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Technology Trends - Singularity Blog: Most Anticipated New Technologies

Technology Trends - Singularity Blog: Most Anticipated New Technologies | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Future timeline, a timeline of humanity's future, based on current trends, long-term environmental changes, advances in technology such as Moore's Law, the latest medical advances, and the evolving geopolitical landscape.


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Ursula Sola de Hinestrosa's curator insight, April 24, 2015 4:50 PM

Nuevas tecnologias

AugusII's curator insight, April 25, 2015 6:15 PM

Being up to date a must -  Learning on trends useful.

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The Current State of Machine Intelligence

The Current State of Machine Intelligence | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A few years ago, investors and startups were chasing “big data”. Now we’re seeing a similar explosion of companies calling themselves artificial intelligence, machine learning, or collectively “machine intelligence”. The Bloomberg Beta fund, which is focused on the future of work, has been investing in these approaches.


Computers are learning to think, read, and write. They’re also picking up human sensory function, with the ability to see and hear (arguably to touch, taste, and smell, though those have been of a lesser focus).


Machine intelligence technologies cut across a vast array of problem types (from classification and clustering to natural language processing and computer vision) and methods (from support vector machines to deep belief networks). All of these technologies are reflected on this landscape.


What this landscape doesn’t include, however important, is “big data” technologies. Some have used this term interchangeably with machine learning and artificial intelligence, but I want to focus on the intelligence methods rather than data, storage, and computation pieces of the puzzle for this landscape (though of course data technologies enable machine intelligence).


We’ve seen a few great articles recently outlining why machine intelligence is experiencing a resurgence, documenting the enabling factors of this resurgence. Kevin Kelly, for example chalks it up to cheap parallel computing, large datasets, and better algorithms.


Machine intelligence is enabling applications we already expect like automated assistants (Siri), adorable robots (Jibo), and identifying people in images (like the highly effective but unfortunately named DeepFace). However, it’s also doing the unexpected: protecting children from sex trafficking, reducing the chemical content in the lettuce we eat, helping us buy shoes online that fit our feet precisely, anddestroying 80's classic video games.


Big companies have a disproportionate advantage, especially those that build consumer products. The giants in search (Google, Baidu), social networks (Facebook, LinkedIn, Pinterest), content (Netflix, Yahoo!), mobile (Apple) and e-commerce (Amazon) are in an incredible position. They have massive datasets and constant consumer interactions that enable tight feedback loops for their algorithms (and these factors combine to create powerful network effects) — and they have the most to gain from the low hanging fruit that machine intelligence bears.

Best-in-class personalization and recommendation algorithms have enabled these companies’ success (it’s both impressive and disconcerting that Facebook recommends you add the person you had a crush on in college and Netflix tees up that perfect guilty pleasure sitcom).

Now they are all competing in a new battlefield: the move to mobile. Winning mobile will require lots of machine intelligence: state of the art natural language interfaces (like Apple’s Siri), visual search (like Amazon’s “FireFly”), and dynamic question answering technology that tells you the answer instead of providing a menu of links (all of the search companies are wrestling with this).Large enterprise companies (IBM and Microsoft) have also made incredible strides in the field, though they don’t have the same human-facing requirements so are focusing their attention more on knowledge representation tasks on large industry datasets, like IBM Watson’s application to assist doctors with diagnoses.
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John Vollenbroek's curator insight, April 25, 2015 2:53 AM

I like this overview

pbernardon's curator insight, April 26, 2015 2:33 AM

Une infographie et une cartographie claire et très intéressante sur l'intelligence artificielle et les usages induits que les organisations vont devoir s'approprier.

 

#bigdata 

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Ultra-high-resolution nondestructive 3D imaging of biological cells with picosecond ultrasound

Ultra-high-resolution nondestructive 3D imaging of biological cells with picosecond ultrasound | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A team of researchers in Japan and Thailand reports the first known nondestructive 3-D scan of a single biological cell using a revised form of “picosecond* ultrasound.” This new technique can achieve micrometer (millionth of a meter) resolution of live single cells, imaging their interiors in slices separated by 150 nanometers (.15 micrometer), in contrast to the typical 0.5-millimeter (500 micrometers) spatial resolution of a standard medical MRI scan. The work is a proof-of-principle that could open the door to new ways of studying the physical properties of living cells by imaging them non-destructively in vivo, the researchers say.


The team accomplished the imaging by first placing a cell in solution on a titanium-coated sapphire substrate and then scanning with a point source of high-frequency sound generated by using a beam of focused ultrashort laser pulses over the titanium film. This was followed by focusing another beam of laser pulses on the same point to pick up tiny changes in optical reflectance caused by the sound traveling through the cell tissue.


“By scanning both beams together, we’re able to build up an acoustic image of the cell that represents one slice of it,” explained co-author Professor Oliver B. Wright, who teaches in the Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering at Hokkaido University. “We can view a selected slice of the cell at a given depth by changing the timing between the two beams of laser pulses.”


“The time required for 3-D imaging [with conventional acoustic microscopes] probably remains too long to be practical,” Wright said. “Building up a 3-D acoustic image, in principle, allows you to see the 3-D relative positions of cell organelles without killing the cell.


“By using an ultraviolet-pulsed laser, we could improve the lateral resolution by about a factor of three — and greatly improve the image quality. And, switching to a diamond substrate instead of sapphire would allow better heat conduction away from the probed area, which, in turn, would enable us to increase the laser power and image quality.”

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Internet Replacing Radio: Norway Will Be the First Country to Turn Off FM Radio in 2017

Internet Replacing Radio: Norway Will Be the First Country to Turn Off FM Radio in 2017 | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Norway’s Minister of Culture announced this week that a national FM-radio switch off will commence in 2017, allowing the country to complete its transition over to digital radio. It’s the end of an era.


As Radio.no notes, Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) will provide Norwegian listeners more diverse radio channel content than ever before. Indeed, DAB already hosts 22 national channels in Norway, as opposed to FM radio’s five, and a TNS Gallup survey shows that 56% of Norwegian listeners use digital radio every day. While Norway is the first country in the world to set a date for an FM switch-off, other countries in Europe and Southeast Asia are also in the process of transitioning to DAB.


requency modulation, or FM, radio was patented in 1933 and has been recording and sharing the human story for nearly a century. But its days are clearly waning. According to a 2012 Pew Study, while over 90% of Americans still listen to AM/FM radio at least weekly, more people are choosing to forgo analog radio for Internet-only services each year. It seems like it’s only a matter of time before many countries follow Norway’s example, although I’m not so sure I’m ready to part with my 80’s-era Grundig. Thing still sounds like a dream.

