American society's effect on North American corn
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MON 863 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

MON 863 is a genetically engineered variety of maize produced by Monsanto.

In 2004 Monsanto sought approval in Europe to introduce MON 863. Approval was granted in 2005 for use in feed[1] and in 2006 for use in food.[2] There was controversy over acceptance by regulatory bodies of industry-funded toxicity studies and over the design of those studies led by Pr Gilles Eric Séralini, who was on the committee that reviewed MON863 for the French government,[3]

See Genetically modified food controversies for details of this controversy, which extended beyond MON 863.

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Maize - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Maize (pron.: /ˈmz/ MAYZ; Zea mays subsp. mays L, from Spanish: maíz after Taíno mahiz), known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain the grain, which are seeds called kernels. Maize kernels are used in cooking as a starch. The Olmec and Mayans cultivated it in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica, cooked, ground or processed through nixtamalization. Beginning about 2500 BC, the crop spread through much of the Americas.[1] The region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. After European contact with the Americas in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, explorers and traders carried maize back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are usually grown for human consumption, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed and as chemical feedstocks.

Maize is the most widely grown grain crop throughout the Americas,[2] with 332 million metric tons grown annually in the United States alone. Approximately 40% of the crop — 130 million tons — is used for corn ethanol.[3]Transgenic maize (genetically modified corn) made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009.[4]

The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant, maiz.[5] It is known by other names around the world.

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Origin of corn

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Seminis | Professional Growers Sweet Corn

Seminis | Professional Growers Sweet Corn | American society's effect on North American corn | Scoop.it
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This is what is available from Monsanto in north america now

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MON 810 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The MON 810 corn is a genetically modified maize used around the world. It is a Zea mays line known as YieldGard from the company Monsanto.[1] This plant is a genetically modified organism (GMO) designed to combat crop loss due to insects. There is an inserted gene in the DNA of MON810 which allows the plant to make a protein that harms insects that try to eat it. The inserted gene is from the Bacillus thuringiensis which produces the Bt toxin that is poisonous to insects in the Lepidoptera order, including the European Corn Borer.

These genetically modified plants with Bt toxin are grown on a large scale around the world.[2] Monsanto’s corn line MON810 is produced by ballistically transforming another corn line with a plasmid, PV-ZMCT01.[3] This plasmid has a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and hsp70 maize intron sequences which drive the expression of the Cry1Ab gene. The gene then codes for delta endotoxins (Cry proteins) which are toxins that are very potent and provoke lesions in the cell membrane causing cell death[4] These produced Bt toxins bind to certain localized sites on the epithelium of the midgut of insects.[1] Proteins need specific receptors on cells in order to form the Cry proteins and become toxic, which is why the toxins are specific for the order Lepidoptera.[5] The receptors are important for binding the toxic protein and starting the signal cascade, however, after that, we don’t know a lot about how these toxins work.[6]

MON810’s transgene structure differs from the original plasmid constructed for the safety assessment for Monsanto[1] and has changed compared to the naturally occurring (non-active) Cry1Ab protein.[7] Gilles-Eric Seralini and colleagues (2007 & 2009) re-analyzed Monsanto data for MON810 (which was made available following a demand for public availability of the data, and a court case) and found that it had caused liver, kidney, and heart damage in rats.[8][9] However, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed this re-analysis and concluded that the differences observed were within a normal range for control rats and deemed the statistical methods used inappropriate.[10]

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Modern corn 1

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Monsanto | Corn Seeds

Monsanto | Corn Seeds | American society's effect on North American corn | Scoop.it
Genuity corn traits include Genuity SmartStax, Genuity VT Triple PRO and Genuity VT Double PRO.
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