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Small handheld device tracks disease mutations within minutes

QuantuMDx Group is one of the most exciting biotechs to emerge from the UK and is developing a low cost, simple-to-use, handheld laboratory for 15-minute diagnosis of disease at the patient's side, for commercialisation in 2015. The robust device, which reads and sequences DNA and converts it into binary code using a tiny computer chip, is ideally suited to help address the humanitarian health burden by offering molecular diagnostics at a fraction of the price of traditional testing.

 

Rapidly & accurately detecting and monitoring emerging drug resistance of infectious diseases such as malaria, TB and HIV will enable health professionals to immediately prescribe the most effective drug against that disease. Once the device has passed regulatory approval, it will be available in developed countries for infectious disease testing and rapid cancer profiling and, in time, be available over-the-counter at pharmacies.

 

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Danko Nikolić: How to Make Intelligent Robots That Understand the World

There are some amazing robots roving the surface of Mars. However, they are heavily dependent on their human operators. But what if we could provide them with human-like intelligence so that they could find their own way without assistance? What if we could teach them to autonomously deal with completely novel situations? Danko Nikolić, a neuroscientist at the Max-Planck Institute for Brain Research, has his own vision: a novel approach to Artificial Intelligence (AI) that could give robots the capability to understand the world through a method called “AI-Kindergarten”. So, can we provide for a sufficiently strong artificial intelligence to enable a robot to find its way in an environment as hostile and as unpredictable as space?

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The mechanism of an AIDS vaccine candidate filmed in vivo

The mechanism of an AIDS vaccine candidate filmed in vivo | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Using innovative technology, scientists from the Institut Pasteur and Inserm have filmed in vivo the process by which an AIDS vaccine candidate, developed by the French Vaccine Research Institute and the ANRS, triggers the immune response. This previously unseen footage clearly shows how the vaccine recruits the immune cells needed to destroy infected cells. These results, published in the journal Nature Medicine on December 21, 2015, shed new light on the mode of action and potential of this vaccine.

The aim of the study conducted by scientists from the Dynamics of Immune Responses Unit (Institut Pasteur / Inserm / VRI), directed by Inserm research director Philippe Bousso, was to observe the effect of the HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate MVA-HIV - currently undergoing clinical trials by the French Vaccine Research Institute (VRI) and the ANRS - on the immune response.

The scientists administered the vaccine to healthy mice, then observed in real time how cells from the immune system were mobilized to the lymph node, the organ where the vaccine response is developed, in just a few hours.

For the first time, using a powerful, non-invasive microscopic imaging technique, the scientists were able to watch in vivo and in real time as the vaccine induced the formation of the inflammasome, a complex assembly of proteins with a highly specific structure which appears in macrophages, the first immune cells targeted by the vaccine.

The inflammasome promotes the maturation of the chemical messenger interleukin (IL)-1 but also induces macrophage death, thereby releasing this inflammatory messenger in the lymph node. This signal triggers a chain reaction which assembles several key players of the immune system in the lymph node, including killer cells, which are vital for the vaccine response.

These in vivo films have given the scientists a detailed picture of the main stages in the mechanistic action of this vaccine and highlighted an important pathway that orchestrates the effective mobilization of the immune response. "This is the first time that the formation of this original structure, the inflammasome, has been observed in vivo and in real time," commented Philippe Bousso. "Our research demonstrates the potential of the vaccine candidate MVA-HIV to trigger a significant, diverse immune response."
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Researchers captured the first 3-D video of a living algal embryo turning itself inside out

Researchers captured the first 3-D video of a living algal embryo turning itself inside out | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Researchers have captured the first 3D video of a living algal embryo (Volvox sp.) turning itself inside out, from a sphere to a mushroom shape and back again. The results could help unravel the mechanical processes at work during a similar process in animals, which has been called the "most important time in your life."

Researchers from the University of Cambridge have captured the first three-dimensional images of a live embryo turning itself inside out. The images, of embryos of a green alga called Volvox, make an ideal test case to understand how a remarkably similar process works in early animal development.