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Artificial Photosynthesis Advance Hailed As Major Breakthrough

Artificial Photosynthesis Advance Hailed As Major Breakthrough | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

In what's being called a win-win for the environment and the production of renewable energy, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley, have achieved a major breakthrough in artificial photosynthesisThe scientists have created a system that can capture carbon dioxide emissions before they're released into the atmosphere and convert it into fuels, pharmaceuticals, plastics, and other valuable products.


Carbon dioxide is the principal greenhouse gas produced by the burning of fossil fuels and has been identified as a major contributor to rising global temperatures"Our system has the potential to fundamentally change the chemical and oil industry in that we can produce chemicals and fuels in a totally renewable way, rather than extracting them from deep below the ground," Dr. Peidong Yang, a chemist with the materials sciences division at Berkeley Lab and one of the researchers behind the breakthrough, said in a written statement.


Scientists around the world have spent decades looking for a practical way to mimic photosynthesis. That's the process in which green plants use energy from sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and carbohydrates. But it's proven to be a difficult technical challenge.


"The real issue comes from the balance of energy efficiency, cost, and stability, Dr. Amanda J. Morris, assistant professor of chemistry at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg and an expert in sustainable energy, told The Huffington Post in an email. "Electrons, which are required, are very expensive (either produced from gasoline, oil, coal or solar) and so, the process must be very efficient in terms of electron and energy balances."


Morris, who was not involved in the new research, called it "important," adding that it would guide future efforts in the field. The heart of the new system is an array of minute silicon and titanium oxide wires studded with Sporomusa ovata bacteria. The "nanowires" capture light energy and deliver it the bacteria, which convert carbon dioxide in the air into acetatea key building block for the more complex organic molecules in fuels, biodegradable plastics, and pharmaceuticals.


"We are currently working on our second-generation system, which has a solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency of 3 percent," Yang said in the statement. "Once we can reach a conversion efficiency of 10 percent in a cost-effective manner, the technology should be commercially viable."

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Super-fast charging aluminum batteries ready to take on lithium

Super-fast charging aluminum batteries ready to take on lithium | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A new rival to the lithium-ion battery has been created that charges in under a minute and still performs almost perfectly after being recharged thousands of times. The new battery is based on aluminium instead of lithium, which should make it both cheaper and safer than their lithium-ion competitors. The US team behind the aluminium-ion battery say that the technology could find its way into the home, help store renewable energy for the power grid and even power vehicles.


The aluminum-ion battery is conceptually similar to the lithium-ion battery: when the battery is discharged atoms from a metal anode are oxidized, releasing electrons into the external circuit. When recharged, the electrons are driven back to the anode.


The aluminum-ion battery offers tantalizing solutions to problems with lithium-ion ones. Aluminium, being the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust, is much cheaper than lithium and is also much less reactive so battery fires are unlikely to be a problem. Ionising aluminium also liberates three electrons compared with lithium's one, potentially giving the batteries a higher charge capacity. But aluminium-ion batteries have been plagued by numerous difficulties: the discharge voltages have often been as low as 0.55V and various cathodes trialled have disintegrated during repeated cycling, causing the lifetimes of the batteries of the batteries to drop to 85% or less within 100 cycles.


Using their carbon foam cathode and ultra-dry electrolyte, the researchers produced a prototype battery with a discharge voltage of around 2V and an energy capacity similar to lead acid and nickel–metal hydride batteries. This battery lost very little of its storage capacity after 7000 cycles, making it far superior even to lithium-ion batteries, which last for about 1000 cycles. Perhaps most remarkably, the battery can safely be completely recharged in less than 60 seconds. This is nearly 100 times faster than the maximum charge rate for a lithium-ion battery. The battery can even be bent and folded safely, and the researchers drilled a hole through it while it was operating without causing a dangerous short circuit.


Dai reveals that commercial companies are interested. He believes the battery is a promising replacement for nickel–metal hydride rechargeable batteries in home appliances and, beyond this, for storing electricity for the grid. At present, he says, the battery's energy density is limited by the bulky AlCl4ions. 'Hopefully this work can really open up more research in this area,' he adds.


References:

M-C Lin et al, Nature, 2015, DOI: 10.1038/nature14340

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Evolution-in-materio: ‘Training’ carbon-nanotube composites in ‘unconventional’ computing

Evolution-in-materio: ‘Training’ carbon-nanotube composites in ‘unconventional’ computing | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Researchers from Durham University and the University of São Paulo-USP have  developed a method of using single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composites in “unconventional” computing. By studying the mechanical and electrical properties of the materials, they discovered a correlation between SWCNT concentration /viscosity/ conductivity and the computational capability of the composite.


“Instead of creating circuits from arrays of discrete components (transistors in digital electronics), our work takes a random disordered material and then ‘trains’ the material to produce a desired output,” said Mark K. Massey, research associate, School of Engineering and Computing Sciences at Durham University. This emerging field of research is known as “evolution-in-materio,” a term coined by Julian Miller at the University of York.


It combines materials science, engineering, and computer science. It uses an approach similar to biological evolution: materials can be “trained” to mimic electronic circuits — without needing to design the material structure in a specific way. “The material we use in our work is a mixture of [conducting] carbon nanotubes and [insulating] polymer, which creates a complex electrical structure,” explained Massey.


“When voltages (stimuli) are applied at points of the material, its electrical properties change. When the correct signals are applied to the material, it can be trained or ‘evolved’ to perform a useful function.”


The research “could lead to new techniques for making electronics devices for analog signal processing or low-power, low-cost devices in the future.” The research is describe in a paper in the Journal of Applied Physics.

