Amazing Science
743.7K views | +0 today
Follow
Amazing Science
Amazing science facts - 3D_printing • aging • AI • anthropology • art • astronomy • bigdata • bioinformatics • biology • biotech • chemistry • computers • cosmology • education • environment • evolution • future • genetics • genomics • geosciences • green_energy • history • language • map • material_science • math • med • medicine • microscopy • nanotech • neuroscience • paleontology • photography • photonics • physics • postings • robotics • science • technology • video
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

DeepMind: The Future of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is set to be a major part of the future of technology. Laboratories all over the world are making algorithms and machines that can do amazing feats, like make music or actually listen and speak like a human.

But with this level of progress, many are sounding warning bells regarding the development of super-intelligent AI. What will the future hold and why are some many companies and institutions working on improving AI at a rapid pace?

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald from levin's linkblog: Knowledge Channel
Scoop.it!

2076 - Prediction for our technological future – and it will blow your mind

2076 - Prediction for our technological future – and it will blow your mind | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

The New Scientist magazine is 60 years old this week, and what better thing to do on a landmark birthday than wax lyrical about a different time. But we're not going to hark back to the past. We’re going to gaze another 60 years forward, to 2076. In the articles below we will delve into how science and technology might upturn the world as we know it, for good and ill. Along the way we'll allow ourselves some reminiscences too. First, some thoughts about how to think about the future from New Scientist's editor-in-chief


Via Levin Chin
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Dialysis-like ‘biospleen’ quickly filters bacteria, fungi and toxins

Dialysis-like ‘biospleen’ quickly filters bacteria, fungi and toxins | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Things can go downhill fast when a patient has sepsis, a life-threatening condition in which bacteria or fungi multiply in the blood—often too fast for antibiotics to help.

 

A new device inspired by the human spleen and developed by a team at Harvard’s Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering may radically transform the way doctors treat sepsis. “Even with the best current treatments, sepsis patients are dying in intensive care units at least 30 percent of the time,” said Mike Super, senior staff scientist at the Wyss Institute. “We need a new approach.”

 

Sepsis kills at least 8 million people worldwide each year and is the leading cause of hospital deaths. The device, called a “biospleen,” exceeded the team’s expectations with its ability to cleanse human blood tested in the laboratory and to increase survival in animals with infected blood, as reported in Nature Medicine  on Sept. 14. In a matter of hours, it was able to filter live and dead pathogens from the blood, as well as dangerous toxins released from the pathogens. 

 

Sepsis occurs when a patient’s immune system overreacts to a bloodstream infection, triggering a chain reaction that can cause inflammation, blood clotting, organ damage and death. It can arise from a variety of infections, including appendicitis, urinary tract infections and skin or lung infections, as well as from contaminated IV lines, surgical sites and catheters.

 

Identifying the specific pathogen responsible for a patient’s sepsis can take several days, and in most cases the causative agent is never identified. If doctors are unable to pinpoint which types of bacteria or fungi are causing the infection, they treat sepsis patients empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotics—but these often fail, and they can have devastating side effects.

 

The sepsis treatment challenge continues to grow more complex as the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria increases while the development of new antibiotics lags.  “This is setting the stage for a perfect storm,” said Super, who was part of a team led by Wyss Institute Founding Director Don Ingber, the Judah Folkman Professor of Vascular Biology at Harvard Medical School and at the Vascular Biology Program at Boston Children’s Hospital.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

BMW's Futuristic Artificial Intelligence Motorcycle Balances on Its Own

BMW's Futuristic Artificial Intelligence Motorcycle Balances on Its Own | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

The motorcycle of the future is so smart that it could eliminate the need for protective gear, according to automaker BMW.

To mark its 100th birthday, BMW has unveiled a number of concept vehicles that imagine the future of transportation. Possibly its most daring revelation, the so-called Motorrad Vision Next 100 concept motorcycle is so advanced that BMW claims riders wouldn't need a helmet.

 

The Motorrad Vision Next 100 would have a self-balancing system that keeps the bike upright both in motion and when still. BMW touted the motorbike's futuristic features, saying it would allow for riders of all skill levels to "enjoy the sensation of absolute freedom." According to the automaker, the Motorrad wouldn't require protective gear such as helmets and padded suits.

 

Another traditional feature was also missing from the concept: a control panel. Instead, helmetless riders would wear a visor that acts as a smart display. "Information is exchanged between rider and bike largely via the smart visor," BMW said in a statement. "This spans the rider's entire field of view and provides not only wind protection but also relevant information, which it projects straight into the line of sight as and when it is needed." Such information would not be needed all the time because drivers will be able to hand over active control of the vehicle at points; the Motorrad and other Vision Next 100 vehicles would be equipped with self-driving technology, according to BMW.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald from Systems Theory
Scoop.it!