Using fluorescence microscopy to observe the Volvox embryos, the researchers were able to test a mathematical model of morphogenesis - the origin and development of an organism's structure and form - and understand how the shape of cells drives the process of inversion, when the embryo turns itself from a sphere to a mushroom shape and back again. Their findings are published today (27 April) in the journal Physical Review Letters.


The processes observed in the Volvox embryo are similar to the process of gastrulation in animal embryos - which biologist Lewis Wolpert called "the most important event in your life." During gastrulation, the embryo folds inwards into a cup-like shape, forming the primary germ layers which give rise to all the organs in the body. Volvox embryos undergo a similar process, but with an additional twist: the embryos literally turn themselves right-side out during the process.


Gastrulation in animals results from a complex interplay of cell shape changes, cell division and migration, making it difficult to develop a quantitative understanding of the process. However, Volvox embryos complete their shape change only by changing cell shapes and the location of the connections between cells, and this simplicity makes them an ideal model for understanding cell sheet folding.


In Volvox embryos, the process of inversion begins when the embryos start to fold inward, or invaginate, around their middle, forming two hemispheres. Next, one hemisphere moves inside the other, an opening at the top widens, and the outer hemisphere glides over the inner hemisphere, until the embryo regains its spherical shape. This remarkable process takes place over approximately one hour.

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Approaching Titan a Billion Times Closer

Remember the Titan (Landing): Ten years ago today, Jan. 14, 2005, the Huygens probe touched down on Saturn's largest moon, Titan. 

This new, narrated movie was created with data collected by Cassini's imaging cameras and the Huygens Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR). The first minute shows a zoom into images of Titan from Cassini's cameras, while the remainder of the movie depicts the view from Huygens during the last few hours of its historic descent and landing. 

It was October 15, 1997, when NASA's Cassini orbiter embarked on an epic, seven-year voyage to the Saturnian system. Hitching a ride was ESA's Huygens probe, destined for Saturn's largest moon, Titan. The final chapter of the interplanetary trek for Huygens began on 25 December 2004 when it deployed from the orbiter for a 21-day solo cruise toward the haze-shrouded moon. Plunging into Titan's atmosphere, on January 14 2005, the probe survived the hazardous 2 hour 27 minute descent to touch down safely on Titan’s frozen surface. Today, the Cassini spacecraft remains in orbit at Saturn. Its mission will end in 2017, 20 years after its journey began. More information and images from the mission at http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov

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133 Lectures about the Foundations of Modern Physics (Stanford Courses - Prof. Leonard Susskind)

133 Lectures about the Foundations of Modern Physics (Stanford Courses - Prof. Leonard Susskind) | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Free video course on Foundations of Modern Physics by Leonard Susskind of Stanford. This Stanford Continuing Studies course is a six-quarter sequence of classes exploring the essential theoretical foundations of modern physics.

 

This Stanford Continuing Studies course is a six-quarter sequence of classes exploring the essential theoretical foundations of modern physics. The topics covered in this course focus on classical mechanics, quantum mechanics, the general and special theories of relativity, electromagnatism, cosmology, black holes and statistical mechanics. While these courses build upon one another, each section of the course also stands on its own, and both individually and collectively they will allow the students to attain the "theoretical minnimum" for thinking intelligently about physics. Quantum theory governs the universe at its most basic level. In the first half of the 20th century physics was turned on its head by the radical discoveriies of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schroedinger. An entire new logical and mathematical foundation - quantum mechanics - eventually replaced classical physics. This course explores the quantum world, including the particle theory of light, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, and the Schroedinger Equation. The course is taught by Leonard Susskind, the Felix Bloch Professor of Physics at Stanford University.

 

Here is a comprehensive listing of all lectures from Dr. Susskind:

 

http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=189C0DCE90CB6D81
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA27CEA1B8B27EB67
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL5F9D6DB4231291BE
http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=84C10A9CB1D13841
http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=CCD6C043FEC59772
http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=6C8BDEEBA6BDC78D
http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=F363FFF951EC0673
http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=B72416C707D85AB0
http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=888811AA667C942F
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8BCB4981DD1A0108
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA2FDCCBC7956448F
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL3E633552E58EB230
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL47F408D36D4CF129
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL701CD168D02FF56F

 

http://glenmartin.wordpress.com/home/leonard-susskinds-online-lectures/

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Carlos Garcia Pando's comment, April 20, 2013 2:37 PM
Thanks for sharing. and Prof. Susskind too.
Tania Gammage's curator insight, May 12, 2013 11:47 PM

Awesome for HSC physics, six week sequence of classes.