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Inkjet-printed liquid metal could lead to new wearable tech and soft robotics

Inkjet-printed liquid metal could lead to new wearable tech and soft robotics | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Purdue University researchers have developed a potential manufacturing method called “mechanically sintered gallium-indium nanoparticles” that can inkjet-print flexible, stretchable conductors onto anything — including elastic materials and fabrics — and can mass-produce electronic circuits made of liquid-metal alloys for “soft robots” and flexible electronics.


The method uses ultrasound to break up liquid metal into nanoparticles in ethanol solvent to make ink that is compatible with inkjet printing. Elastic technologies could make possible a new class of pliable robots and stretchable garments that people might wear to interact with computers or for therapeutic purposes.


“Liquid metal in its native form is not inkjet-able,” said Rebecca Kramer, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Purdue. “So what we do is create gallium-indium liquid metal nanoparticles that are small enough to pass through an inkjet nozzle.


“Sonicating [using ultrasound] liquid metal in a carrier solvent, such as ethanol, both creates the nanoparticles and disperses them in the solvent. Then we can print the ink onto any substrate. The ethanol evaporates away so we are just left with liquid metal nanoparticles on a surface.”


After printing, the nanoparticles must be rejoined by applying light pressure, which renders the material conductive. This step is necessary because the liquid-metal nanoparticles are initially coated with oxidized gallium, which acts as a skin that prevents electrical conductivity.


“But it’s a fragile skin, so when you apply pressure it breaks the skin and everything coalesces into one uniform film,” Kramer said. “We can do this either by stamping or by dragging something across the surface, such as the sharp edge of a silicon tip.”


The approach makes it possible to select which portions to activate depending on particular designs, suggesting that a blank film might be manufactured for a multitude of potential applications. “We selectively activate what electronics we want to turn on by applying pressure to just those areas,” said Kramer. The process could make it possible to rapidly mass-produce large quantities of the film.

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MIT scientists develop magnetic field detector that is 1,000 times more energy-efficient than predecessors

MIT scientists develop magnetic field detector that is 1,000 times more energy-efficient than predecessors | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

MIT researchers have developed a new, ultrasensitive magnetic-field detector that is 1,000 times more energy-efficient than its predecessors. It could lead to miniaturized, battery-powered devices for medical and materials imaging, contraband detection, and even geological exploration.


Magnetic-field detectors, or magnetometers, are already used for all those applications. But existing technologies have drawbacks: Some rely on gas-filled chambers; others work only in narrow frequency bands, limiting their utility.


Synthetic diamonds with nitrogen vacancies (NVs) — defects that are extremely sensitive to magnetic fields — have long held promise as the basis for efficient, portable magnetometers. A diamond chip about one-twentieth the size of a thumbnail could contain trillions of nitrogen vacancies, each capable of performing its own magnetic-field measurement.


The problem has been aggregating all those measurements. Probing a nitrogen vacancy requires zapping it with laser light, which it absorbs and re-emits. The intensity of the emitted light carries information about the vacancy’s magnetic state.


“In the past, only a small fraction of the pump light was used to excite a small fraction of the NVs,” says Dirk Englund, the Jamieson Career Development Assistant Professor in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and one of the designers of the new device. “We make use of almost all the pump light to measure almost all of the NVs.”


The MIT researchers report their new device in the latest issue of Nature Physics.

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This yarn conducts electricity and can be used for smart fabrics and bionic implants

This yarn conducts electricity and can be used for smart fabrics and bionic implants | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Right now, wearable fitness trackers and bionic devices like electronic skin look cool, but they’re a bit clunky. One reason is that rigid wires tend to lose their conductivity after being bent, limiting the range of flexibility for wearables. Now, researchers report the creation of an ultrathin, fabric circuit that keeps high conductivity even while bending and stretching as much as yoga pants. The fiber’s core mimics spandex, consisting of an elastic synthetic thread—polyurethane—twinned by two cotton yarns.


These stretchy strings were then dipped in silver nanoparticles to instill conductivity and then liquid silicone to encase everything. This silver nanoyarn could stretch as much as spandex—500% of its original length—and retain a high conductivity (688 siemens per centimeter), the team reports online this month in ACS Nano. That’s 34 times the conductivity and five times the flexibility seen with prior attempts at nanowires made from grapheneThe fibers kept high conductivity after being bent 1000 times or wrapped around fingers. The team used their yarn to link light-emitting diodes within foldable plastic (shown above), meaning the fibers might serve as flexible wiring in new-age curved TVs, stretchable digital screens, or electronic clothing. The team tested the biocompatibility of these nanowires by surgically embedding them in the skin of mice for 8 weeks. No inflammation surfaced, suggesting that this silver yarn could be used to wire bionic implants in the future.

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This remarkable new exoskeleton slips on like a boot and makes your walking more efficient

This remarkable new exoskeleton slips on like a boot and makes your walking more efficient | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

The latest exoskeleton technology doesn't need an outside power source to boost your strength. It harnesses the power of your own muscles to put a spring in your step instead. And soon baby boomers could be using it to keep hiking and jogging just a few years longer.


The new devices, described Wednesday in Nature, are still just in the prototype phase. But the researchers who created the inexpensive, easy-to-wear exoskeletons believe they could be ubiquitous in another decade. They're quite unlike the hulking, "Iron Man"-like suits that others have created to help people walk more easily. These little braces don't require any outside power, and they make walking 7 percent more efficient with nothing but a well-placed spring system. They can't support someone who can't stand on her own like a bulkier, motor-aided suit might. But for people who can walk but have difficulty doing so, the boot-like new apparatus could help create a more balanced, comfortable gait.


Just under 10 percent less energy per step doesn't sound like much -- it's the equivalent of removing a 10-pound backpack. According to study co-author Gregory Sawicki, a biomedical engineer and locomotion physiologist in the joint NC State/University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill Department of Biomedical Engineering, people using the braces don't really notice the difference -- until it's gone.

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'Google Maps' for the body: A biomedical revolution down to a single cell

'Google Maps' for the body: A biomedical revolution down to a single cell | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Scientists are using previously top-secret technology to zoom through the human body down to the level of a single cell. Scientists are also using cutting-edge microtome and MRI technology to examine how movement and weight bearing affects the movement of molecules within joints, exploring the relationship between blood, bone, lymphatics and muscle.


UNSW biomedical engineer Melissa Knothe Tate is using previously top-secret semiconductor technology to zoom through organs of the human body, down to the level of a single cell.


