Los Amigos Biological Station sits within the Peruvian Amazon—one of the planet’s richest hotspots for life. Countless species fly, scurry, climb and burrow through the surrounding rainforest. To be at the station is to be surrounded by life at its most diverse and wondrous.
But you don’t have to go into the forest to find diversity. The research station has a kilometre-long airstrip, and its borders are thick with climbing squash vines descending from the trees. A team of scientists led by Marty Condon from Cornell College collected some 3,600 flowers from these vines, all belonging to just two species. They found entire worlds.
The flowers were home to 14 species of fly, which lived nowhere else. “When we go out in the field, we collect every flower, fruit and stem of this group. These particular flies have only come out of these two plants,” says Condon. Most were even restricted to either the male or female flowers of their chosen plant.
There was more. Condon also found 18 species of parasitic wasps, which attack the fly larvae and lay eggs inside their bodies. Two of the wasps were generalists that attacked a wide variety of hosts. But the vast majority were specialists that targeted just one of the 14 available fly species, even though there were several possible targets around.