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Half of all US clinical trials go unpublished

Half of all US clinical trials go unpublished | Amazing Science |

Clinical trials — which usually compare the effectiveness of medical treatments to placebos — often get published in peer-reviewed journals only if they gave favourable results. The results of clinical trials are going unpublished as much as half the time, and those that are published omit some key details, a study has found.

US law requires the results of medical research for drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to be submitted to a database called Results, including adverse effects, have been made public there since 2008. Researchers who do not post results within a year of trial completion risk losing grants and can be fined as much as US$10,000 per day. But the database was never meant to replace journal publications, which often contain longer descriptions of methods and results and are the basis for big reviews of research on a given drug.


In an analysis of 600 trials picked at random from the database, Agnes Dechartres, an epidemiologist at Paris Descartes University, and her colleagues have now found that only 50% had made their way into print. “Non-publication is a crucial problem for all stakeholders, from patients to health policy-makers,” says Dechartres. For one thing, she says, failure to publish results in journals breeches the implied contract with patients who participated in the trials. “If results are not [fully] available, we can consider that research wasted,” she says.

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20,000+ FREE Online Science and Technology Lectures from Top Universities

20,000+ FREE Online Science and Technology Lectures from Top Universities | Amazing Science |

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Siegfried Holle's curator insight, July 4, 2014 8:45 AM

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Slow-melting ice cream ingredient discovered by scientists

Slow-melting ice cream ingredient discovered by scientists | Amazing Science |
A new ingredient developed by scientists in Scotland could mean that ice cream fans can enjoy their treats before they melt.

A naturally occurring protein can be used to create ice cream which stays frozen for longer in hot weather. The scientists estimate that the slow-melting product could become available in three to five years. The development could also allow products to be made with lower levels of saturated fat and fewer calories.

Teams at the Universities of Edinburgh and Dundee have discovered that the protein, known as BsIA, works by binding together the air, fat and water in ice cream. It is also said to prevent gritty ice crystals from forming - ensuring a fine, smooth texture.

Prof Cait MacPhee, of the University of Edinburgh's school of physics and astronomy, who led the project, said: "It's not completely non-melting because you do want your ice cream to be cold. It will melt eventually but hopefully by keeping it stable for longer it will stop the drips."

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China is set to complete the installation of the world's longest quantum communication network

China is set to complete the installation of the world's longest quantum communication network | Amazing Science |

China is set to complete the installation of the world's longest quantum communication network stretching 2,000km (1,240miles) from Beijing to Shanghai by 2016, say scientists leading the project. Quantum communications technology is considered to be "unhackable" and allows data to be transferred at the speed of light. By 2030, the Chinese network would be extended worldwide, the South China Morning Post reported. It would make the country the first major power to publish a detailed schedule to put the technology into extensive, large-scale use.

The development of quantum communications technology has accelerated in the last five years. The technology works by two people sharing a message which is encrypted by a secret key made up of quantum particles, such as polarized photons. If a third person tries to intercept the photons by copying the secret key as it travels through the network, then the eavesdropper will be revealed by virtue of the laws of quantum mechanics – which dictate that the act of interfering with the network affects the behaviour of the key in an unpredictable manner.

If all goes to schedule, China would be the first country to put a quantum communications satellite in orbit, said Wang Jianyu, deputy director of the China Academy of Science's (CAS) Shanghai branch. At a recent conference on quantum science in Shanghai, Wang said scientists from CAS and other institutions have completed major research and development tasks for launching the satellite equipped with quantum communications gear, South China Morning Post said.

The potential success of the satellite was confirmed by China's leading quantum communications scientist, Pan Jianwei, a CAS academic who is also a professor of quantum physics at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in Hefei, in the eastern province of Anhui. Pan said researchers reported significant progress on systems development after conducting experiments at a test center in the northwest of China.

The satellite would be used to transmit encoded data through a method called quantum key distribution (QKD), which relies on cryptographic keys transmitted via light pulse signals. QKD is said to be nearly impossible to hack, since any attempted eavesdropping would change the quantum states and thus could be quickly detected by dataflow monitors.