A world-first UNSW collaboration that uses previously top-secret technology to zoom through the human body down to the level of a single cell could be a game-changer for medicine, an international research conference in the United States has been told.


The imaging technology, developed by high-tech German optical and industrial measurement manufacturer Zeiss, was originally developed to scan silicon wafers for defects.


UNSW Professor Melissa Knothe Tate, the Paul Trainor Chair of Biomedical Engineering, is leading the project, which is using semiconductor technology to explore osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.


Using Google algorithms, Professor Knothe Tate -- an engineer and expert in cell biology and regenerative medicine -- is able to zoom in and out from the scale of the whole joint down to the cellular level "just as you would with Google Maps," reducing to "a matter of weeks analyses that once took 25 years to complete."


Her team is also using cutting-edge microtome and MRI technology to examine how movement and weight bearing affects the movement of molecules within joints, exploring the relationship between blood, bone, lymphatics and muscle. "For the first time we have the ability to go from the whole body down to how the cells are getting their nutrition and how this is all connected," said Professor Knothe Tate. "This could open the door to as yet unknown new therapies and preventions."


Professor Knothe Tate is the first to use the system in humans. She has forged a pioneering partnership with the US-based Cleveland Clinic, Brown and Stanford Universities, as well as Zeiss and Google to help crunch terabytes of data gathered from human hip studies. Similar research is underway at Harvard University and Heidelberg in Germany to map neural pathways and connections in the brains of mice.


The above story is based on materials provided by University of New South Wales.

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CineversityTV's curator insight, March 30, 2015 8:53 PM

What happens with the metadata? In the public domain? Or in the greed hands of the elite.

Courtney Jones's curator insight, April 2, 2015 4:49 AM

,New advances in biomedical technology

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What is 5G and when can I get it?

What is 5G and when can I get it? | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Imagine being able to download a full-length 8GB HD movie to your phone in six seconds (versus seven minutes over 4G or more than an hour on 3G) and video chats so immersive that it will feel like you can reach out and touch the other person right through the screen.


That’s the vision for the 5G concept — the next generation of wireless networks — presented at the Mobile World Congress show last week, according to re/code.


Here’s what it will offer:

  • Significantly faster data speeds: 10Gbps, compared to one gigabit per second (max) with 4G.
  • Ultra-low latency (time to send a packet): one millisecond vs. 50 with 4G — particularly important for industrial applications and driverless cars.
  • A more “connected world”: The Internet of Things (wearables, smart home appliances, connected cars) will need a network that can accommodate billions of connected devices. Part of the goal behind 5G is to provide that capacity, and also to be able to assign bandwidth depending on the needs of the application and user.


“Ulrich Dropmann, head of industry environment networks at Nokia, gave a scenario where you might be cruising in your driverless car when, unbeknownst to you, a crash has just occurred up the road,” says re/code. “With 5G, sensors placed along the road would be able to instantly relay that information back to your car (this is where having low latency is important), so it could brake earlier and avoid another accident.”


So when might it be here? “The most optimistic targets would see the first commercial network up and running by 2020, but even that may be too optimistic. As with LTE, it will take years for the network to become widespread.”

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Mike Steele's curator insight, March 27, 2015 11:39 PM

If only 5G speeds were coming in 2015!  I suppose we can wait a few more years.

LEONARDO WILD's curator insight, March 28, 2015 10:29 AM

All of this wonderful and awesome; we've come far in the past few decades in areas such as "communication" ... but it still hasn't improved our ability to communicate with each other at a human level, with empathy and respect and tolerance. 

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Fast and Accurate 3D Imaging Technique to Track Optically-Trapped Particles

Fast and Accurate 3D Imaging Technique to Track Optically-Trapped Particles | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Optical tweezers have been used as an invaluable tool for exerting micro-scale force on microscopic particles and manipulating three-dimensional (3-D) positions of particles. Optical tweezers employ a tightly-focused laser whose beam diameter is smaller than one micrometer (1/100 of hair thickness), which generates attractive force on neighboring microscopic particles moving toward the beam focus. Controlling the positions of the beam focus enabled researchers to hold the particles and move them freely to other locations so they coined the name “optical tweezers.”

 

To locate the optically-trapped particles by a laser beam, optical microscopes have usually been employed. Optical microscopes measure light signals scattered by the optically-trapped microscopic particles and the positions of the particles in two dimensions. However, it was difficult to quantify the particles’ precise positions along the optic axis, the direction of the beam, from a single image, which is analogous to the difficulty of determining the front and rear positions of objects when closing an eye due to a lack of depth perception. Furthermore, it became more difficult to measure precisely 3-D positions of particles when scattered light signals were distorted by optically-trapped particles having complicated shapes or other particles occlude the target object along the optic axis.

 

Professor YongKeun Park and his research team in the Department of Physics at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) employed an optical diffraction tomography (ODT) technique to measure 3-D positions of optically-trapped particles in high speed. The principle of ODT is similar to X-ray CT imaging commonly used in hospitals for visualizing the internal organs of patients. Like X-ray CT imaging, which takes several images from various illumination angles, ODT measures 3-D images of optically-trapped particles by illuminating them with a laser beam in various incidence angles.

 

The KAIST team used optical tweezers to trap a glass bead with a diameter of 2 micrometers, and moved the bead toward a white blood cell having complicated internal structures. The team measured the 3-D dynamics of the white blood cell as it responded to an approaching glass bead via ODT in the high acquisition rate of 60 images per second. Since the white blood cell screens the glass bead along an optic axis, a conventionally-used optical microscope could not determine the 3-D positions of the glass bead. In contrast, the present method employing ODT localized the 3-D positions of the bead precisely as well as measured the composition of the internal materials of the bead and the white blood cell simultaneously.

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A new wearable device, NailO, turns the user’s thumbnail into a miniature wireless track pad

A new wearable device, NailO, turns the user’s thumbnail into a miniature wireless track pad | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Researchers at the MIT Media Laboratory are developing a new wearable device that turns the user’s thumbnail into a miniature wireless track pad. They envision that the technology could let users control wireless devices when their hands are full — answering the phone while cooking, for instance. It could also augment other interfaces, allowing someone texting on a cellphone, say, to toggle between symbol sets without interrupting his or her typing. Finally, it could enable subtle communication in circumstances that require it, such as sending a quick text to a child while attending an important meeting.


