Charlemagne ( /ˈʃɑrlɪmeɪn/; French pronunciation: [ʃaʁ.lə.maɲ]; Latin: Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles the Great; possibly 742 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum) from 800 to his death in 814. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800. This temporarily made him a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople. His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance, a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church. Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages. He is numbered as Charles I in the regnal lists of Germany (where he is known as Karl der Große), the Holy Roman Empire, and France.
Feudalism is an affliction upon humankind, akin to apartheid and slavery. The nature of feudalism inhibits people, communities, and nations from making the necessary transformation within economy and society that will ensure escape from the shackles of poverty, to survival with dignity outside the envelop of ignorance that prevents emergence into an aspired place within the world community. What is even more amazing is that authors like Messrs Beinhocker, Diamond, Friedman, Ohmae, Porter, and Sachs, have had little, if not anything to say on this matter. Feudalism has been treated like leprosy; its existence deigned.
Women have done many things for beauty throughout the course of history – from indifferently using arsenic or lead-based cosmetics, to ear and other body piercings, to yet more extreme forms of body modification. One of the most agonizingly painful of such practices is the Chinese custom of foot binding, where the feet of women – typically young girls – were broken and bound until they were able to fit inside a tiny shoe.
HISTORY OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE including A new Rome, Constantine and his city, Three sons of Constantine, Julian the Apostate, Revival of the pagan cult, The frontiers of empire, Emperor and bishop, Rome and Constantinople, Odoacer, king of Italy,...
"Byzantium, The Lost Empire", a playlist created by gt68100...
For more than 1,000 years, the Byzantine Empire was the eye of the entire world -- the origin of great literature, fine art and modern government. Heir to Greece and Rome, the Byzantine Empire was also the first Christian empire. After a year of filming on three continents, TLC unlocks this ancient civilization, spanning 11 centuries and three continents. Pass through the gates of Constantinople, explore the magnificent mosque of Hagia Sophia and see the looted treasures of the empire now located in St. Marks, Venice. Byzantium, brings to life an empire that, while seemingly distant, is very closely linked to the evolution of Western Civilization. Traces the growth of the first Christian empire, one that lasted for over a thousand years and the maturity and decline of Byzantium through its conquest by the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
Work has begun to unearth and exhibit ship remains from different eras that were discovered during an underwater excavation in the 6,000-year-old town of Limantepe on Turkey’s western coast.
A sunken 17th-century Ottoman merchant ship that was transporting plates from the Netherlands will be brought out of the water and exhibited.
It has been 13 years since the underwater excavations started in Limantepe, a site that attracted the interest of researchers when they could not initially identify areas in the sea on aerial photographs of the İskele neighborhood in the district of Urla.
The sunken vessel is the latest in a long line of ships that have been found in the area. Plates from ship will be brought out of the water and exhibited
"The schedule of our lives is shaped by the movements of the earth, moon, and sun.
In ancient Rome, a priest observed the sky and announced a new moon cycle to the king. For centuries afterward, Romans referred to the first day of each new month as Kalends (from their word calare, which means "to proclaim”). The word calendar derived from this custom."
A study conducted on the graffiti found on Pompeii’s walls reveals it was an early form of political campaigning and social networking. The Ancient Roman city was covered in ash when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79AD. Much of the graffiti on the ancient city’s walls is preserved in remarkable detail. Research conducted by archaeologist Eeva-Maria Viitanen, a post-doctoral researcher at Finland’s University of Helsinki, shows that Pompeii homeowners had some control over who scrawled on the walls of their houses. Speaking at the annual meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America in Seattle, she explained that graffiti was scratched into the stucco walls, written with charcoal, or in many cases even created by professional painters hired for political campaigns. Viitanen is a project manager and co-ordinator for the Pompeii Project of the University of Helsinki. She examined more than 1,000 political messages found on walls in three areas of Pompeii. She discovered that in 40% of cases, political adverts were placed on the walls of the homes belonging to the wealthy, which is notable given their homes were outnumbered by shops, bars and the dwellings inhabited by the city’s poor. Viitanen hazarded a guess why, saying: “Bars were probably more populated, but could their customers read and would they vote?” Viitanen suggested the rich Ancient Romans were happy to allow their lavish homes to be used as prime advertising space for political slogans aimed at drumming up votes for political candidates during electoral campaigns. Such permission may have even signalled an endorsement. Viitanen told the journal ‘LiveScience’: “The facades of the private houses and even the street walks in front of them were controlled and maintained by the owner of the house, and in that respect, the idea that the wall space could be appropriated by anyone who wanted to do it seems unlikely.” The archaeologist found that the majority of political ads are in areas that were likely to get most traffic, and consequently guaranteed exposure and targeted an audience. She told ‘Live Science’ that the slogans were simple, perhaps saying that a named candidate was “worthy of public office” or “a good man”. However, in a nod to early spin and the bella figura, she revealed that one candidate boasted of his ability to bake bread. The political slogans are not the only type of graffiti found in Pompeii. The Ancient Roman citizens scribbled thousands of messages on the city’s walls, including literary quotes and greetings to friends, suggesting there was a thriving form of social networking centuries before Facebook was invented.
At 1 p.m. on August 24, A.D. 79 Vesuvius erupted And after nine hours of pain and agony Pompeii and Herculaneum were put out of their misery. An eye witness Pliny wrote about the event of that horrible day.
Past Horizons Archaeology News Discovery of a 2700-Year-Old Portico in Greece Science Daily (press release) In ancient Greece, the portico -- stoa in Greek -- was a long, open structure that often housed shops and delineated public squares from the...
Wikimedia Commons For around ten centuries, successive generations of Chinese women endured a practice when, as children, their feet were systematically broken and shaped in such a way that they resembled hooves.
Cultural authorities in Skopje have announced plans to convert the Macedonian capital’s Ottoman-era fortress into a museum displaying pieces and artifacts stemming from the imperial age.
The project started earlier in September and is expected to be completed at the beginning of next year.
The fortress, regarded as one of the most important in the Balkans, is expected to be revived thanks to the new undertaking, Macedonia Cultural Heritage Protection Office Director Pasko Kuzman recently told Anatolia news agency.
A sword in a scabbard that belonged to a Roman soldier and an engraving of the Temple's menorah on a stone object were discovered during work the Israel Antiquities Authority conducted in the 2,000 year old drainage channel between the City of David and the Jerusalem Archaeological Garden.
As the Syrian crisis enters its third year, an end to the violence in the country is nowhere to be seen. The world has become accustomed to rising death tolls and reports of shelling and destruction. However, another threat looms in Syria, and this time it is targeting its cultural heritage.
Palmyra, one of the oldest cities in the country, has been subjected to intermittent shelling by forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad.
The ruins of the city, which is one of UNESCO’s World Heritage sites, date back thousands of years. “Bombs and rockets come in all directions,” eyewitnesses said.
Assad forces have struck the Roman Temple of Bel – built in 43 A.C. – and damaged its northern wall, eyewitnesses said, adding portions and stones of the wall have been destroyed.
Since mortuary practices involve the interpretation of material customs, social relations, cultural principles and the human body, they represent an array of disciplines (Rakita et al., 2008). All of these disciplines offer valuable ...
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