The future of brain and machine is intertwined, and it's already here

The future of brain and machine is intertwined, and it's already here | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

We might think our technological innovations are driving us towards a cyborg future, but is it the brain doing all the work?

 

Imagine a condition that leaves you fully conscious, but unable to move or communicate, as some victims of severe strokes or other neurological damage experience. This is locked-in syndrome, when the outward connections from the brain to the rest of the world are severed. Technology is beginning to promise ways of remaking these connections, but is it our ingenuity or the brain’s that is making it happen?

 

Ever since an 18th-century biologist called Luigi Galvani made a dead frog twitch we have known that there is a connection between electricity and the operation of the nervous system. We now know that the signals in neurons in the brain are propagated as pulses of electrical potential, whose effects can be detected by electrodes in close proximity. So in principle, we should be able to build an outward neural interface system – that is to say, a device that turns thought into action.

 

In fact, we already have the first outward neural interface system to be tested in humans. It is called BrainGate and consists of an array of micro-electrodes, implanted into the part of the brain concerned with controlling arm movements. Signals from the micro-electrodes are decoded and used to control the movement of a cursor on a screen, or the motion of a robotic arm.

 

A crucial feature of these systems is the need for some kind of feedback. A patient must be able to see the effect of their willed patterns of thought on the movement of the cursor. What’s remarkable is the ability of the brain to adapt to these artificial systems, learning to control them better.


Via Ben van Lier
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

New technology allows non-invasive glucose level testing via contact lens

New technology allows non-invasive glucose level testing via contact lens | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Blood testing is the standard option for checking glucose levels, but a new technology could allow non-invasive testing via a contact lens that samples glucose levels in tears. “There’s no noninvasive method to do this,” said Wei-Chuan Shih, a researcher with the University of Houston who worked with colleagues at UH and in Korea to develop the project, described in the high-impact journal Advanced Materials. “It always requires a blood draw. This is unfortunately the state of the art.”

 

But glucose is a good target for optical sensing, and especially for what is known as surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy, said Shih, an associate professor of electrical and computer engineering whose lab, the NanoBioPhotonics Group, works on optical biosensing enabled by nanoplasmonics.

 

This is an alternative approach, in contrast to a Raman spectroscopy-based noninvasive glucose sensor Shih developed as a Ph.D. student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He holds two patents for technologies related to directly probing skin tissue using laser light to extract information about glucose concentrations.  

 

The paper describes the development of a tiny device, built from multiple layers of gold nanowires stacked on top of a gold film and produced using solvent-assisted nanotransfer printing, which optimized the use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering to take advantage of the technique’s ability to detect small molecular samples.

 

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering – named for Indian physicist C.V. Raman, who discovered the effect in 1928 – uses information about how light interacts with a material to determine properties of the molecules that make up the material.

 

The device enhances the sensing properties of the technique by creating “hot spots,” or narrow gaps within the nanostructure which intensified the Raman signal, the researchers said.  

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

New Smart Tattoos Let You Control Your Mobile Phone Using Your Skin

New Smart Tattoos Let You Control Your Mobile Phone Using Your Skin | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

In a recent post about biohacking, I wrote about people who have implanted chips into their bodies to benefit their health, simplify their lives, or connect themselves to an external network. Though some have been quick to adopt it, biohacking is still a relatively new and bizarre trend that makes many people wary. The thought of burying chips in our arms is unsettling, and most of us would only do it if it was medically necessary. But for those who are curious yet not quite ready to take the chip-implantation plunge, there’s now another way to join the biohacking party: temporary tattoos.

 

Created by MIT PhD student Cindy Hsin-Liu Kao in conjunction with Microsoft Research, the Duoskintattoos transfer onto your skin with water, and they can be customized for both aesthetic and functional purposes. Hsin-Liu Kao presented her paper about the tattoos at the International Symposium on Wearable Computers in Heidelberg, Germany last week.

 

The first step in creating a tattoo is to make a tiny circuit board using graphic design software. A stencil of the circuit is created by applying a layer of vinyl film onto tattoo paper, then gold leaf is layered over the stencil to act as conductive material. The last step is to surface-mount electronics. All tattoos except those with an NFC chip connect to a microcontroller that processes sensor data, supplies power, and links devices through Bluetooth. The total cost of creating a three by four centimeter squared NFC tag is less than $2.50.

 

In trials, the team tested conductive thread and copper tape as alternatives to gold leaf, but found gold leaf to be the most durable and the most skin-friendly.

more...
Adele Taylor's curator insight, October 4, 2016 8:45 PM

Have I missed something?