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN's comment, May 13, 2013 6:57 AM
Any thanks, this is the way to go, sharing, sharing, sharing, curls to You
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Scientists use Brain Imaging to Reveal the Contents of Movies straight from our Mind

Using Hollywood movie trailers, UC Berkeley researchers have succeeded in decoding and reconstructing people's dynamic visual experiences. Against all odds, it was possible to reconstruct what people saw.


Via Sakis Koukouvis
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Argyria - why ingested silver turns skin blue

Ingesting too much silver can turn the skin blue and new research suggests the process is similar to developing black-and-white photographs. Scientists have known for years that the condition, called argyria, had something to do with silver. The condition has been documented in people who (ill-advisedly) drink antimicrobial health tonics containing silver nanoparticles and in people who have had extensive medical treatments involving silver.

 

Tissue samples from patients showed silver particles actually lodged deep in the skin, but it wasn’t clear how they got there. “It’s the first conceptual model giving the whole picture of how one develops this condition,” says Robert Hurt, professor of engineering at Brown University and a members of the research team. “What’s interesting here is that the particles someone ingests aren’t the particles that ultimately cause the disorder.”

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Video Collection from the First NASA Quantum Future Technologies Conference (2012)

Video Collection from the First NASA Quantum Future Technologies Conference (2012) | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
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Videos of machine learning, artificial intelligence and playful machines

Videos of machine learning, artificial intelligence and playful machines | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
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Scientific Animations Structural Biology Video Channel: ATP synthase structure and mechanism

Scientific Animations Structural Biology Video Channel: ATP synthase structure and mechanism | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
An ATP synthase is a general term for an enzyme that can synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate by utilizing some form of energy.
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Future of 3D - from a model of the heart to a talking human head – to be viewed from any angle

A new projector allows floating 3D objects – from a model of the heart to a talking human head – to be viewed from any angle.

 

The RayModeler prototype, developed by Sony, is on display for the first time in the UK at an exhibit at the British Library, London, called Growing Knowledge. The device creates 3D images that viewers can see from all angles without stereoscopic glasses. Sensors that recognise gestures allow it to be spun around when you wave your hand in the desired direction.

 

The system can recreate both static and moving objects. A static object can be captured on a turntable with a single camera, whereas many cameras are needed to capture motion. The shots are transformed into 360 images to be displayed by an LED light source in the system.

 

The library is featuring the display because it could be a powerful tool for researchers. "It has clear applications in anatomy and physiology," says Aleks Krotoski, researcher-in-residence at the British Library. "If you have an MRI scan you could look at it closely in 3D and manipulate it."

 

http://tinyurl.com/cg76hfa

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Helium 3 mining the moon possibly as soon as 2024

Helium-3 (He-3) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron. The Perfect Fuel of the Future. The abundance of helium-3 is thought to be greater on the Moon (embedded in the upper layer of regolith by the solar wind over billions of years) and the solar system's gas giants (left over from the original solar nebula), though still low in quantity (28 ppm of lunar regolith is helium-4 and from 0.01 ppm to 0.05 ppm is helium-3).

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Let's build a quantum computer!
Understanding the architecture of a quantum processor

Andreas Dewes explains why quantum computing is interesting, how it works and what you actually need to build a working quantum computer. He uses the superconducting two-qubit quantum processor which he built during his PhD thesis as an example to explain its basic building blocks. He shows how this processor can be used to achieve so-called quantum speed-up for a search algorithm that can be run on it. Finally, he gives a short overview of the current state of superconducting quantum computing and Google's recently announced effort to build a working quantum computer in cooperation with one of the leading research groups in this field.