The researchers describe a prototype of the device, called NailO, in a paper they’re presenting next week at the Association for Computing Machinery’s Computer-Human Interaction conference in Seoul, South Korea.


According to Cindy Hsin-Liu Kao, an MIT graduate student in media arts and sciences and one of the new paper’s lead authors, the device was inspired by the colorful stickers that some women apply to their nails. “It’s a cosmetic product, popular in Asian countries,” says Kao, who is Taiwanese. “When I came here, I was looking for them, but I couldn’t find them, so I’d have my family mail them to me.”


Indeed, the researchers envision that a commercial version of their device would have a detachable membrane on its surface, so that users could coordinate surface patterns with their outfits. To that end, they used capacitive sensing — the same kind of sensing the iPhone’s touch screen relies on — to register touch, since it can tolerate a thin, nonactive layer between the user’s finger and the underlying sensors.

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New WiFi system uses LED lights to boost bandwidth tenfold

New WiFi system uses LED lights to boost bandwidth tenfold | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Researchers at Oregon State University have invented a new technology called WiFiFO (WiFi Free space Optic) that can increase the bandwidth of WiFi systems by 10 times, using optical transmission via LED lights. The technology could be integrated with existing WiFi systems to reduce bandwidth problems in crowded locations, such as airport terminals or coffee shops, and in homes where several people have multiple WiFi devices.


Experts say that recent advances in LED technology have made it possible to modulate the LED light more rapidly, opening the possibility of using light for wireless transmission in a “free space” optical communication system. “In addition to improving the experience for users, the two big advantages of this system are that it uses inexpensive components, and it integrates with existing WiFi systems,” said Thinh Nguyen, an OSU associate professor of electrical and computer engineering. Nguyen worked with Alan Wang, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering, to build the first prototype.


“I believe the WiFO system could be easily transformed into a marketable product, and we are currently looking for a company that is interested in further developing and licensing the technology,” Nguyen said. 


The system can potentially send data at up to 100 megabits per second. Although some current WiFi systems have similar bandwidth, it has to be divided by the number of devices, so each user might be receiving just 5 to 10 megabits per second, whereas the hybrid system could deliver 50–100 megabits to each user. In a home where telephones, tablets, computers, gaming systems, and televisions may all be connected to the Internet, increased bandwidth would eliminate problems like video streaming that stalls and buffers (think Netflix).


The receivers are small photodiodes that cost less than a dollar each and could be connected through a USB port for current systems, or incorporated into the next generation of laptops, tablets, and smartphones. A provisional patent has been secured on the technology, and a paper was published in the 17th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems. 


References:
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Tiniest circuits: Light-controlled molecule switching for single-molecule information processing and storing

Tiniest circuits: Light-controlled molecule switching for single-molecule information processing and storing | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Scientists at the University of Konstanz and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) are working on storing and processing information on the level of single molecules to create the smallest possible components that will combine autonomously to form a circuit. As recently reported in the academic journal Advanced Science, the researchers can switch on the current flow through a single molecule for the first time with the help of light.


Dr. Artur Erbe, physicist at the HZDR, is convinced that in the future molecular electronics will open the door for novel and increasingly smaller -- while also more energy efficient -- components or sensors: "Single molecules are currently the smallest imaginable components capable of being integrated into a processor." Scientists have yet to succeed in tailoring a molecule so that it can conduct an electrical current and that this current can be selectively turned on and off like an electrical switch.


This requires a molecule in which an otherwise strong bond between individual atoms dissolves in one location -- and forms again precisely when energy is pumped into the structure. Dr. Jannic Wolf, chemist at the University of Konstanz, discovered through complex experiments that a particular diarylethene compound is an eligible candidate. The advantages of this molecule, approximately three nanometres in size, are that it rotates very little when a point in its structure opens and it possesses two nanowires that can be used as contacts. The diarylethene is an insulator when open and becomes a conductor when closed. It thus exhibits a different physical behaviour, a behaviour that the scientists from Konstanz and Dresden were able to demonstrate with certainty in numerous reproducible measurements for the first time in a single molecule.


A special feature of these molecular electronics is that they take place in a fluid within a test-tube, where the molecules are contacted within the solution. In order to ascertain what effects the solution conditions have on the switching process, it was therefore necessary to systematically test various solvents. The diarylethene needs to be attached at the end of the nanowires to electrodes so that the current can flow. "We developed a nanotechnology at the HZDR that relies on extremely thin tips made of very few gold atoms. We stretch the switchable diarylethene compound between them," explains Dr. Erbe.


When a beam of light then hits the molecule, it switches from its open to its closed state, resulting in a flowing current. "For the first time ever we could switch on a single contacted molecule and prove that this precise molecule becomes a conductor on which we have used the light beam," says Dr. Erbe, pleased with the results. "We have also characterized the molecular switching mechanism in extremely high detail, which is why I believe that we have succeeded in making an important step toward a genuine molecular electronic component."


Switching off, however, does not yet work with the contacted diarylethene, but the physicist is confident: "Our colleagues from the HZDR theory group are computing how precisely the molecule must rotate so that the current is interrupted. Together with the chemists from Konstanz, we will be able to accordingly implement the design and synthesis for the molecule." However, a great deal of patience is required because it's a matter of basic research. The diarylethene molecule contact using electron-beam lithography and the subsequent measurements alone lasted three long years.


Approximately ten years ago, a working group at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands had already managed to construct a switch that could interrupt the current. The off-switch also worked only in one direction, but what couldn't be proven at the time with certainty was that the change in conductivity was bound to a single molecule.


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‘Spin-orbitronics’ could ‘revolutionize the electronics industry’ by manipulating magnetic domains

‘Spin-orbitronics’ could ‘revolutionize the electronics industry’ by manipulating magnetic domains | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have found a new way of manipulating the walls that define magnetic domains (uniform areas in magnetic materials) and the results could one day revolutionize the electronics industry, they say. Gong Chen and Andreas Schmid, experts in electron microscopy with Berkeley Lab’s Materials Sciences Division, led the discovery of a technique by which the “spin textures” of magnetic domain walls in ultrathin magnets can be switched between left-handed, right-handed, cycloidal, helical and mixed structures.


