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Just a Few Cells Can Make a Whole Heart Muscle

Just a Few Cells Can Make a Whole Heart Muscle | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Just a handful of cells in the embryo are all that's needed to form the outer layer of pumping heart muscle in an adult zebrafish.

 

Researchers at Duke University Medical Center used zebrafish embryos and careful employment of a new technique that allows for up to 90 color labels on different cells to track individual cells and cell lines as the heart formed.

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Learn to program AI, or face the consequences, experts say

Learn to program AI, or face the consequences, experts say | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
A future dominated by artificial intelligence is quickly approaching. But according to Lars Hård, CTO of A.I. software company ExpertMaker, the time is now for the masses to master A.I. development in order to avoid a future controlled by savvy corporations.

 

You’ve heard it before: In the future, machines will rule us all. To some extent, they already do. We are increasingly tied to our gadgets and gizmos. They answer our questions, provide entertainment, and connect us with one another. But as technology advances, these machines will become staggeringly intelligent. Not long from now, teaching machines artificial intelligence, or how to learn on their own, will become as important as learning how to program is today.

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How Tiny Transistors Are Born in a Near-Total Vacuum

How Tiny Transistors Are Born in a Near-Total Vacuum | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Nanotransistors just got a lot more nano. A new chip construction process cooked up by Applied Materials in Santa Clara creates transistors so small they can be measured in smatterings of atoms.

 

The company can now coax a few dozen of the little guys to assemble themselves into a base layer that helps control the flow of electricity on computer chips. The biggest development is the manufacturing process: Applied Materials devised a way to keep several interconnected manufacturing machines in a near-total vacuum—at this level, a single stray nanoparticle can ruin everything.

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Gamma ray optics: A viable tool for a new branch of scientific discovery

Gamma ray optics: A viable tool for a new branch of scientific discovery | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Scientists at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) have demonstrated for the first time that gamma rays, a highly energetic form of light produced by radioactive decay of atomic nuclei and amongst other used to kill cancer cells can be bent.

 

Their discovery overturns decades of theoretical predictions and opens the door to a new field of science called nuclear photonics. By bending and focusing the rays into concentrated beams, gamma ray microscopes could remotely scan for dangerous nuclear material in ships or trucks, monitor nuclear waste or provide selective, less destructive medical imaging for cancer diagnostics and treatment.

 

The refraction of light occurs when it passes from one medium to another causing it to change speed. The manipulation of light rays, used by Galileo in 1609 to build his famous telescopes, is also possible for other forms of radiation as long as you can refract them sufficiently. However, as you move up the energy radiation spectrum to x-rays, the amount of refraction decreases. As a result it wasn’t until the end of the 20th century when researchers combined hundreds of optical lenses that they were able to build the focusing instruments for x-rays that are used today in facilities such as the Diamond Light Source and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility to probe materials on the nano-scale.

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Discovery of a new family of key mitochondrial proteins for the function and viability of the brain

Discovery of a new family of key mitochondrial proteins for the function and viability of the brain | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A team headed by Eduardo Soriano at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) has published a study in Nature Communications describing a new family of six genes whose function regulates the movement and position of mitochondria in neurons. Many neurological conditions, including Parkinson's and various types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, are caused by alterations of genes that control mitochondrial transport, a process that provides the energy required for cell function.

 

By means of comparative genomic analyses, the scientists have discovered that these genes are found only in more evolved mammals, the so-called Eutharia, these characterized by internal fertilization and development. "This finding indicates the relevance of mitochondrial biology. When the brain evolved in size, function and structure, the mitochondrial transport process also became more complex and probably required additional regulatory mechanisms", says Soriano. "Likewise, given the origin of the gene cluster, in the transition between primitive mammals, such as marsupials (kangaroos) and the remaining placental mammals, it is tempting to propose that the cluster is linked to the increased complexity of the cerebral cortex in the lineage that leads to humans.

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Quantum "Graviton" Particles May Resemble Ordinary Particles of Force

Quantum "Graviton" Particles May Resemble Ordinary Particles of Force | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Recently a silent revolution has swept through physicists’ understanding of particle collisions. The concepts introduced by the iconic physicist Richard Feynman have reached the limit of their usefulness for many applications, and the authors and their colleagues have developed a fresh approach. Using it, physicists can describe more reliably how ordinary particles behave under the extreme conditions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, aiding experimentalists in their search for exotic particles and forces. More profoundly, the novel methods breathe new life into a unified theory that physicists left for dead in the 1980s. The force of gravity looks like two copies of the strong subnuclear interactions working in unison.