 

Google recently announced that it is partnering up with John Martinis - one of the leading researchers on superconducting quantum computing - to build a working quantum processor. This announcement has sparked a lot of renewed interest in a topic that was mainly of academic interest before. So, if Google thinks it's worth the hassle to build quantum computers then there surely must be something about them after all?

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World record: First robot to solve a Rubik's Cube in under 1 second (0.887 s)

Prior to the world record attempt a WCA-conform modified speed cube was scrambled with a computer generated random array and positioned in the robot. Once the start button was hit two webcam shutters were moved away. Thereafter a laptop took two pictures, each picture showing three sides of the cube. Then the laptop identified all colors of the cube and calculated a solution with Tomas Rokicki's extremely fast implementation of Herbert Kociemba's Two-Phase-Algorithm. The solution was handed over to an Arduino-compatible microcontroller board that orchestrated the 20 moves of six high performance steppers. Only 887 milliseconds after the start button had been hit Sub1 broke a historic barrier and finished the last move in new world record time.

Needing several hundreds of working hours to construct, build, program and tune Sub1, it is the first robot that can independently inspect and solve a Rubik's Cube in under 1 second.

The world record has been approved by Guinness World Records on 18-Feb-2016.
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Cytotoxic T-cells destroying cancer cells captured on film

Cytotoxic T-cells destroying cancer cells captured on film | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A dramatic video has captured the behavior of cytotoxic T cells – the body’s ‘serial killers’ – as they hunt down and eliminate cancer cells before moving on to their next target.


In a study published today in the journal Immunity, a collaboration of researchers from the UK and the USA, led by Professor Gillian Griffiths at the University of Cambridge, describe how specialised members of our white blood cells known as cytotoxic T cells destroy tumour cells and virally-infected cells. Using state-of-the-art imaging techniques, the research team, with funding from the Wellcome Trust, has captured the process on film.

“Inside all of us lurks an army of serial killers whose primary function is to kill again and again,” explains Professor Griffiths, Director of the Cambridge Institute for Medical Research. “These cells patrol our bodies, identifying and destroying virally infected and cancer cells and they do so with remarkable precision and efficiency.”

There are billions of T cells within our blood – one teaspoon full of blood alone is believed to have around 5 million T cells, each measuring around 10 micrometres in length, about a tenth the width of a human hair. Each cell is engaged in the ferocious and unrelenting battle to keep us healthy. The cells, seen in the video as orange or green amorphous ‘blobs’ move around rapidly, investigating their environment as they travel.

When a cytotoxic T cell finds an infected cell or, in the case of the film, a cancer cell (blue), membrane protrusions rapidly explore the surface of the cell, checking for tell-tale signs that this is an uninvited guest. The T cell binds to the cancer cell and injects poisonous proteins known as cytotoxins (red) down special pathways called microtubules to the interface between the T cell and the cancer cell, before puncturing the surface of the cancer cell and delivering its deadly cargo.

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Monica S Mcfeeters's curator insight, May 23, 2015 8:10 PM

This is a Fascinating very short film!

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Scientists watch live taste cells in action

Scientists watch live taste cells in action | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Scientists have for the first time captured live images of the process of taste sensation on the tongue. The international team imaged single cells on the tongue of a mouse with a specially designed microscope system. "We've watched live taste cells capture and process molecules with different tastes," said biomedical engineer Dr Steve Lee, from the ANU Research School of Engineering.


There are more than 2,000 taste buds on the human tongue, which can distinguish at least five tastes: salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami.However the relationship between the many taste cells within a taste bud, and our perception of taste has been a long standing mystery, said Professor Seok-Hyun Yun from Harvard Medical School. "With this new imaging tool we have shown that each taste bud contains taste cells for different tastes," said Professor Yun.


The team also discovered that taste cells responded not only to molecules contacting the surface of the tongue, but also to molecules in the blood circulation." We were surprised by the close association between taste cells and blood vessels around them," said Assistant Professor Myunghwan (Mark) Choi, from the Sungkyunkwan University in South Korea. "We think that tasting might be more complex than we expected, and involve an interaction between the food taken orally and blood composition," he said.