I didn't know micro-chipping your body was a thing, would you do it?

Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

'Artificial pancreas' for type 1 diabetes wins FDA approval

'Artificial pancreas' for type 1 diabetes wins FDA approval | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

The Food and Drug Administration approved a so-called artificial pancreas Wednesday. The first-of-its-kind device, the size of a cell phone, monitors and treats patients with type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes.

 

In those with type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, a hormone people need to get energy from food. The Medtronic MiniMed 670G system continuously monitors glucose (blood sugar) levels and delivers needed insulin to patients.

 

"This is a revolutionary day for the treatment of diabetes. We've been long awaiting the artificial pancreas, and it's exciting to see it," said Dr. Robert Courgi, an endocrinologist at Northwell Health's South Side Hospital in Bay Shore, New York.

 

The device, which requires a prescription and will become available during the spring, is intended for patients 14 or older, according to the company's website.
 
The Medtronic system includes a glucose meter (an electrode under the skin), an insulin pump strapped to the body and an infusion patch connected to the pump, with a tiny catheter for delivering insulin. The system measures a patient's glucose levels every five minutes and either administers or withholds insulin as needed, helping patients maintain glucose levels within the normal range the majority of the time.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald from Nostri Orbis
Scoop.it!

Will Intelligent Machines Eliminate Us?

Will Intelligent Machines Eliminate Us? | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Yoshua Bengio leads one of the world’s preëminent research groups developing a powerful AI technique known as deep learning. The startling capabilities that deep learning has given computers in recent years, from human-level voice recognition and image classification to basic conversational skills, have prompted warnings about the progress AI is making toward matching, or perhaps surpassing, human intelligence. Prominent figures such as Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk have even cautioned that artificial intelligence could pose an existential threat to humanity. Musk and others are investing millions of dollars in researching the potential dangers of AI, as well as possible solutions. But the direst statements sound overblown to many of the people who are actually developing the technology. Bengio, a professor of computer science at the University of Montreal, put things in perspective in an interview with MIT Technology Review’s senior editor for AI and robotics, Will Knight.


Via Fernando Gil
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Reach in and touch objects in videos with “Interactive Dynamic Video" from MIT

Reach in and touch objects in videos with “Interactive Dynamic Video" from MIT | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

We learn a lot about objects by manipulating them: poking, pushing, prodding, and then seeing how they react.

We obviously can’t do that with videos — just try touching that cat video on your phone and see what happens. But is it crazy to think that we could take that video and simulate how the cat moves, without ever interacting with the real one?

 

Researchers from MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) have recently done just that, developing an imaging technique called Interactive Dynamic Video (IDV) that lets you reach in and “touch” objects in videos. Using traditional cameras and algorithms, IDV looks at the tiny, almost invisible vibrations of an object to create video simulations that users can virtually interact with.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Delphi to Test World-First Self-Driving Taxi Service In Singapore

Delphi to Test World-First Self-Driving Taxi Service In Singapore | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Robotaxi tests will soon begin in Singapore, and commercial service is projected for 2019, says Delphi, the auto supplier that’s running the project alongside the Singaporean government and with help from Mobileye.  

 

“It’s one of the first, if not the very first, pilot programs where we’ll demonstrate mobility-on-demand systems,” Glen DeVos, a Delphi senior vice president, told Bloomberg News at a press briefing at the company’s headquarters in Troy, Michigan.

 

Mobility on demand is fancy-speak for ride-hailing, such as Uber and Lyft offer.  DeVos added that later this year Delphi will announce similar programs in Europe and the United States. 

 

Nutonomy, a spinoff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has already road-tested its own robotaxi concept in Singapore’s central business district. That company also plans to go commercial soon.

 

Delphi’s first modified cars—Audi Q5’s, fitted with extra sensors—will have drivers behind the wheel and will follow three, well-mapped circuits just 5.6 kilometers (3.5 miles) around. After researchers gain experience, they will let the cars dispense with their human minders and range over the entire city-state.

 

Singapore, as an island, is a good testbed because of its compact size, sober drivers, unified government, and congested roads. Robotaxis can ease congestion because they should decrease the number of cars on the road and they rarely need a parking space. A cab ride in a dense urban area can cost US $3 to 4 a mile, DeVos said. “We think we can get to 90 cents a mile.” 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Will Organs-in-a-Dish Ever Replace Animal Models?

Will Organs-in-a-Dish Ever Replace Animal Models? | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Increasingly sophisticated tissue organoids can model many aspects of disease, but animal studies retain a fundamental role in research, scientists say.