The “handedness” or “chirality” of spin texture determines the movement of a magnetic domain wall in response to an electric current, so this technique, which involves the strategic application of uniaxial strain, should lend itself to the creation of domains walls designed for desired electronic memory and logic functions.


“The information sloshing around today’s Internet is essentially a cacophony of magnetic domain walls being pushed around within the magnetic films of memory devices,” says Schmid. “Writing and reading information today involves mechanical processes that limit reliability and speed. Our findings pave the way to use the spin-orbit forces that act upon electrons in a current to propel magnetic domain walls either in the same direction as the current, or in the opposite direction, or even sideways, opening up a rich new smorgasbord of possibilities in the field of spin-orbitronics.”


The study was carried out at at the National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), which is part of the Molecular Foundry, a DOE Office of Science User Facility. The results have been reported in a Nature Communications paper titled “Unlocking Bloch-type chirality in ultrathin magnets through uniaxial strain.”


In addition to carrying a negative electrical charge, electrons also carry a quantum mechanical property known as “spin,” which arises from tiny magnetic fields created by their rotational momentum. For the sake of simplicity, spin is assigned a direction of either “up” or “down.” Because of these two properties, a flow of electrons creates both charge and spin currents. Charge currents are well understood and serve as the basis for today’s electronic devices. Spin currents are just beginning to be explored as the basis for the emerging new field of spintronics. Coupling the flows of charge and spin currents together opens the door to yet another new field in electronics called “spin-orbitronics.” The promise of spin-orbitronics is smaller, faster and far more energy efficient devices through solid-state magnetic memory.


The key to coupling charge and spin currents lies within magnetic domains, regions in a magnetic material in which all of the spins of the electrons are aligned with one another and point in the same direction – up or down. In a magnetic material containing multiple magnetic domains, individual domains are separated from one another by narrow zones or “walls” that feature rapidly changing spin directions.


Applying a technique called “SPLEEM,” for Spin-Polarized Low Energy Electron Microscopy, to a thin-film of iron/nickel bilayers on tungsten, Chen and Schmid and their collaborators were able to stabilize domain walls that were a mixture of Bloch and Neel types. They also showed how the chirality of domain walls can be switched between left-and right-handedness. This was accomplished by controlling uniaxial strain on the thin films in the presence of an asymmetric magnetic exchange interaction between neighboring electron spins.


“Depending on their handedness, Neel-type walls are propelled with or against the current direction, while Bloch-type walls are propelled to the left or to the right across the current,” Chen says. “Our findings introduce Bloch-type chirality as a new spin texture and might allow us to tailor the spin structure of chiral domain walls. This would present new opportunities to design spin–orbitronic devices.”


“Magnetization is a 3D vector, not just a scalar property and in order to see spin textures, the three Cartesian components of the magnetization must be resolved,” Schmid says. “Berkeley Lab’s SPLEEM instrument is one of a mere handful of instruments worldwide that permit imaging all three Cartesian components of magnetization. It was the unique SPLEEM experimental capability that made this spin-orbitronics research possible.”

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Novel Brain-Computer Interface on the Ear Lobe that Lasts for Weeks

Novel Brain-Computer Interface on the Ear Lobe that Lasts for Weeks | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Brain signals can be read using soft, flexible, wearable electrodes that stick onto and near the ear like a temporary tattoo and can stay on for more than two weeks even during highly demanding activities such as exercise and swimming, researchers say. The invention could be used for a persistent brain-computer interface (BCI) to help people operate prosthetics, computers, and other machines using only their minds, scientists add.


For more than 80 years, scientists have analyzed human brain activity non-invasively by recording electroencephalograms (EEGs). Conventionally, this involves electrodes stuck onto the head with conductive gel. The electrodes typically cannot stay mounted to the skin for more than a few days, which limits widespread use of EEGs for applications such as BCIs.


Now materials scientist John Rogers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and his colleagues have developed a wearable device that can help record EEGs uninterrupted for more than 14 days. Moreover, their invention survived despite showering, bathing, and sleeping. And it did so without irritating the skin. The two weeks might be "a rough upper limit, defined by the timescale for natural exfoliation of skin cells," Rogers says. 


The device consists of a soft, foldable collection of gold electrodes only 300 nanometers thick and 30 micrometers wide mounted on a soft plastic film. This assemblage stays stuck to the body using electric forces known as van der Waals interactions—the same forces that help geckoes cling cling to walls.


The electrodes are flexible enough to mold onto the ear and the mastoid process behind the ear. The researchers mounted the device onto three volunteers using tweezers. Spray-on bandage was used once twice a day to help the electrodes survive normal daily activities.


The electrodes on the mastoid process recorded brain activity while those on the ear were used as a ground wire. The electrodes were connected to a stretchable wire that could plug into monitoring devices. "Most of the experiments used devices mounted on just one side, but dual sides is certainly possible," Rogers says.

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New NCI 3D Camera chip for smartphone provides superfine 3D resolution for 3D printing objects

New NCI 3D Camera chip for smartphone provides superfine 3D resolution for 3D printing objects | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Imagine you need to have an almost exact copy of an object. Now imagine that you can just pull your smartphone out of your pocket, take a snapshot with its integrated 3-D imager, send it to your 3-D printer, and within minutes you have reproduced a replica accurate to within microns of the original object. This feat may soon be possible because of a new tiny high-resolution 3-D imager.


Any time you want to make an exact copy of an object with a 3-D printer, the first step is to produce a high-resolution scan of the object with a 3-D camera that measures its height, width, and depth. Such 3-D imaging has been around for decades, but the most sensitive systems generally are too large and expensive to be used in consumer applications.


A cheap, compact yet highly accurate new device known as a nanophotonic coherent imager (NCI) promises to change that. Using an inexpensive silicon chip less than a millimeter square in size, the NCI provides the highest depth-measurement accuracy of any such nanophotonic 3-D imaging device.


The work, done in the laboratory of Ali Hajimiri, the Thomas G. Myers Professor of Electrical Engineering in the Division of Engineering and Applied Science, is described in the February 2015 issue of Optics Express.