The team imaged the tongue by shining a bright infrared laser on to the mouse's tongue, which caused different parts of the tongue and the flavor molecules to fluoresce. The scientists captured the fluorescence from the tongue with a technique known as intravital multiphoton microscopy. They were able to pick out the individual taste cells within each taste bud, as well as blood vessels up to 240 microns below the surface of the tongue. The breakthrough complements recent studies by other research groups that identified the areas in the brain associated with taste.


The team now hopes to develop an experiment to monitor the brain while imaging the tongue to track the full process of taste sensation. However to fully understand the complex interactions that form our basic sense of taste could take years, Dr Lee said. "Until we can simultaneously capture both the neurological and physiological events, we can't fully unravel the logic behind taste," he said.


The research has been published in the latest edition of Nature Publishing Group's Scientific Reports

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Tech Visionary Elon Musk Talks About Electric Cars, Spaceships, Mars Colonization and Hyperloops at D11

Tech Visionary Elon Musk Talks About Electric Cars, Spaceships, Mars Colonization and Hyperloops at D11 | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
"Mars is a fixer-upper of a planet, but we could make it work," says Tesla and SpaceX head Elon Musk.

 

Elon Musk dreams big. It’s hard not to get taken along for the ride — whether it’s a soon-to-launch cross-country Supercharger network that allows Tesla drivers to cross from Los Angeles to New York, an in-the-works reusable rocket that will help pioneer the colonization of Mars, or a hypothetical replacement for high-speed rail called the Hyperloop.

He was the evening speaker at D11 2013, where he said a mainstream Tesla is three to four years out, shook off electric car naysayers, announced the new nationwide Supercharger network, explained why he’s so excited about Mars, shared his views on immigration and how they diverged from FWD.us and tried to convince other smart folks to join him in doing big-picture stuff.

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Bonnie Bracey Sutton's curator insight, June 8, 2013 1:53 PM

Sharing great ideas.

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Strange Planetary Vistas from Kepler - Harvard Lecture

The study of extrasolar planets has recently entered its heyday with the launch of NASA's Kepler mission. Kepler has found that planetary systems are very common in our galaxy. Along the way, we've been surprised by the diversity of planetary systems, many of which bear little resemblance to our own solar system. Josh Carter presents these most alien of alien worlds, including planets orbiting two suns and a planetary system with two very different planets very close to one another.

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What We Still Don't Know: "Are We Real?" A mind-boggling journey to post-human life

Series from Channel 4 featuring Sir Martin Rees.

 

There is a fundamental chasm in our understanding of ourselves, the universe, and everything. To solve this, Sir Martin takes us on a mind-boggling journey through multiple universes to post-biological life. On the way we learn of the disturbing possibility that we could be the product of someone elses experiment.

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Evolving AI: Data Will Be Born From Artificial Worms

AI's next great species, the artificial worm, will link neuroscience with computing and catapult us into an age of Star Trek-like intelligent systems.


Via Jean-Philippe BOCQUENET
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The End of Space and Time? (by Prof. Robbert Dijkgraaf)

Robbert Dijkgraaf's focus is on string theory, quantum gravity, and the interface between mathematics and particle physics, bringing them together in an accessible way, looking at sciences, the arts and other matters.

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Deep-sea anglerfish filmed for the first time in its native environment over 7,800 feet down

This video shows never-before seen footage of a deep-sea angler fish, Chaunacops coloratus. The video is based on recent work by scientists at Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, and Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The video seen here was recorded by MBARI's ROV Doc Ricketts at depths of 7,800 - 10,800 feet below the ocean's surface.

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Molecular Visualizations of Biological Structures and Processes - From WEHI.TV Australia

The dynamics and molecular shapes were based on X-ray crystallographic models and other published scientific data sets. Leading scientists, including many Nobel Laureates, critiqued the animations during their development. Particular effort was made to ensure the relative shapes, sizes and 'real-time' dynamics were as accurate as possible.

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Demystifying the Higgs Boson with Leonard Susskind

Professor Susskind presents an explanation of what the Higgs mechanism is, and what it means to "give mass to particles." He also explains what's at stake for the future of physics and cosmology.

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