 

From mini brains to mini kidneys, an increasing number of organ models can now be grown in vitro. Some of these “organoids” can even perform certain functions of the human body in both health and disease, reducing the need for animal models. But organoid-based models still can’t fully recapitulate complex aspects of physiology that can only be studied in whole organisms.

 

“I believe that organoid models will replace a lot of current animal experimentation,” Hans Clevers of the Hubrecht Institute in Utrecht, Netherlands, one of the field’s pioneers, wrote in an email to The Scientist. However, “a living organism is more than the sum of its parts,” he added. “There will always be the need for confirmation of any finding . . . in vivo.”

 

Organoids are three-dimensional miniature organs grown in vitro from adult or embryonic stem cells under chemical and physical conditions that mimic the human body. Clevers and colleagues grew the first mini guts in 2009; since then, researchers have succeeded in growing mini brains, kidneys, livers, pancreases, and prostate glands (see “Orchestrating Organoids,” The Scientist, September 1, 2015).

 

One area where organoids are well suited to reduce the use of animal models is toxicology, Clevers and others have noted.

Many drugs prove successful in mouse models only to fail in human trials. Organoids, on the other hand, can be grown from human stem cells. “The fact that [the cells are] human is really important,” James Wells, a professor of pediatrics at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center whose lab develops stomach organoids, told The Scientist. “There can be very different responses to drugs in a mouse and a human.”

 

Another advantage of organoids is that they can be used for personalized medicine.

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Skull implant delivers life-saving laser treatments to patients with brain disorders

Skull implant delivers life-saving laser treatments to patients with brain disorders | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Researchers at the University of California, Riverside have developed a transparent “window to the brain” — a skull implant that is biocompatible, infection-resistant, and does not need to be repetitively replaced.

 

Part of the ongoing “Window to the Brain” project, a multi-institution, cross-disciplinary effort, the idea is to use transparent skull implants to provide laser diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of brain pathologies, including brain cancers, traumatic brain injury, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases, without requiring repeated craniotomies (a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain). Such operations are vulnerable to bacterial infections.

 

The researchers have developed a transparent version of the material yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), a ceramic material used in hip implants and dental crowns.

 

The researchers implanted the material in a hamster, where it integrated into the host tissue without causing an immune response or other adverse effects, as they describe in a paper in the journal Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine. The internal toughness of YSZ, which is more impact-resistant and biocompatible than the titanium, thermoplastic polymers, and glass-based materials developed by other researchers, makes it “the only transparent skull implant that could conceivably be used in humans,” according to the researchers.

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Singularity 2045: The Year Man Becomes Immortal Or Is No Longer Needed

Singularity 2045: The Year Man Becomes Immortal Or Is No Longer Needed | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

We're fast approaching the moment when humans and machines merge. Welcome to the Singularity movement.

 

On Feb. 15, 1965, a diffident but self-possessed high school student named Raymond Kurzweil appeared as a guest on a game show called I've Got a Secret. He was introduced by the host, Steve Allen, then he played a short musical composition on a piano. The idea was that Kurzweil was hiding an unusual fact and the panelists — they included a comedian and a former Miss America — had to guess what it was. On the show (the clip on YouTube), the beauty queen did a good job of grilling Kurzweil, but the comedian got the win: the music was composed by a computer. Kurzweil got $200. (Watch TIME's video "Singularity: How Scared Should We Be?")

 

Kurzweil then demonstrated 'the computer', which he built himself — a desk-size affair with loudly clacking relays, hooked up to a typewriter. The panelists were pretty blasé about it; they were more impressed by Kurzweil's young age than by anything he had actually done. They were ready to move on to Mrs. Chester Loney of Rough and Ready, Calif., whose secret was that she'd been President Lyndon Johnson's first-grade teacher.

 

But Kurzweil would spend much of the rest of his career working out what his demonstration meant. Creating a work of art is one of those activities we reserve for humans and humans only. It's an act of self-expression; you're not supposed to be able to do it if you don't have a self. To see creativity, the exclusive domain of humans, usurped by a computer built by a 17-year-old is to watch a line blur that cannot be unblurred, the line between organic intelligence and artificial intelligence.

 

That was Kurzweil's real secret, and back in 1965 nobody guessed it. Maybe not even him, not yet. But now, 46 years later, Kurzweil believes that we're approaching a moment when computers will become intelligent, and not just intelligent but more intelligent than humans. When that happens, humanity — our bodies, our minds, our civilization — will be completely and irreversibly transformed. He believes that this moment is not only inevitable but imminent. According to his calculations, the end of human civilization as we know it is about 35 years away.

(See the best inventions of 2010.)