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Mini mammoth once roamed Crete

Mini mammoth once roamed Crete | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Evolution crafted pint-sized pachyderm on Mediterranean island.

 

VIDEO: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JCRbJZaOTUc&feature=colike


Via Sakis Koukouvis
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First drug made in genetically-engineered plants cleared to enter the market

First drug made in genetically-engineered plants cleared to enter the market | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Approval of a ‘biologic’ manufactured in plant cells may pave the way for similar products.

 

Drugs that are based on large biological molecules — known as biologics — have been produced inside genetically engineered animal cells, yeast and bacteria for more than two decades. Insulin has been made by genetically modified Escherichia coli bacteria since 1982, and by 2010, the global market for such therapies had reached about US$149 billion.

 

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Tidal heating near dwarf stars shrinks the 'goldilocks zone'

Tidal heating near dwarf stars shrinks the 'goldilocks zone' | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Overlooked factor suggests fewer habitable planets than thought. Planets orbiting close to M-class dwarf stars may experience too much tidal heating to be able to maintain liquid water.

 

A previously little-considered heating effect could shrink estimates of the habitable zone of the Milky Way’s most numerous class of stars — ‘M’ or red dwarfs — by up to one half, says Rory Barnes, an astrobiologist at the University of Washington in Seattle. That factor — gravitational heating via tides — suggests a menagerie of previously undreamt-of planets, on which tidal heating is a major source of internal heat. Barnes presented the work yesterday at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society’s Division on Dynamical Astronomy in Timberline Lodge, Oregon.

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Intel Core i7-3770K review: Ivy Bridge brings lower power, better performance

Intel Core i7-3770K review: Ivy Bridge brings lower power, better performance | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Intel’s Ivy Bridge (IVB) has been one of the hottest tech topics of 2012 — there hasn't been this much interest in a CPU since Intel launched Nehalem. Ivy Bridge is the first 22nm processor at a time when die shrinks have become increasingly difficult, the first CPU to use FinFETs (Intel calls its specific implementation Tri-Gate), and it’s a major component of Intel’s ultrabook initiative. If all goes well, Ivy Bridge will usher in a new series of 15W ultra-mobile parts, though these won’t reach the market for a little while yet.

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3D-Printed Circuit Boards, for solder-free printable electronics

3D-Printed Circuit Boards, for solder-free printable electronics | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

What is an instructable? Given the schematic for a simple circuit, make it a real circuit with the base components, some conductive thread, and a 3D printer. No solder, no etching chemicals, no sending away for anything.

 

This Instructable is to serve as the how-to guide for a 3D-printed electronic circuit library implemented in OpenSCAD, 3D-PCB. Full replication process is given of a simple analog circuit of a blinking LED made from a few transistors, capacitors, and resistors, a single LED, and a AAA battery, including a detailed review on how to import the library, and use it to place components in OpenSCAD in a grid, plus basic wrapping techniques for all the included features.

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‘Game-powered machine learning’ opens door to ‘Google music’

‘Game-powered machine learning’ opens door to ‘Google music’ | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Can a computer be taught to automatically label every song on the Internet using sets of examples provided by unpaid music fans?

 

University of California, San Diego engineers have found that the answer is yes, and the results are as accurate as using paid music experts to provide the examples, saving considerable time and money. Their solution, called “game-powered machine learning,” would enable music lovers to search every song on the Web well beyond popular hits, with a simple text search using key words like “funky” or “spooky electronica.”

 

Searching for specific multimedia content, including music, is a challenge because of the need to use text to search images, video and audio. The researchers, led by Gert Lanckriet, a professor of electrical engineering at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering, hope to create a text-based multimedia search engine that will make it far easier to access the explosion of multimedia content online.
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Researchers increase solubility of chemicals by up to 3000 times

Researchers increase solubility of chemicals by up to 3000 times | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A cross-disciplinary team of researchers at the University of Maryland has designed a molecular container that can hold drug molecules and increase their solubility, in one case up to nearly 3000 times. Their discovery opens the possibility of rehabilitating drug candidates that were insufficiently soluble. It also offers an opportunity to improve successful drugs that could be made even better with better solubility.

