Any areas of water could be off-limits to all but the cleanest spacecraft.
Dark streaks that hint at seasonally flowing water have been spotted near the equator of Mars1. The potentially habitable oases are enticing targets for research. But spacecraft will probably have to steer clear of them unless the craft are carefully sterilized — a costly safeguard against interplanetary contamination that may rule out the sites for exploration.
River-like valleys attest to the flow of water on ancient Mars, but today the planet is dry and has an atmosphere that is too thin to support liquid water on the surface for long. However, intriguing clues suggest that water may still run across the surface from time to time.
In 2011, for example, researchers who analysed images from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft observed dark streaks a few metres wide that appeared and lengthened at the warmest time of the year, then faded in cooler seasons, reappearing in subsequent years2. "This behaviour is easy to understand if these are seeps of water," says planetary scientist Alfred McEwen of the University of Arizona in Tucson, who led that study. "Water will darken most soils."
The streaks, known as recurring slope lineae, initially were found at seven sites in Mars's southern mid-latitudes. The water may have come from ice trapped about a metre below the surface; indeed, the MRO has spotted such ice in fresh impact craters at those latitudes.
McEwen and his colleagues have now found the reappearing streaks near the equator, including in the gargantuan Valles Marineris canyon that lies just south of it. The MRO has turned up 12 new sites — each of which has hundreds or thousands of streaks — within 25 degrees of the equator. The temperatures there are relatively warm throughout the year, says McEwen, and without a mechanism for replenishment, any subsurface ice would probably already have sublimated.
The possibility of running water could put the sites off-limits for future spacecraft unless they are carefully sterilized. The international guidelines of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the Paris-based International Council for Science say that sites that may host life, called 'special regions', should only be visited by probes that have been thoroughly treated to prevent microbes from hitching a ride from Earth. "You wouldn't want to send a dirty spacecraft to these places because you'd have the potential to not discover what you're looking for, but what you took with you," says John Rummel, chair of COSPAR's panel on planetary protection.
Martian crater records aftermath of Amazon-like flood (Feb 21, 2008)
Underground radar hunt for life on Mars (May 1, 2005)
Mars still alive, experts agree (Mar 18, 2005)
Mars pictures reveal frozen sea (Feb 21, 2005)
Mars water clues go wider and deeper (Feb 18, 2005)
Mars hill find hints at wet past (Aug 20, 2004)
Spirit finds multi-layer hints of past water at Gusev site (Apr 2, 2004)
Mars: water, water, everywhere ... (Feb 17, 2003)
Evidence of ancient Martian flood (Jun 21, 2002)
Vast amounts of subsurface water-ice found on Mars (May 26, 2002)
Odyssey find sends Mars life hopes soaring (Mar 3, 2002)
Waterworld Mars: past and future (Dec 8 2001)
Water clues in Mars rock (Jun 14, 2001)
A lake like Vostok on Mars? (Feb 18, 2001)
Meteorite evidence for recent water on Mars (Jan 24, 2001)
Further signs of liquid water on Mars (Nov 21, 2000)