmental issues
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Orcas and Other Dolphins Do Not Belong in Captivity!

Orcas and Other Dolphins Do Not Belong in Captivity! | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it

Via Kathy Dowsett
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Social comparison mediates chimpanzees’ responses to loss, not frustration - Springer

Social comparison mediates chimpanzees’ responses to loss, not frustration - Springer | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
RT @LydiaMHopper: Two studies of primate inequity aversion in the latest Animal Cognition! Chimps http://t.co/fcgrpMUixw & tamarins http://…
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Dogs at Play: What They Do, Know, Think, and Feel

Dogs at Play: What They Do, Know, Think, and Feel | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
"Canine Play Behavior" by German dog trainer Mechtild Käufer is a valuable read.
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Caw vs. Kraa: meaning in the calls of crows and ravens

Caw vs. Kraa: meaning in the calls of crows and ravens | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
This short video, by the Cornell Lab of O, discusses the differences between and potential meanings of the sounds made by crows and ravens. Continue reading...
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Global Aquaculture News & Events
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'Alien' Sea Creature Caught, Freaks Everyone Out

'Alien' Sea Creature Caught, Freaks Everyone Out | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
Good thing this fisherman got a video of his catch (above), because otherwise he'd never have been able to convince folks of the bizarre creature he hauled in while angling off the Singaporean island of Pulau Ubin.

"I know that area has a lot...

Via Perendale Publishers (Tuti Tan)
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Animals, exquisite, amusing and aww, 8

Animals,  exquisite, amusing and aww, 8 | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
O.K.  I have to admit, I let the cuteness bug get the best of me for some of these.  If you’re allergic to them, just speed on through.  I promise there are also plenty of amusing animal pics mixed in with a few gorgeous, exquisite shots.  If you...
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Dolphin 'breathalyzer' could help diagnose animal and ocean health

Dolphin 'breathalyzer' could help diagnose animal and ocean health | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
Alcohol consumption isn't the only thing a breath analysis can reveal. Scientists have been studying its possible use for diagnosing a wide range of conditions in humans—and now in the beloved bottlenose dolphin.
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Chimpanzees have favorite ‘tool set’ for hunting staple food of army ants

Chimpanzees have favorite ‘tool set’ for hunting staple food of army ants | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
West African chimpanzees will search far and wide to find Alchornea hirtella, a spindly shrub whose straight shoots provide the ideal tools to hunt aggressive army ants in an ingenious fashion, new research shows.
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Collapsible wings help birds cope with turbulence

Collapsible wings help birds cope with turbulence | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
Collapsible wings may be a bird's answer to turbulence according to an Oxford University study in which an eagle carried its own 'black box' flight recorder on its back.
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Sustainable Futures
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Fantastic journey: why animals are driven to migrate

Fantastic journey: why animals are driven to migrate | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
As the seasons turn, millions of birds and animals cross oceans and continents but climate change might have unpredictable consequences for this healthy ecosystem

Via Flora Moon
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Global Aquaculture News & Events
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How Do Humpback Whales Sleep?

How Do Humpback Whales Sleep? | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
Have you ever wondered how humpback whales sleep?

A group of underwater photographers known as Panga MX says it captured rare footage of the majestic marine mammal snoozing earlier this year. “We encountered a sleeping humpback whale and ma...

Via Perendale Publishers (Tuti Tan)
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Dinosaurs lost the ability to taste sugar; Hummingbirds re-evolved it

Dinosaurs lost the ability to taste sugar; Hummingbirds re-evolved it | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it

Chickens are not fussy eaters. Any object resembling food is worth an exploratory peck. But give a chicken the choice between sugary sweets and seeds, and they will pick the grains every time. This is odd. Many animals, including our own sugar-mad species, salivate for sugar because it is the flavor of foods rich in energy. New research suggests that many birds’ lack of interest in sugar is the result of genes inherited from their dinosaur ancestors.


Most vertebrates experience sweet taste because they possess a family of genes called T1Rs. The pairing of T1R1 and T1R3 detects amino acids and gives rise to the savory “umami” taste, while the T1R2-T1R3 pair detects sugars, giving us our sweet tooth.


Maude Baldwin, a postgraduate student at Harvard University, searched the genomes of ten species of birds, from chickens to flycatchers. She found that insectivorous and grain-eating birds possess the gene pair that detects the amino acids present in insects and seeds, but none of them had the T1R2 gene responsible for the ability to taste sugar. These modern birds evolved from carnivorous theropod dinosaurs that had diets that were rich in proteins and amino acids, but lacked sugar. So Baldwin reasoned that without a need to detect sweetness, ancient birds lost their T1R2 gene.


Hummingbirds, however, get a lot of their food from sugary sources. Every day they consume more than their own body weight in nectar. They can taste the difference between water and a sugar solution within a quarter of a second. And they also like the flavor of non-sugary artificial sweeteners like erythritol and sorbitol. How is this possible if they have no gene for sweet taste?


To answer this question, Baldwin cloned taste receptors from the sugar-insensitive chicken, hummingbird, and the hummingbird’s closest relative, the insect-eating chimney swift. Her results have been published in the journal Science.