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Beware the bias - scientific research is riddled with systematic errors

Beware the bias - scientific research is riddled with systematic errors | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Alarming cracks are starting to penetrate deep into the scientific edifice. They threaten the status of science and its value to society. And they cannot be blamed on the usual suspects — inadequate funding, misconduct, political interference, an illiterate public. Their cause is bias, and the threat they pose goes to the heart of research.

 

Bias is an inescapable element of research, especially in fields such as biomedicine that strive to isolate cause–effect relations in complex systems in which relevant variables and phenomena can never be fully identified or characterized. Yet if biases were random, then multiple studies ought to converge on truth. Evidence is mounting that biases are not random. A Comment in Nature in March reported that researchers at Amgen were able to confirm the results of only six of 53 'landmark studies' in preclinical cancer research (C. G. Begley & L. M. Ellis Nature 483, 531–533; 2012). For more than a decade, and with increasing frequency, scientists and journalists have pointed out similar problems.

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Connecting electrodes to living bacteria cells - Creating energy from light and air

Connecting electrodes to living bacteria cells - Creating energy from light and air | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

In their simplest form, biofuel cells have two electrodes, one which removes electrons from a fuel - for instance glucose or hydrogen - whilst the other donates electrons to molecules of oxygen, making water. When these are connected by a wire, they form a circuit, resulting in an electrical current. Dr Jeuken and his team have extensive experience in making electrodes that directly interact with enzymes located in the membranes that surround cells. This new project will begin by applying this technique to two specific groups of enzymes, one which harnesses light and the other, hydrogen. These are found in membranes of chloroplast - the parts of cells which conduct photosynthesis - or bacterial cells, both of which have promising applications in biofuel cells. The final part of the project will aim to connect electrodes to the membranes of living bacterial cells.

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Preventable infections cause 1 in 6 cancers worldwide

Preventable infections cause 1 in 6 cancers worldwide | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Bacteria, viruses and parasites cause around 2m cases of cancer in the world each year, experts believe. Of the 7.5m global deaths from cancer in 2008, an estimated 1.5m may have been due to potentially preventable or treatable infections. Scientists carried out a statistical analysis of cancer incidence to calculate that around 16% of all cancers diagnosed in 2008 were infection-related. The proportion of cancers linked to infection was three times higher in developing countries than in developed ones.

 

Key cancer-causing infectious agents include human papillomavirus (HPV), the gastric bug Helicobacter pylori and the hepatitis B (HBV) and C viruses.
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A Spray That Gets You From Sober to Drunk in Seconds, Without the Hangover

A Spray That Gets You From Sober to Drunk in Seconds, Without the Hangover | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Who knew every college student’s hero would be masked as a Harvard biomedical engineering professor? David Edwards, the man behind the caffeine inhaler AeroShot, is back at it again, but this time with WA|HH Quantum Sensations: a spray that lets you go from sober to drunk in a matter of seconds.

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Antarctic octopuses 10,000km apart are genetically similar

Antarctic octopuses 10,000km apart are genetically similar | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Genes from more than 450 Turquet’s octopuses, collected from species in the Southern Ocean that surrounds Antarctica, were analysed to shed new light on how animals disperse across the varied ocean landscape. Adult Turquet’s octopuses tend to live in one place and only move to escape predators, leading scientists to believe that creatures from areas either side of Antarctica would be genetically different.

 

A scientific team from Liverpool, in collaboration with National University of Ireland Galway, and La Trobe University, Australia, however, found that the octopuses from Ross and Weddell Seas, which are now separated by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, are genetically almost identical, suggesting that these two regions may have once been connected, possibly as recent as 200,000 years ago. Findings may contribute to recent studies demonstrating the potential impact that increasing global temperatures could have on the changing Antarctica environment.

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First Light from Super-Earth Detected by Astronomers

First Light from Super-Earth Detected by Astronomers | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Using ground and space-based telescopes, astronomers have measured infrared light emitted from the planet 55 Cancri e, which revolves around its parent star in the constellation Cancer some 40 light years away.


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Exo: A Visualization of Kepler's Exoplanet Candidates

Exo is a visualization tool for exploring the nearly 2,300 exoplanet candidates that have been so far identified by NASA's Kepler mission.

