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Discovery of Wound-Healing Genes in Flies Could Mitigate Human Skin Ailments

Discovery of Wound-Healing Genes in Flies Could Mitigate Human Skin Ailments | Animal Science | Scoop.it
Biologists at UC San Diego have identified eight genes never before suspected to play a role in wound healing that are called into action near the areas where wounds occur.

 

After injury to the animal epidermis, a variety of genes are transcriptionally activated in nearby cells to regenerate the missing cells and facilitate barrier repair. The range and types of diffusible wound signals that are produced by damaged epidermis and function to activate repair genes during epidermal regeneration remains a subject of very active study in many animals. In Drosophila embryos, serine proteases are locally activated around wound sites, and are also required for localized activation of epidermal repair genes. The serine protease trypsin is sufficient to induce a striking global epidermal wound response without inflicting cell death or compromising the integrity of the epithelial barrier. The fly researchers developed a trypsin wounding treatment as an amplification tool to more fully understand the changes in the Drosophila transcriptome that occur after epidermal injury.

 

By comparing these array results with similar results on mammalian skin wounding they were able to see which evolutionarily conserved pathways are activated after epidermal wounding in very diverse animals. This innovative serine protease-mediated wounding protocol allowed the researchers to identify 8 additional genes that are activated in epidermal cells in the immediate vicinity of puncture wounds, and the functions of many of these genes suggest novel genetic pathways that may control epidermal wound repair. Additionally, these data augments the evidence that clean puncture wounding can mount a powerful innate immune transcriptional response, with different innate immune genes being activated in an interesting variety of ways. These include puncture-induced activation only in epidermal cells in the immediate vicinity of wounds, or in all epidermal cells, or specifically in the fat body, or in multiple tissues.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Connor Keesee's insight:

Would healing & barrier repairing genes found in flies. The genes regenerate missing cells and also repair them. This gene is activated by injury to the epidermis. This discovery was found by biologists at UC San Diego in April. 

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Slow-motion world for small animals - feeling for time is relative

Slow-motion world for small animals - feeling for time is relative | Animal Science | Scoop.it

Smaller animals tend to perceive time in slow-motion, helping them to escape from larger predators, a study finds. This means that they can observe movement on a finer timescale than bigger creatures, allowing them to escape from lager predators.

 

Insects and small birds, for example, can see more information in one second than a larger animal such as an elephant. In humans, too, there is variation among individuals. Athletes, for example, can often process visual information more quickly. An experienced goalkeeper would therefore be quicker than others in observing where a ball comes from. The speed at which humans absorb visual information is also age-related. Younger people can react more quickly than older people, and this ability falls off further with increasing age.

 

From a human perspective, our ability to process visual information limits our ability to drive cars or fly planes any faster than we currently do in Formula 1, where these guys are pushing the limits of what is humanly possible. To go any quicker would require either computer assistance, or enhancement of our visual system, either through drugs or ultimately implants.

 

Some deep-sea isopods (a type of marine woodlouse) have the slowest recorded reaction of all, and can only see a light turning off and on four times per second "before they get confused and see it as being constantly on.

 

Having eyes that send updates to the brain at much higher frequencies than our eyes do is of no value if the brain cannot process that information equally quickly. Hence, this work highlights the impressive capabilities of even the smallest animal brains. Flies might not be deep thinkers but they can make good decisions very quickly.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Connor Keesee Animal Science, Gold 3

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Room 8's curator insight, September 18, 2013 4:46 PM

This is a great article.

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'Mystery Monkey' of Tampa Bay, Florida that attacked grandmother is caught after 2 years

'Mystery Monkey' of Tampa Bay, Florida that attacked grandmother is caught after 2 years | Animal Science | Scoop.it

Via WTSP:

 

St. Petersburg, Florida -- The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission says they have caught a monkey that has been on the lam in St. Petersburg for two years.

 

The FWC tells 10 News they were able to shoot the monkey with a tranquilizer. The animal is being transported to a veterinarian's office in Safety Harbor.

 

The monkey has been a mainstay in Tampa Bay for several years. It is thought the rhesus macaque escaped from a small colony of monkeys that live in Silver Springs.