She discovered that all of the birds lacked the T1R2 gene normally used for sensing sweet tastes. The t1r1 and t1r3 receptors in swifts and chickens only respond to amino acids, as they do in other species. But in the hummingbirds, these same receptors fire in response to sweet-tasting sugars, sugar alcohols, and the artificial sweetener sucralose—but they do not respond to amino acids.


Baldwin found that mutations in the hummingbirds' T1R1 and T1R3 genes have switched them from savory to sugar sensors. These mutations appear to be under positive evolutionary selection, as the proportion of protein-altering mutations is greater than we would expect would have occurred by chance.


Hummingbirds have co-opted genes that originally allowed dinosaurs to savor the taste of flesh and transformed them into the sugar detectors, an ability that most modern birds live without.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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How predators protect plant biodiversity

How predators protect plant biodiversity | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
Herbivores are having a field day Kenya.

Via Anita Woodruff
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The poetry of life at sea

The poetry of life at sea | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
A majestic short film about life in the deep blue ocean

Via Kathy Dowsett
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Gorgeous Drone Footage Of Killer Whales Is The First Of Its Kind

Gorgeous Drone Footage Of Killer Whales Is The First Of Its Kind | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
Earlier this year, researchers came together to investigate the health and habits of killer whales using a custom-built, remotely operated hexacopter.
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The color of love? ‘Red effect’ sparks interest in female monkeys

The color of love? ‘Red effect’ sparks interest in female monkeys | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
Recent studies showed that the color red tends increase our attraction toward others, feelings of jealousy, and even reaction times.
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Aquascaping and Nature
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No single explanation for biodiversity in Madagascar

No single explanation for biodiversity in Madagascar | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
No single 'one-size-fits-all' model can explain how biodiversity hotspots come to be, finds a study of more than 700 species of reptiles and amphibians in Madagascar. By analyzing the distribution of Madagascar's lizards, snakes, frogs and tortoises, researchers find that each group responded differently to environmental fluctuations on the island over time. The results are important because they suggest that climate change and deforestation in Madagascar will have varying effects on different species.

 

"It means that there won't be a uniform decline of species -- some species will do better, and others will do worse," said Brown, a co-author on the study appearing online in the journal Nature Communications.

 

Previous studies have linked the distribution of species to various factors, such as steep slopes that fuel diversity by creating a range of habitats in a small area. But few studies have integrated all of these variables into a single model to examine the relative influence of multiple factors at once, Brown said.

 

He and Duke University biologist Anne Yoder and colleagues developed a model that combines the modern distributions of 325 species of amphibians and 420 species of reptiles that live in Madagascar today with historical and present-day estimates of topography, rainfall and other variables across the island.

 

For example, changes in elevation -- due to the mountains, rivers and other features that shape the land -- best predicted which parts of the island had high proportions of unique tree frog species. But the biggest influence on why some areas had higher proportions of unique leaf chameleons was climate stability through time.

 

Read more here: 

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/10/141010155224.htm

 

The paper published in Nature Communications can be read here:

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/141009/ncomms6046/full/ncomms6046.html


Via Eric Chan Wei Chiang
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Eric Chan Wei Chiang's curator insight, October 17, 2:45 AM

Climate stability gives time for organisms to adapt to a wide range of ecological niches. A Stanford biologist warns of an impending mass extinction http://sco.lt/7biK5x. Ninety percent of lemur species face extinction http://sco.lt/8mJJwH

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Sleeping sperm whales look so eerie and magical

Sleeping sperm whales look so eerie and magical | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
I can't remember if I ever saw sleeping sperm whales when I was a kid watching each and every single episode of The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau on TV. Had I seen a scene as eerie and magical as this one, I would remember it.
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Sea Otters’ Strong Teeth Are Similar to Early Humans’

Sea Otters’ Strong Teeth Are Similar to Early Humans’ | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
For sea otters, a trip to the dentist is no sweat.
The protective enamel on their teeth is more than twice as strong as humans’ enamel — but it wasn’t always this way.
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Blowhole device collects dolphin breath

Blowhole device collects dolphin breath | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
Engineers have built a new device to collect dolphin breath for analysis.
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Farming, Forests, Water & Fishing (No Petroleum Added)
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Tree Kangaroo: Facts About a Declining Species

Tree Kangaroo: Facts About a Declining Species | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it

Tree kangaroos inhabit the lowland and mountainous rainforests of Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and the far north of Queensland, Australia. Living up in the foliage, this species looks like a cross between a kangaroo and a lemur.

These animals need our help. Habitat loss through deforestation and poaching are pushing this species to the brink of extinction.


Via Debra Dawson, pdeppisch
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Tropical fish are fleeing warming waters and heading to the poles

Tropical fish are fleeing warming waters and heading to the poles | animals and prosocial capacities | Scoop.it
Fish are acutely aware of sea temperature; it’s one of the key reasons particular species of fish live where they do. As the oceans warm however, many tropical species are moving towards cooler climes.
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When They Brought Wolves Into A Park, They Had No Idea This Would Be The Result

The wolves of Yellowstone National Park were introduced back into the park in 1995. What they did while they were there was incredible.
 
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