Via LeapMind, Jocelyn Stoller
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Scientists Mimic Sharkskin to Develop Bacteria-Resistant Surfaces

Scientists Mimic Sharkskin to Develop Bacteria-Resistant Surfaces | Amazing Science |
Smooth diamond shape texture of sharkskin appears to be a very hostile environment for micro-organisms.

Even though hospitals are rapidly cleaned with strong antiseptics, they can still be filled with all sorts of microorganisms that threaten our health. About two million people catch some disease in US hospitals every year, and around 100,000 die from it, while microorganisms tend to grow more resilient to antibiotics.  Scientists are trying to mimic nature to find a long-term solution for this issue, and they allegedly found it in sharks skin, WIRED Science reported.

While helping the NAVY figure out how to keep its ship sides smooth, scientist Anthony Brennan studied sharkskin. Its smooth surface allows these great sea predators to swim faster than any other sea creature. He noticed that sharkskin is barnacle and algae-free. It is also a well known fact that microorganisms are more likely to hold onto roughened surfaces than stick onto smooth ones. That is how Sharklet Technologies was created.

According to Sharklet Technologies CEO Mark Spiecker, “By staying clean while moving slow, sharks defy a basic principle of the ocean.” Sharkskin consists of millions of nano-ridges, arranged in a diamond pattern. This texture enables the process called mechanotransduction, which basically provides mechanical stress on microorganisms. In such an environment, bacteria lives no longer than 18 minutes, which is not enough lifetime for reproduction, according to Spiecker.

The goal is the creation of a thin film that has the same texture as sharkskin, that can be applied on hospital’s most exposed surfaces such as door handles or stairway banisters. This should make it more difficult for bacteria to build up on such surfaces, including antibiotic-resistant bacteria, like MRSA—to settle on these areas and infect hospital patients.

WIRED reported Spieckers claim that the Sharklet film can reduce bacteria transfer up to a 97 percent.

Via CineversityTV
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New nonlinear SIM microscope gives deepest view yet of living cells

New nonlinear SIM microscope gives deepest view yet of living cells | Amazing Science |

Two new microscopy techniques are helping scientists see smaller structures in living cells than ever glimpsed before.

Scientists can now view structures just 45 to 84 nanometers wide, Nobel prize-winning physicist Eric Betzig of the Howard Hughes Medical Research Institute’sJanelia research campus in Ashburn, Va., and colleaguesreport in the Aug. 28 Science. The techniques beat the previous resolution of 100 nanometers and shatters the 250 nanometer “diffraction barrier,” imposed by the bending of light.

Using other tricks to improve the super-resolution methods also allowed the researchers to take ultraquick pictures with less cell-damaging light than before. As a result, scientists can watch sub-second interactions within cells, revealing new insights into how cells work.

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AGM2015: High-Precision Antineutrino Global Map 2015

AGM2015: High-Precision Antineutrino Global Map 2015 | Amazing Science |

Every second greater than 10E25 antineutrinos radiate to space from Earth, shining like a faint antineutrino star. Underground antineutrino detectors have revealed the rapidly decaying fission products inside nuclear reactors, verified the long-lived radioactivity inside our planet, and informed sensitive experiments for probing fundamental physics. Mapping the anisotropic antineutrino flux and energy spectrum advance geoscience by defining the amount and distribution of radioactive power within Earth while critically evaluating competing compositional models of the planet. A group of scientists now present the Antineutrino Global Map 2015 (AGM2015), an experimentally informed model of Earth’s surface antineutrino flux over the 0 to 11 MeV energy spectrum, along with an assessment of systematic errors. The open source AGM2015 provides fundamental predictions for experiments, assists in strategic detector placement to determine neutrino mass hierarchy, and aids in identifying undeclared nuclear reactors. They use cosmo-chemically and seismologically informed models of the radiogenic lithosphere/mantle combined with the estimated antineutrino flux, as measured by KamLAND and Borexino, to determine the Earth’s total antineutrino luminosity. They find a dominant flux of geo-neutrinos, predict sub-equal crust and mantle contributions, with ~1% of the total flux from man-made nuclear reactors.

