Effects of soil inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant growth and nutrient uptake of some Mediterranean species grown under rainfed field conditions. In 17th International Nitrogen Workshop (Ireland) – (Eds: ...
Significance: During the Legume - Rhizobium symbiosis, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) appear to play an important signalling role in the establishment and the functioning of this interaction. Modifications of the levels of these reactive species in both partners impair either the development of the nodules (new root organs formed upon the interaction), or their N2-fixing activity. Recent Advances: NADPH oxidases have been recently described as major sources of H2O2 production, via superoxide dismutation, during symbiosis. Nitrate reductases and electron transfer chains from both partners were found to significantly contribute to NO production in N2-fixing nodules. Both S-sulfenylated and S-nitrosylated proteins have been detected during early interaction and in functioning nodules, linking ROS/NO production to redox-based protein regulation. NO was also found to play a metabolic role in nodule energy metabolism. Critical Issues: H2O2 may control the infection process and the subsequent bacterial differentiation into the symbiotic form. NO is required for an optimal establishment of symbiosis and appears to be a key player in nodule senescence. Future Directions: A challenging question is to define more precisely when and where reactive species are generated and to develop adapted tools to detect their production in vivo. To investigate the role of NADPH oxidases and nitrate reductases in the production of H2O2 and NO, respectively, the use of mutants under the control of organ-specific promoters will be of crucial interest. The balance between ROS and NO production appears to be a key point to understand the redox regulation of symbiosis.
Puppo A, Pauly N, Boscari A, Mandon K, Brouquisse R. (2012). Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012 Dec 18. [Epub ahead of print]
There is a concerted understanding of the ability of root exudates to influence the structure of rhizosphere microbial communities. However, our knowledge of the connection between plant development, root exudation and microbiome assemblage is limited. Here, we analyzed the structure of the rhizospheric bacterial community associated with Arabidopsis at four time points corresponding to distinct stages of plant development: seedling, vegetative, bolting and flowering. Overall, there were no significant differences in bacterial community structure, but we observed that the microbial community at the seedling stage was distinct from the other developmental time points. At a closer level, phylum such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and specific genera within those phyla followed distinct patterns associated with plant development and root exudation. These results suggested that the plant can select a subset of microbes at different stages of development, presumably for specific functions. Accordingly, metatranscriptomics analysis of the rhizosphere microbiome revealed that 81 unique transcripts were significantly (P<0.05) expressed at different stages of plant development. For instance, genes involved in streptomycin synthesis were significantly induced at bolting and flowering stages, presumably for disease suppression. We surmise that plants secrete blends of compounds and specific phytochemicals in the root exudates that are differentially produced at distinct stages of development to help orchestrate rhizosphere microbiome assemblage.
Chaparro, J. M., Badri, D. V., Vivancio, J. M. (2013). ISME Journal , advance online publication, Nov 7.
Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica ...
At the conference Forsythe's presentation entitled A Field Study of Specificity in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis won the prestigious John L. Harley Medal for excellence. The John L. Harley Medal is awarded at each ...
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