In a regular camera, each pixel represents the intensity of the light received from a specific point in the image, which could be near or far from the camera -- meaning that the pixels provide no information about the relative distance of the object from the camera. In contrast, each pixel in an image created by the Caltech team's NCI provides both the distance and intensity information. "Each pixel on the chip is an independent interferometer -- an instrument that uses the interference of light waves to make precise measurements -- which detects the phase and frequency of the signal in addition to the intensity," says Hajimiri.


The new chip utilizes an established detection and ranging technology called LIDAR, in which a target object is illuminated with scanning laser beams. The light that reflects off of the object is then analyzed based on the wavelength of the laser light used, and the LIDAR can gather information about the object's size and its distance from the laser to create an image of its surroundings. "By having an array of tiny LIDARs on our coherent imager, we can simultaneously image different parts of an object or a scene without the need for any mechanical movements within the imager," Hajimiri says.


Such high-resolution images and information provided by the NCI are made possible because of an optical concept known as coherence. If two light waves are coherent, the waves have the same frequency, and the peaks and troughs of light waves are exactly aligned with one another. In the NCI, the object is illuminated with this coherent light. The light that is reflected off of the object is then picked up by on-chip detectors, called grating couplers, that serve as "pixels," as the light detected from each coupler represents one pixel on the 3-D image. On the NCI chip, the phase, frequency, and intensity of the reflected light from different points on the object is detected and used to determine the exact distance of the target point.

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Novel BLAST Method Delivers Large Particles Into Cells at High Speed

Novel BLAST Method Delivers Large Particles Into Cells at High Speed | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A newly developed device can deliver nanoparticles, enzymes, antibodies, bacteria and other “large-sized” cargo into mammalian cells at speeds up to 100,000 cells per minute.


A new device developed by UCLA engineers and doctors eventually help scientists study the development of disease, enable them to capture improved images of the inside of cells and lead to other improvements in medical and biological research.


The researchers created a highly efficient automated tool that delivers nanoparticles, enzymes, antibodies, bacteria and other “large-sized” cargo into mammalian cells at the rate of 100,000 cells per minute — significantly faster than current technology, which works at about one cell per minute.


The research, published online in Nature Methods on April 6, was led by Eric Pei-Yu Chiou, associate professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering and of bioengineering at the Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science. Collaborators included students, staff and faculty members from the engineering school and the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.


Currently, the only way to deliver so-called large cargo, particles up to 1 micrometer in size, into cells is by using micropipettes, syringe-like tools common in laboratories, which is much slower than the new method. Other approaches for injecting materials into cells — such as using viruses as delivery vehicles or chemical methods — are only useful for small molecules, which are typically several nanometers in length.


The new device, called a biophotonic laser-assisted surgery tool, or BLAST, is a silicon chip with an array of micrometer-wide holes, each surrounded by an asymmetric, semicircular coating of titanium. Underneath the holes is a well of liquid that includes the particles to be delivered.


Researchers use a laser pulse to heat the titanium coating, which instantly boils the water layer adjacent to parts of the cell. That creates a bubble that explodes near the cell membrane, resulting in a large fissure — a reaction that takes only about one millionth of a second. The fissure allows the particle-filled liquid underneath the cells to be jammed into them before the membrane reseals. A laser can scan the entire silicon chip in about 10 seconds.


Chiou said the key to the technique’s success is the instantaneous and precise incision of the cell membrane. “The faster you cut, the fewer perturbations you have on the cell membrane,” said Chiou, who is also a member of the California NanoSystems Institute.


Inserting large cargo into cells could lead to scientific research that was previously not possible. For example, the ability to deliver mitochondria, could alter cells’ metabolism and help researchers study diseases caused by mutant mitochondrial DNA.

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High-resolution biosensor can report conditions from deep in the body

High-resolution biosensor can report conditions from deep in the body | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A new microscopic shape-shifting probe capable of sensitive, high-resolution remote biological sensing has been developed by scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). If eventually put into widespread use, the design could have a major impact on research in medicine, chemistry, biology, and engineering and ultimately used in clinical diagnostics, according to the researchers. To date, most efforts to image highly localized biochemical conditions such as abnormal pH* and ion concentration — critical markers for many disorders — rely on various types of nanosensors that are probed using light at optical frequencies. But the light doesn’t reach far into the body, so the sensitivity and resolution of the resulting optical signals decrease rapidly with increasing depth into the body. That has limited most applications to more optically accessible regions.


Fluorescent and plasmonic labels and sensors have revolutionized molecular biology, helping visualize cellular and biomolecular processes. Increasingly, such probes are now being designed to respond to wavelengths in the near-infrared region, where reduced tissue autofluorescence and photon attenuation enable subsurface in vivo sensing. But even in the near-infrared region, optical resolution and sensitivity decrease rapidly with increasing depth. A team of scientists now presents a sensor design that obviates the need for optical addressability by operating in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) radio-frequency spectrum, where signal attenuation and distortion by tissue and biological media are negligible, where background interferences vanish, and where sensors can be spatially located using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment.


The radio-frequency-addressable sensor assemblies presented here comprise pairs of magnetic disks spaced by swellable hydrogel material; they reversibly reconfigure in rapid response to chosen stimuli, to give geometry-dependent, dynamic NMR spectral signatures. The sensors can be made from biocompatible materials, are themselves detectable down to low concentrations, and offer potential responsive NMR spectral shifts that are close to a million times greater than those of traditional magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Inherent adaptability should allow such shape-changing systems to measure numerous different environmental and physiological indicators, thus providing broadly generalizable, MRI-compatible, radio-frequency analogues to optically based probes for use in basic chemical, biological, medical and engineering research.

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Geomagnetic compass hooked to the brain allows blind rats to ‘see’ with a new type of sense

Geomagnetic compass hooked to the brain allows blind rats to ‘see’ with a new type of sense | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

By attaching a microstimulator and geomagnetic compass to the brains of blind rats, researchers found that the animals can spontaneously learn to use new information about their location to navigate through a maze, and nearly as well as normally sighted rats. The researchers say the findings suggest that a similar kind of neuroprosthesis might also help blind people walk freely through the world.