 

 


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A boost for quantum reality - theorists claim they can prove that wavefunctions are real states

A boost for quantum reality - theorists claim they can prove that wavefunctions are real states | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

The philosophical status of the wavefunction — the entity that determines the probability of different outcomes of measurements on quantum-mechanical particles — would seem to be an unlikely subject for emotional debate. However, theoreticists now claim that he mathematics leaves no doubt that the wavefunction is not just a statistical tool, but rather, a real, objective state of a quantum system.

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Step by step around the globe - an interactive map of ancient human migrations

Step by step around the globe - an interactive map of ancient human migrations | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

INTO THE MIDDLE EAST - 150,000 to 125,000 years ago.

The global migration began when modern humans left Africa and crossed the Sinai or the base of the Red Sea. Fossils in Israel record their presence, and a 2011 discovery in Arabia suggests that by 125,000 years ago, modern humans had reached the doorstep of Asia.

 

ASIAN EXPANSION - 125,000 to 50,000 years ago.

Modern humans may have crossed into Asia as far back as 125,000 years ago and reached India before the eruption of Toba 74,000 years ago. An alternative view holds that humans colonized Asia no earlier than 60,000 years ago by spreading rapidly along the coast of the Indian Ocean.

 

EUROPEAN MIGRATION - 50,000 to 20,000 years ago.

Better purification techniques in radiocarbon dating have pushed back the arrival of the earliest humans in Europe to 45,000 years ago, 5,000 years earlier than was thought, and may shed light on when and how they interacted with Neanderthals.

 

JOURNEY TO AMERICA - 20,000 to 10,000 years ago.

Archaeological remains and genetic clues suggest that modern humans left Siberia and made it to North America more than 14,000 years ago, at the end of the last ice age. Researchers debate whether the colonists walked down through central Canada or skirted the coast in boats. A controversial hypothesis suggests that the first Americans came from Europe by boat.

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How to 3D print a complete house - in Denmark

How to 3D print a complete house - in Denmark | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A house designed and built with a computer, printer, and plywood might be the home of the future. Danish architects Frederik Agdrup and Nicholas Bjorndal of Eentileen used just a computer, a “printer” — actually, a computer numerical control (CNC) machine — and 820 sheets of plywood to build a 125 square meter (1,345 square foot) home in four weeks.

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Trap Delicate Nanoparticles with Laser Light

Trap Delicate Nanoparticles with Laser Light | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

NIST researchers’ new approach to trapping nanoparticles uses a control and feedback system that nudges them only when needed, lowering the average intensity of the beam and increasing the lifetime of the nanoparticles while reducing their tendency to wander. In the picture on the left, 100-nanometer gold nanoparticles quickly escape from a static trap while gold nanoparticles trapped using the NIST method remained strongly confined.

 

Scientists routinely trap and move nanoparticles in a solution with "optical tweezers"—a laser focused to a very small point. The tiny dot of laser light creates a strong electric field, or potential well, that attracts particles to the center of the beam. Although the particles are attracted into the field, the molecules of the fluid they are suspended in tend to push them out of the well. This effect only gets worse as particle size decreases because the laser's influence over a particle's movement gets weaker as the particle gets smaller. One can always turn up the power of the laser to generate a stronger electric field, but doing that can fry the nanoparticles too quickly to do anything meaningful with them—if it can hold them at all.

 

Using a refined technique for trapping and manipulating nanoparticles, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have extended the trapped particles' useful life more than tenfold.* This new approach, which one researcher likens to "attracting moths," promises to give experimenters the trapping time they need to build nanoscale structures and may open the way to working with nanoparticles inside biological cells without damaging the cells with intense laser light.

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APPLE Reveals Wildly Intelligent Multi-Tiered Haptics System

APPLE Reveals Wildly Intelligent Multi-Tiered Haptics System | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Apple has filed haptic related patents in In March 2011 and 2012. Yet today's surprise invention packs a punch with a wildly intelligent multi-tiered haptics system. The system will actually allow an iDevice display to deform so that it could provide the user with a button, an arrow or even a geological map to physically pop right out of the screen to give it 3D depth. If that wasn't cool enough, Apple's patent discusses a flexible OLED display that could be used for video glasses.

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