 

Computers are getting faster. Everybody knows that. Also, computers are getting faster faster — that is, the rate at which they're getting faster is increasing. True? True. So if computers are getting so much faster, so incredibly fast, there might conceivably come a moment when they are capable of something comparable to human intelligence. That 'something' is Artificial intelligence or often called AI. All that horsepower could be put in the service of emulating whatever it is our brains are doing when they create consciousness — not just doing arithmetic very quickly or composing piano music but also driving cars, writing books, making ethical decisions, appreciating fancy paintings, making witty observations at cocktail parties.

 

If you can swallow that idea, and Kurzweil and a lot of other very smart people can, then all bets are off. From that point on, there's no reason to think computers would stop getting more powerful. They would keep on developing until they were far more intelligent than we are. Their rate of development would also continue to increase, because they would take over their own development from their slower-thinking human creators. Imagine a computer scientist that was itself a super-intelligent computer. It would work incredibly quickly. It could draw on huge amounts of data effortlessly. It wouldn't even take breaks to play Farmville. (See the best inventions of 2010.)

 

Probably. But it's impossible to predict the behavior of these smarter-than-human intelligences with which (with whom?) we might one day share the planet, because if you could, you'd be as smart as they would be. But there are a lot of theories about it. Maybe we'll merge with them to become super-intelligent cyborgs, using computers to extend our intellectual abilities the same way that cars and planes extend our physical abilities. Maybe the artificial intelligences will help us treat the effects of old age and prolong our life spans indefinitely. Maybe we'll scan our consciousnesses into computers and live inside them as software, forever, virtually. Maybe the computers will turn on humanity and annihilate us. The one thing all these theories have in common is the transformation of our species into something that is no longer recognizable as such to humanity circa 2011. This transformation has a name: the Singularity.

 

The difficult thing to keep sight of when you're talking about the Singularity is that even though it sounds like science fiction, it isn't, no more than a weather forecast is science fiction. It's not a fringe idea; it's a serious hypothesis about the future of life on Earth. There's an intellectual gag reflex that kicks in anytime you try to swallow an idea that involves super-intelligent immortal cyborgs, but suppress it if you can, because while the Singularity appears to be, on the face of it, preposterous, it's an idea that rewards sober, careful evaluation.

 

more...
Denis Lundie's curator insight, January 11, 7:15 PM
As extreme as the opposing article earlier, and also reflects that people who should understand scientific revolutions, hype etc, still put out this sort of stuff.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Venus-like greenhouse effect? Global world temperature might rise over 7˚C within 100 years

Venus-like greenhouse effect? Global world temperature might rise over 7˚C within 100 years | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Global mean surface temperatures are rising in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The magnitude of this warming at equilibrium for a given radiative forcing—referred to as specific equilibrium climate sensitivity (S)—is still subject to many uncertainties. A team of scientists now estimate global mean temperature variations and S using a 784,000-year-long field reconstruction of sea surface temperatures and a transient paleoclimate model simulation. Their results reveal that S is strongly dependent on the climate background state, with significantly larger values attained during warm phases. Using the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 for future greenhouse radiative forcing, they find that the range of paleo-based estimates of Earth’s future warming by 2100 CE overlaps with the upper range of climate simulations conducted as part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Furthermore, they find that within the 21st century, global mean temperatures will very likely exceed maximum levels reconstructed for the last 784,000 years and could rise up to 7 degrees centigrade. On the basis of temperature data from eight glacial cycles, these results provide an independent validation of the magnitude of current CMIP5 warming projections.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Stephen Wolfram: AI & The Future Of Human Civilization

Stephen Wolfram: AI & The Future Of Human Civilization | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

What makes us different from all these things? What makes us different is the particulars of our history, which gives us our notions of purpose and goals. That's a long way of saying when we have the box on the desk that thinks as well as any brain does, the thing it doesn't have, intrinsically, is the goals and purposes that we have. Those are defined by our particulars—our particular biology, our particular psychology, our particular cultural history.

 

The thing we have to think about as we think about the future of these things is the goals. That's what humans contribute, that's what our civilization contributes—execution of those goals; that's what we can increasingly automate. We've been automating it for thousands of years. We will succeed in having very good automation of those goals. I've spent some significant part of my life building technology to essentially go from a human concept of a goal to something that gets done in the world.

 

There are many questions that come from this. For example, we've got these great AIs and they're able to execute goals, how do we tell them what to do?...

 

STEPHEN WOLFRAM, distinguished scientist, inventor, author, and business leader, is Founder & CEO, Wolfram Research; Creator, Mathematica, Wolfram|Alpha & the Wolfram Language; Author, A New Kind of Science. Stephen Wolfram's Edge Bio Page

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald from CIC biomaGUNE
Scoop.it!