 

It became a bit of a celebrity, getting its own Facebook page, and even being featured on Comedy Central's Colbert Report. But a new sense of urgency came to capturing the slippery simian after it attacked a St. Petersburg grandmother earlier this month...


Via Billy Corben
Connor Keesee's insight:

Monkey in St. Petersburg Florida attacked a grandma and is finally caught after 2 years. It was shot with a tranquilizer to be trranported to a Veterinarians office in Safety Harbor.   

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Cassie Chriswell's comment, October 1, 2013 2:15 PM
A monkey in St. Petersburg, Florida attacked a lady that was a grandma. They caught the monkey 2 years after attack.
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World's oldest living animal was 507 years old when scientists accidentally killed it

World's oldest living animal was 507 years old when scientists accidentally killed it | Animal Science | Scoop.it

World's oldest creature - known as Ming the mollusc - is proven even older than previously thought. When scientists inadvertently killed what turned out to be the world’s oldest living creature, it was bad enough. Now, their mistake has been compounded after further research found it was even older – at 507 years.

 

The ocean quahog - a type of deep-sea clam - was dredged alive from the bottom of the North Atlantic near Iceland in 2006 by researchers. They then put it in a freezer, as is normal practice, unaware of its age.

 

It was only when it was taken to a laboratory that scientists from Bangor University studied it and concluded it was 400 years old.

The discovery made it into the Guinness Book of World Records however by this time, it was too late for Ming the Mollusc – named after the Chinese dynasty on the throne when its life began.

 

Now, after examining the ocean quahog more closely, using more refined methods, the researchers have found the animal was actually 100 years older than they first thought.

 

Dr. Paul Butler, from the University’s School of Ocean Sciences, said: “We got it wrong the first time and maybe we were a bit hasty publishing our findings back then. But we are absolutely certain that we’ve got the right age now.”

 

A quahog’s shell grows by a layer every year, in the summer when the water is warmer and food is plentiful. It means that when its shell is cut in half, scientists can count the lines in a similar way trees can be dated by rings in their trunks.

 

The growth rings can be seen in two places; on the outside of the shell and at the hinge where the two halves meet. The hinge is generally considered by scientists as the best place to count the rings, as it is protected from outside elements.

 

When researchers originally dated Ming, they counted the rings at the hinge. However because it was so old, many had become compressed. When they looked again at the outside of the shell, they found more rings. It means the mollusc was born in 1499 – just seven years after Columbus discovered America and before Henry VIII had even married his first wife, Catherine of Aragon in 1509.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Connor Keesee's insight:

Oldest animal in history accidentally killed by scientists. The age of the shell is found by counting the rings on the outside just like a tree. The shell was found in the North Atlantic near Iceland in 2006 by researchers. The clam is called the Ming Mollusc. 

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Nancy jodoin's curator insight, July 29, 2014 5:00 PM

This about the Ming dynasty with a twist.

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New Snail Species with Transparent Shell Discovered in Cave in Croatia

New Snail Species with Transparent Shell Discovered in Cave in Croatia | Animal Science | Scoop.it

Dr. Alexander Weigand of the Goethe-University Frankfurt has described a new species of cave-dwelling snail from the Lukina Jama–Trojama cave system.

 

The new species, named Zospeum tholussum, is a tiny and fragile snail with a beautifully shaped dome-like semi-transparent shell. Dr. Weigand found only one living specimen of Zospeum tholussum in an unnamed large chamber at the remarkable depth of 980 m.

 

“The single living specimen was found in an unnamed large chamber with lots of stones, rocks and sand. A temporal small stream of running water was present close to the collecting site. Air temperature was between 3.3 – 3.5 degrees Celsius, water temperature 5.1 degrees Celsius and air humidity 100 per cent. Shells were observed beginning from 800 m depth till the bottom of the cave. Shells were generally found on layers of mud,” Dr. Weigand wrote in a paper published in the open-access journalSubterranean Biology.

 

All known species from the cave-dwelling genus Zospeum possess a limited ability to move. Their preference of a muddy habitat and the fact that they are usually located near the drainage system of the cave, in a close proximity to running water, however suggest that these animals are not exactly immobile. Scientists hypothesize that dispersal is achieved through passive transportation via water or larger mammals.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Connor Keesee's insight:

Connor Keesee Nelson Gold 4 

New Species Discovered

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