Most notably, perhaps, the findings, reported in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on Thursday April 2, show the incredible flexibility and latent ability of the mammalian brain, says Yuji Ikegaya of the University of Tokyo.


“We demonstrated that the mammalian brain is flexible even in adulthood — enough to adaptively incorporate a novel, never-experienced, non-inherent modality into the pre-existing information sources.” In other words, he says, the brains of the animals they studied were ready and willing to “fill in the ‘world’ drawn by the five senses” with a new sensory input.


What Ikegaya and his colleague Hiroaki Norimoto set out to do was to not to restore vision per se, but the blind rats’ allocentric sense — the sense that allows animals and people to recognize the position of their body within the environment. What would happen, the researchers asked, if the animals could “see” a geomagnetic signal? Could that signal fill in for the animals’ lost sight? Would the animals know what to do with the information?


The head-mountable geomagnetic sensor device the researchers devised allowed them to connect a digital compass (the kind you’d find in any smart phone) to two tungsten microelectrodes for stimulating the visual cortex of the brain.


The very lightweight device also allowed the researchers to turn the brain stimulation up or down and included a rechargeable battery. Once attached, the sensor automatically detected the animal’s head direction and generated electrical stimulation pulses indicating which direction they were facing — north or south, for instance.


The “blind” rats were then trained to seek food pellets in a T-shaped or a more complicated maze. Within tens of trials, the researchers report, the animals learned to use the geomagnetic information to solve the mazes.


In fact, their performance levels and navigation strategies were similar to those of normally sighted rats. The animals’ allocentric sense was restored. “We were surprised that rats can comprehend a new sense that had never been experienced or ‘explained by anybody’ and can learn to use it in behavioral tasks within only two to three days,” Ikegaya says.

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Naif Almalki's curator insight, April 7, 2015 8:22 AM

في مقولة فلسفية تقول يزداد الادراك كلما زادت حواسنا. هذا البحث دليل عليها 

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Researchers develop molecular DNA backbone of super-slim, bendable digital displays

Researchers develop molecular DNA backbone of super-slim, bendable digital displays | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

From smart phones and tablets to computer monitors and interactive TV screens, electronic displays are everywhere. As the demand for instant, constant communication grows, so too does the urgency for more convenient portable devices -- especially devices, like computer displays, that can be easily rolled up and put away, rather than requiring a flat surface for storage and transportation.


A new Tel Aviv University study, published recently in Nature Nanotechnology ("Light-emitting self-assembled peptide nucleic acids exhibit both stacking interactions and Watson–Crick base pairing"), suggests that a novel DNA-peptide structure can be used to produce thin, transparent, and flexible screens. The research, conducted by Prof. Ehud Gazit and doctoral student Or Berger of the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology at TAU's Faculty of Life Sciences, in collaboration with Dr. Yuval Ebenstein and Prof. Fernando Patolsky of the School of Chemistry at TAU's Faculty of Exact Sciences, harnesses bionanotechnology to emit a full range of colors in one pliable pixel layer -- as opposed to the several rigid layers that constitute today's screens."


Our material is light, organic, and environmentally friendly," said Prof. Gazit. "It is flexible, and a single layer emits the same range of light that requires several layers today. By using only one layer, you can minimize production costs dramatically, which will lead to lower prices for consumers as well."


For the purpose of the study, a part of Berger's Ph.D. thesis, the researchers tested different combinations of peptides: short protein fragments, embedded with DNA elements which facilitate the self-assembly of a unique molecular architecture.


Peptides and DNA are two of the most basic building blocks of life. Each cell of every life form is composed of such building blocks. In the field of bionanotechnology, scientists utilize these building blocks to develop novel technologies with properties not available for inorganic materials such as plastic and metal."


Our lab has been working on peptide nanotechnology for over a decade, but DNA nanotechnology is a distinct and fascinating field as well. When I started my doctoral studies, I wanted to try and converge the two approaches," said Berger. "In this study, we focused on PNA - peptide nucleic acid, a synthetic hybrid molecule of peptides and DNA. We designed and synthesized different PNA sequences, and tried to build nano-metric architectures with them."

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Plant virus can help you boil water 3x faster

Plant virus can help you boil water 3x faster | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Scientists have found a way to boil water faster. The technology works by coating a heating element with a virus found on tobacco plants. The coating dramatically reduces the size and number of bubbles that form around the element as it gets warmer. Air pockets caused by bubbles temporarily insulate heating elements from the surrounding water, slowing down the transfer of heat. A coating made from the tobacco virus tripled the efficiency of boiling water, scientists said, which could save vast quantities of energy in industrial power plants or large-scale electronic cooling systems.


“Even slight improvements to technologies that are used so widely can be quite impactful,” said Matthew McCarthy, an engineer at Drexel University in Pennsylvania. Controlling the formation of bubbles would also help guard against a scenario called “critical heat flux” that is undesirable – sometimes disastrous – in industrial boilers. This happens when so many bubbles are forming that they merge into a blanket surrounding the element, meaning that it can no longer transfer heat to the water.


“What happens then is the dry surface gets hotter and hotter, like a pan on the stove without water in it,” said McCarthy. “This failure can lead to the simple destruction of electronic components, or in power plant cooling applications, the catastrophic meltdown of a nuclear reactor.” To counteract this effect, scientists have been attempting to develop surfaces that repel bubbles and keep the boiling surface wet. McCarthy’s team has identified tobacco mosaic virus, which is roughly pencil-shaped, as the perfect structure for wicking moisture downwards towards a surface.


The team has developed a genetically modified strain of the virus, with “molecular hooks” allowing it to adhere to nearly any surface. The researchers grow tobacco plants in the lab and infect them with the modified tobacco mosaic virus. “When the plants are really sick, we put them in the blender and you get a sort of green soup,” said McCarthy.


After several rounds of centrifuging and chemical separation, which takes two days, the scientists are left with a perfectly clear solution of concentrated virus. When poured over a surface, the virus self-assembles into a layer of nano-tendrils, each pointing upward like a blade of grass.

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Naif Almalki's curator insight, March 30, 2015 5:00 AM

فيروس يساعد على تسريع غليان الماء ويحفظ الطاقة !

JIIP's curator insight, April 12, 2015 7:58 PM

TESTING