Real-time, observable MRI delivery updated to improve stem cell therapy for Parkinson's

Real-time, observable MRI delivery updated to improve stem cell therapy for Parkinson's | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

In a study using Real-time intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (RT-IMRI) to guide the transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons into the brains of non-human primates modeled with Parkinson's disease, researchers found that RT-IMRI guidance not only allows for better visualization and monitoring of the procedure, but also helps cell survival.

 

 

Induced pluripotent stem cells, a type of stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells, offer great benefits for regenerative medicine as they propagate indefinitely and can differentiate into a variety of cell types, such as neurons, heart, pancreatic, and liver cells.

 

In previous studies, the researchers have found that while iPSC-derived neurons provide great opportunities for cell replacement they also present challenges.

 

"Our team developed an MRI-compatible trajectory guidance system that has been successful for intraoperative MRI," said study lead author Dr. Marina E. Emborg, Preclinical Parkinson's Research Program Center, Wisconsin National Primate Research Center University of Wisconsin-Madison. "We recently upgraded the system for real-time targeting and guidance and, as a result of the improvements, the procedure provides several advances for cell delivery."


Via MBN Comunicación
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald from Science and Global Education Trends
Scoop.it!

Paralyzed man regains use of arms and hands after stem cell therapy

Paralyzed man regains use of arms and hands after stem cell therapy | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Doctors at the USC Neurorestoration Center and Keck Medicine of USC injected an experimental treatment made from stem cells and other cells into the damaged cervical spine of a recently paralyzed 21-year-old man as part of a multi-center clinical trial. Two weeks after surgery, Kristopher (Kris) Boesen began to show signs of improvement. Three months later, he’s able to feed himself, use his cell phone, write his name, operate a motorized wheelchair, and hug his friends and family. Improved sensation and movement in both arms and hands also make it easier for Kris to care for himself, and to envision a life lived more independently.

 

“Typically, spinal cord injury patients undergo surgery that stabilizes the spine but generally does very little to restore motor or sensory function,” explains Charles Liu, MD, PhD, director of the USC Neurorestoration Center. “With this study, we are testing a procedure that may improve neurological function, which could mean the difference between being permanently paralyzed and being able to use one’s arms and hands. Restoring that level of function could significantly improve the daily lives of patients with severe spinal injuries.”


Via Kathy Bosiak
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Touchable Holograms Are Becoming a Reality

Touchable Holograms Are Becoming a Reality | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Scientists from Japan have created touchable holograms which are named as Fairy lights. This development could well lead to human beings able to interact with holograms.

 

In particular, this technology could do very well in medicine industry as it can be used to demonstrate complex procedures.

 

According to the research paper presented by the scientists, the holograms used during the research were made from femtosecond lasers, “a laser that can excite physical matter to emit light in 3D form” explained by the paper.

 

Furthermore, the lasers can product anywhere between 1000 to 200,000 pulses per second. The rate for frequency depends on the type of lasers used. During tests, pulses responded to the human touch which made it possible for them to be disrupted in the air. 

more...
Rescooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald from CIC biomaGUNE
Scoop.it!

Nanosensors could help determine tumors' ability to remodel tissue

Nanosensors could help determine tumors' ability to remodel tissue | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

MIT researchers have designed nanosensors that can profile tumors and may yield insight into how they will respond to certain therapies.

 

Once adapted for humans, this type of sensor could be used to determine how aggressive a tumor is and help doctors choose the best treatment, says Sangeeta Bhatia, the John and Dorothy Wilson Professor of Health Sciences and Technology and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and a member of MIT's Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research.

 

"This approach is exciting because people are developing therapies that are protease-activated," Bhatia says. "Ideally you'd like to be able to stratify patients based on their protease activity and identify which ones would be good candidates for these therapies."

 

Once injected into the tumor site, the nanosensors are activated by a magnetic field that is harmless to healthy tissue. After interacting with and being modified by the target tumor proteins, the sensors are secreted in the urine, where they can be easily detected in less than an hour.

 

Bhatia and Polina Anikeeva, the Class of 1942 Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, are the senior authors of the paper, which appears in the journal Nano Letters. The paper's lead authors are Koch Institute postdoc Simone Schurle and graduate student Jaideep Dudani.

 

Tumors, especially aggressive ones, often have elevated protease levels. These enzymes help tumors spread by cleaving proteins that compose the extracellular matrix, which normally surrounds cells and holds them in place.

