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Whole brain cellular-level activity mapping in one second

Whole brain cellular-level activity mapping in one second | Anatomy | Scoop.it

Neuroscientists at Howard Hughes Medical Institute have mapped the activity of nearly all the neurons in a vertebrate brain at cellular resolution, with signficant implications for neuroscience research and projects like the proposed Brain Activity Map (BAM).

 

Fast volumetric imaging of the larval zebrafish brain with light-sheet microscopy (credit: Misha B Ahrens, Philipp J Keller/Nature Methods)

The researchers used high-speed light sheet microscopy to image the activity of 80% of the neurons in the brain (which is composed of ~100,000 neurons) of a fish larva at 0.8 Hz (an image every 1.3 seconds), with single-cell resolution.

 

This represents the first technology that achieves whole brain imaging of a vertebrate brain at cellular resolution with speeds that approximate neural activity patterns and behavior, as Nature Methodsmethagora blog noted.

The authors saw correlated activity patterns at the cellular level that spanned large areas of the brain — pointing to the existence of broadly distributed functional circuits.

 

The next steps will be to determine the causal role that these circuits play in behavior — something that will require improvements in the methods for 3D optogenetics, the blog said. Obtaining the detailed anatomical map of these circuits will also be key to understand the brain’s organization at its deepest level.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, Marthèlize Tredoux
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Anatomy
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Four Wisdom Tooth Impactions and What They Mean

Four Wisdom Tooth Impactions and What They Mean | Anatomy | Scoop.it
Wisdom Tooth Impactions: There are four types of tooth impactions. Some of them mean you need wisdom teeth removal, whereas others are perfectly harmless....
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How does the Respiratory System Work?

How does the Respiratory System Work? | Anatomy | Scoop.it
The respiratory system is the critical system that controls the breathing and helps perform the task of gas exchange. Read on to learn how this system works….
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Whole brain cellular-level activity mapping in one second

Whole brain cellular-level activity mapping in one second | Anatomy | Scoop.it

Neuroscientists at Howard Hughes Medical Institute have mapped the activity of nearly all the neurons in a vertebrate brain at cellular resolution, with signficant implications for neuroscience research and projects like the proposed Brain Activity Map (BAM).

 

Fast volumetric imaging of the larval zebrafish brain with light-sheet microscopy (credit: Misha B Ahrens, Philipp J Keller/Nature Methods)

The researchers used high-speed light sheet microscopy to image the activity of 80% of the neurons in the brain (which is composed of ~100,000 neurons) of a fish larva at 0.8 Hz (an image every 1.3 seconds), with single-cell resolution.

 

This represents the first technology that achieves whole brain imaging of a vertebrate brain at cellular resolution with speeds that approximate neural activity patterns and behavior, as Nature Methodsmethagora blog noted.

The authors saw correlated activity patterns at the cellular level that spanned large areas of the brain — pointing to the existence of broadly distributed functional circuits.

 

The next steps will be to determine the causal role that these circuits play in behavior — something that will require improvements in the methods for 3D optogenetics, the blog said. Obtaining the detailed anatomical map of these circuits will also be key to understand the brain’s organization at its deepest level.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, Marthèlize Tredoux
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DNA double helix photographed for the first time

DNA double helix photographed for the first time | Anatomy | Scoop.it
It may come as a surprise to the layman that after having built a massive sci-tech industry around our knowledge of the DNA, the molecular stuff of life, biochemists would, in 2012, be saying they have just photographed the molecule for the first...

Via Laurent Levy
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Hacking the Human Brain: The Next Domain of Warfare

Hacking the Human Brain: The Next Domain of Warfare | Anatomy | Scoop.it

t’s been fashionable in military circles to talk about cyberspace as a “fifth domain” for warfare, along with land, space, air and sea. But there’s a sixth and arguably more important warfighting domain emerging: the human brain.

This new battlespace is not just about influencing hearts and minds with people seeking information. It’s about involuntarily penetrating, shaping, and coercing the mind in the ultimate realization of Clausewitz’s definition of war: compelling an adversary to submit to one’s will. And the most powerful tool in this war is brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies, which connect the human brain to devices.

Current BCI work ranges from researchers compiling and interfacing neural data such as in the Human Conectome Project to work by scientists hardening the human brain against rubber hose cryptanalysis to technologists connecting the brain to robotic systems. While these groups are streamlining the BCI for either security or humanitarian purposes, the reality is that misapplication of such research and technology has significant implications for the future of warfare.

Where BCIs can provide opportunities for injured or disabled soldiers to remain on active duty post-injury, enable paralyzed individuals to use their brain to type, or allow amputees to feel using bionic limbs, they can also be exploited if hacked. BCIs can be used to manipulate … or kill.


Via Daniel House, Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, Marthèlize Tredoux
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mdashf's curator insight, December 14, 2012 12:44 PM

Ethical Paradigms of science

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What are Neurons?

What are Neurons? | Anatomy | Scoop.it
Actually, neurons are the core component of the communication system in the human body. They receive electric signals from all parts of the body.
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What are the Functions of Neurons?

What are the Functions of Neurons? | Anatomy | Scoop.it
The basic function of a neuron is to process and transmit nerve impulses from and to the nervous system. Neurons can simultaneously receive and integrate...
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REGENERATING THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM « The Stem ...

REGENERATING THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM « The Stem ... | Anatomy | Scoop.it
REGENERATING THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. In DISEASE INFO on October 17, 2011 at 12:37 pm. First off, the sense of smell is neurological AND constantly regenerating after every cold, inhalation of smoke, etc.