 

In 2014, Bhatia and colleagues reported using nanoparticles that interact with a type of protease known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to diagnose cancer. In that study, the researchers delivered nanoparticles carrying peptides, or short protein fragments, designed to be cleaved by the MMPs. If MMPs were present, hundreds of cleaved peptides would be excreted in the urine, where they could be detected with a simple paper test similar to a pregnancy test.

 

In the new study, the researchers wanted to adapt the sensors so that they could report on the traits of tumors in a known location. To do that, they needed to ensure that the sensors were only producing a signal from the target organ, unaffected by background signals that might be produced in the bloodstream. They first designed sensors that could be activated with light once they reached their target. That required the use of ultraviolet light, however, which doesn't penetrate very far into tissue.


Via MBN Comunicación
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Start-up Humai wants to transfer consciousness to an artificial body to live forever

Start-up Humai wants to transfer consciousness to an artificial body to live forever | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Forever young?

 

With the rise of brain-controlled robotic limbs, advanced biomedical implants, and life-saving medical treatments, it seems as though in the modern day, we're closer than ever to conquering death. Some hope to extend the human lifetime indefinitely. Singularity proponents hope that eventually we'll be able to upload our consciousness to computers.

 

Now the company Humai aims to bring people back from the dead. From their website:

 

  • We're using artificial intelligence and nanotechnology to store data of conversational styles, behavioral patterns, thought processes and information about how your body functions from the inside-out. This data will be coded into multiple sensor technologies, which will be built into an artificial body with the brain of a deceased human.

 

If it sounds like something out of science fiction, that's because it is. The challenges are significant: taking a dead brain and bringing it back to life; wiring up the brain so that it can control a silicon-based machine; and trying to replicate that vital thing that is you--your personality, your past experiences, your mind. We wouldn't bet on this thing working, at least not anytime soon. But hopefully it won't hurt to try.

 

The CEO and founder of Humai explains: "Our mission is fairly simple to understand but obviously difficult to execute. We'll first collect extensive data on our members for years prior to their death via various apps we're developing. After death we'll freeze the brain using cryonics technology. When the technology is fully developed we'll implant the brain into an artificial body. The artificial body functions will be controlled with your thoughts by measuring brain waves. As the brain ages we'll use nanotechnology to repair and improve cells. Cloning technology is going to help with this too. Every step we take toward understanding how to get your thoughts to control an artificial body will be huge progress. I'm confident that in the process we'll develop a technology that will even save lives. However, the ultimate test will be when we perform the first surgical procedure to implant a human brain to an artificial body."

 

Humai CEO's answer is: "in Bionics, nanotechnology and artificial intelligence. I think the body has limitations and I don't believe the body was evolved with the best possible functions. I think an artificial body will contribute more to the human experience. It will extend the human experience. So much so, that those who accept death will probably change their mind."

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald from Future Technology
Scoop.it!

The Next Wearable Technology Could Be Your Skin

The Next Wearable Technology Could Be Your Skin | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Technology can be awkward. Our pockets are weighed down with ever-larger smartphones that are a pain to pull out when we’re in a rush. And attempts to make our devices more easily accessible with smartwatches have so far fallen flat. But what if a part of your body could become your computer, with a screen on your arm and maybe even a direct link to your brain?

 

Artificial electronic skin (e-skin) could one day make this a possibility. Researchers are developing flexible, bendable and even stretchable electronic circuits that can be applied directly to the skin. As well as turning your skin into a touchscreen, this could also help replace feeling if you’ve suffered burns or problems with your nervous system.

 

The simplest version of this technology is essentially an electronic tattoo. In 2004, researchers in the US and Japan unveiled a pressure sensor circuit made from pre-stretched thinned silicon strips that could be applied to the forearm. But inorganic materials such as silicon are rigid and the skin is flexible and stretchy. So researchers are now looking to electronic circuits made from organic materials (usually special plastics or forms of carbon such as graphene that conduct electricity) as the basis of e-skin.

 

Typical e-skin consists of a matrix of different electronic components — flexible transistors, organic LEDs, sensors and organic photovoltaic (solar) cells — connected to each other by stretchable or flexible conductive wires. These devices are often built up from very thin layers of material that are sprayed or evaporated onto a flexible base, producing a large (up to tens of cm2) electronic circuit in a skin-like form.


Via Anna Hu , TechinBiz
more...
Anna Hu 's curator insight, June 30, 2016 7:55 PM
How cool is this
Gust MEES's curator insight, July 1, 2016 8:24 AM
Technology can be awkward. Our pockets are weighed down with ever-larger smartphones that are a pain to pull out when we’re in a rush. And... read more

 

Learn more / En savoir plus / Mehr erfahren:

 

http://www.scoop.it/t/21st-century-innovative-technologies-and-developments/?tag=wearables

 

 

Rescooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald from Limitless learning Universe
Scoop.it!

Ultrathin, transparent oxide thin-film transistors for wearable display

Ultrathin, transparent oxide thin-film transistors for wearable display | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

With the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) era, strong demand has grown for wearable and transparent displays that can be applied to various fields such as augmented reality (AR) and skin-like thin flexible devices. However, previous flexible transparent displays have posed real challenges to overcome, which are, among others, poor transparency and low electrical performance. To improve the transparency and performance, past research efforts have tried to use inorganic-based electronics, but the fundamental thermal instabilities of plastic substrates have hampered the high temperature process, an essential step necessary for the fabrication of high performance electronic devices.

 

As a solution to this problem, a research team led by Professors Keon Jae Lee and Sang-Hee Ko Park of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) has developed ultrathin and transparent oxide thin-film transistors (TFT) for an active-matrix backplane of a flexible display by using the inorganic-based laser lift-off (ILLO) method. Professor Lee's team previously demonstrated the ILLO technology for energy-harvesting (Advanced Materials, February 12, 2014) and flexible memory (Advanced Materials, September 8, 2014) devices.

 

The research team fabricated a high-performance oxide TFT array on top of a sacrificial laser-reactive substrate. After laser irradiation from the backside of the substrate, only the oxide TFT arrays were separated from the sacrificial substrate as a result of reaction between laser and laser-reactive layer, and then subsequently transferred onto ultrathin plastics (4μm thickness). Finally, the transferred ultrathin-oxide driving circuit for the flexible display was attached conformally to the surface of human skin to demonstrate the possibility of the wearable application. The attached oxide TFTs showed high optical transparency of 83% and mobility of 40 cm^2 V^(-1) s^(-1) even under several cycles of severe bending tests.

 

Professor Lee said, "By using our ILLO process, the technological barriers for high performance transparent flexible displays have been overcome at a relatively low cost by removing expensive polyimide substrates. Moreover, the high-quality oxide semiconductor can be easily transferred onto skin-like or any flexible substrate for wearable application."


Via Mariaschnee, CineversityTV
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

New haptic shoes can avoid stumbles, from spacewalks to sidewalks

New haptic shoes can avoid stumbles, from spacewalks to sidewalks | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

MIT engineers find a new haptic interface could enable obstacle avoidance both for astronauts engaged in extravehicular activity and for the visually impaired.

 

Video of astronauts tripping over moon rocks can make for entertaining Internet viewing, but falls in space can jeopardize astronauts’ missions and even their lives. Getting to one’s feet in a bulky, pressurized spacesuit can consume time and precious oxygen reserves, and falls increase the risk that the suit will be punctured.

 

Most falls happen because spacesuits limit astronauts’ ability to both see and feel the terrain around them, so researchers from MIT’s Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AeroAstro) and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts are developing a new space boot with built-in sensors and tiny “haptic” motors, whose vibrations can guide the wearer around or over obstacles.

 

Recently, at the International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, the researchers presented the results of a preliminary study designed to determine what types of stimuli, administered to what parts of the foot, could provide the best navigation cues. On the basis of that study, they’re planning further trials using a prototype of the boot.

 

The work could also have applications in the design of navigation systems for the visually impaired. The development of such systems has been hampered by a lack of efficient and reliable means of communicating spatial information to users.

 

“A lot of students in my lab are looking at this question of how you map wearable-sensor information to a visual display, or a tactile display, or an auditory display, in a way that can be understood by a nonexpert in sensor technologies,” says Leia Stirling, an assistant professor of AeroAstro and an associate faculty member at MIT’s Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, whose group led the work.

 

“This initial pilot study allowed Alison Gibson, a graduate student in AeroAstro and first author on the paper, to learn about how she could create a language for that mapping.” Gibson and Stirling are joined on the paper by Andrea Webb, a psychophysiologist at Draper.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Why Tomorrow Won't Look Like Today: Things that Advance at Rapid Speed

Just when it seems that technology can't amaze us further, here comes a new batch of next-gen, gee-whiz projects en route to reality. Our panel of big thinkers opens a window on tomorrow. Have you heard of asteroid mining? Eric Anderson's company plans to probe space rocks for water and platinum group metals. Or how about John Kelly's vaunted IBM research team, tooling up its Watson technology (of "Jeopardy!" fame) to help sequence DNA and speed cancer treatment? Or Eric David's Organovo scientists developing printing capabilities to create living tissue--and even human organs--on demand? From the vastness of the cosmos to the microscopic foundations of life, this panel of visionaries points us to the marvels of the future.

more...
No comment yet.