Via David Granovsky, Kathy Bosiak
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Digestive System | How does the Digestive System Work?

Digestive System | How does the Digestive System Work? | Anatomy | Scoop.it
The Digestive system is the main functional system in the human body. It helps to provide essential energy and nutrients in our body by performing Absorption.......
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How does the lymphatic system work?

How does the lymphatic system work? | Anatomy | Scoop.it
The lymphatic system can be described as the drainage system of a human body. it consists of lymph organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, and lymph vessels.
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How does the Human Body Cardiovascular System Work?

How does the Human Body Cardiovascular System Work? | Anatomy | Scoop.it
The cardiovascular system is an organ system of closed tubes that transport blood from the heart to all parts of the body, and thereafter return back to the heart.
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10 Steps To Run An Effective Medical Fundraising Campaign

10 Steps To Run An Effective Medical Fundraising Campaign | Anatomy | Scoop.it
Medical fundraising is the same as other fundraising campaigns – only the objective is to benefit all, and not just a specific group. Here are 10 effective ...
Medical-Reference's insight:
In these days of cancer, AIDS, and other lethal diseases, it is necessary for you to think about a medical fund. Many peoples, who have relatives or members from their own family, eventually fails to properly treat them due to poor money in their hand. Medical fundraising campaign is a way by which you could overcome enormous bills that usually a Hospital or Clinic charge.
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Your body — not just a temple, but a laboratory too - The Japan Times

Your body — not just a temple, but a laboratory too - The Japan Times | Anatomy | Scoop.it
Your body — not just a temple, but a laboratory too
The Japan Times
It is usually treated as a body part that lost its function millions of years ago. All it seems to do is occasionally get infected and cause appendicitis.
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Factors affecting brain structure in men with HIV disease in the post-HAART era

Factors affecting brain structure in men with HIV disease in the post-HAART era | Anatomy | Scoop.it

Abstract
Introduction  The purpose of this study was to characterize brain volumetric differences in HIV seropositive and seronegative men and to
determine effects of age, cardiovascular risk, and HIV infection on structural integrity.


Via Paul de Roos
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Scientists 'rediscover' the lymphatic system after hundreds of years

Scientists 'rediscover' the lymphatic system after hundreds of years | Anatomy | Scoop.it

In 2012, researchers at USC made this statement: "... the lymphatic system is no less essential than the blood circulatory system for human health and well-being."

The lymphatic system must be considered the other, and not secondary, vascular system in the human physiology.

 

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What is the Structure of Neurons?

What is the Structure of Neurons? | Anatomy | Scoop.it
As like most of the cells, most neurons composed of a cell body. The cell body is the core component of the nerve cell. It contains nucleus, cytoplasm and other organelles.
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Cloning The First Human (BBC Documentary)

For decades, cloning remained within the realms of science fiction. The idea that instead of combining a sperm and an egg, a new human could be made from a single cell taken from an adult, seemed completely absurd. But that all changed in February 1997, when the Roslin Institute introduced the world to Dolly the sheep - the first animal cloned from an adult. Ever since Dolly, scientists have been continuing to experiment with cloning animals. So far, they have succeeded in cloning sheep, cattle, pigs, goats and mice, fuelling the belief that humans could be next.

 

But even Dolly's creator, Professor Ian Wilmut, is concerned that beneath the veneer of success lies a disturbing reality. Most cloning attempts on animals so far have resulted in failed implantation or abnormal foetuses. Of the animals born alive, some soon die of catastrophic organ failure. Others appear to be healthy for weeks or even months, then die suddenly, sometimes from bizarre new illnesses which do not occur in nature.

 

Years of painstaking work are only now revealing some vital clues to what is going wrong. Horizon talks to the scientists who have uncovered new evidence, suggesting that the process of cloning itself causes subtle errors in the way genes function. These random errors may be like a timebomb inside every clone, causing some of the strange - often fatal - problems. There's no reason to think cloned human babies would fare any better. According to embryologist Dr Susan Avery, death might be the best outcome for many human clones. If they survived, they would suffer from catastrophic illnesses that modern medicine is powerless to prevent or cure.

 

Dr. Zavos claims that these problems are the result of the still unsophisticated methods being used by animal researchers. Using advanced in vitro fertilisation ('test tube baby') techniques, he claims that he will strive to make human cloning safer than natural reproduction. Now though, it seems that some IVF procedures themselves are being investigated for possible harmful effects on the long term health of children. Professor Gerald Schatten of the University of Pittsburgh reveals evidence of these risks, which could be magnified in cloning.

 

Most reproductive specialists believe that the danger to any human born by cloning is enormous. But the would-be human cloners are determined to clone a human baby. If they proceed, they may be courting tragedy.


Via Kathy Bosiak
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6 Virtual Tours Of The Human Body For Free Interactive Anatomy Lessons

6 Virtual Tours Of The Human Body For Free Interactive Anatomy Lessons | Anatomy | Scoop.it
You can put your money on virtual reality and virtual worlds becoming part of our daily lives.

Via Donna Browne, Kathy Bosiak
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How does the Nervous system work?

How does the Nervous system work? | Anatomy | Scoop.it
The nervous system is the most complex system in the human body, which is surrounded by a network of more than hundred million neurons, assisted by many .......
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Medical-Reference's comment, March 9, 11:33 PM
@Kaitlyn Wilt thanks for your comment. I really liked that you appreciated the article. But you've just copied many line from the original article and this will obviously create a duplicate content issue.