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New solar cell absorbs high-energy blue light at 30-fold higher concentration than conventional cells

New solar cell absorbs high-energy blue light at 30-fold higher concentration than conventional cells | Amazing Science |
By combining designer quantum dot light-emitters with spectrally matched photonic mirrors, a team of scientists with Berkeley Lab and the University of Illinois created solar cells that collect blue photons at 30 times the concentration of conventional solar cells, the highest luminescent concentration factor ever recorded. This breakthrough paves the way for the future development of low-cost solar cells that efficiently utilize the high-energy part of the solar spectrum.

"We've achieved a luminescent concentration ratio greater than 30 with an optical efficiency of 82-percent for blue photons," says Berkeley Lab director Paul Alivisatos, who is also the Samsung Distinguished Professor of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology at the University of California Berkeley, and director of the Kavli Energy Nanoscience Institute (ENSI), was the co-leader of this research. "To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest luminescent concentration factor in literature to date."

Alivisatos and Ralph Nuzzo of the University of Illinois are the corresponding authors of a paper in ACS Photonics describing this research entitled "Quantum Dot Luminescent Concentrator Cavity Exhibiting 30-fold Concentration." Noah Bronstein, a member of Alivisatos's research group, is one of three lead authors along with Yuan Yao and Lu Xu. Other co-authors are Erin O'Brien, Alexander Powers and Vivian Ferry.

The solar energy industry in the United States is soaring with the number of photovoltaic installations having grown from generating 1.2 gigawatts of electricity in 2008 to generating 20-plus gigawatts today, according to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Still, nearly 70-percent of the electricity generated in this country continues to come from fossil fuels. Low-cost alternatives to today's photovoltaic solar panels are needed for the immense advantages of solar power to be fully realized. One promising alternative has been luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs).

Unlike conventional solar cells that directly absorb sunlight and convert it into electricity, an LSC absorbs the light on a plate embedded with highly efficient light-emitters called "lumophores" that then re-emit the absorbed light at longer wavelengths, a process known as the Stokes shift. This re-emitted light is directed to a micro-solar cell for conversion to electricity. Because the plate is much larger than the micro-solar cell, the solar energy hitting the cell is highly concentrated.

With a sufficient concentration factor, only small amounts of expensive III−V photovoltaic materials are needed to collect light from an inexpensive luminescent waveguide. However, the concentration factor and collection efficiency of the molecular dyes that up until now have been used as lumophores are limited by parasitic losses, including non-unity quantum yields of the lumophores, imperfect light trapping within the waveguide, and reabsorption and scattering of propagating photons.

"We replaced the molecular dyes in previous LSC systems with core/shell nanoparticles composed of cadmium selenide (CdSe) cores and cadmium sulfide (CdS) shells that increase the Stokes shift while reducing photon re-absorption," says Bronstein.

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Gene therapy rescues dying cells in the brains of Alzheimer's patients

Gene therapy rescues dying cells in the brains of Alzheimer's patients | Amazing Science |

An experimental gene therapy reduces the rate at which nerve cells in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients degenerate and die, according to new results from a small clinical trial, published in the current issue of the journal JAMA Neurology.

Targeted injection of the Nerve Growth Factor gene into the patients’ brains rescued dying cells around the injection site, enhancing their growth and inducing them to sprout new fibres. In some cases, these beneficial effects persisted for 10 years after the therapy was first delivered.

Alzheimer’s is the world’s leading form of dementia, affecting an estimated 47 million people worldwide. This figure is predicted to almost double every 20 years, with much of this increase is likely to be in the developing world. And despite the huge amounts of time, effort, and money devoted to developing an effective cure, the vast majority of new drugs have failed in clinical trials.

The new results are preliminary findings from the very first human trials designed to test the potential benefits of nerve growth factor (NGF) gene therapy for Alzheimer’s patients.

NGF was discovered in the 1940s by Rita Levi-Montalcini, who convincingly demonstrated that the small protein promotes the survival of certain sub-types of sensory neurons during development of the nervous system. Since then, others have shown that it also promotes the survival of acetylcholine-producing cells in the basal forebrain, which die off in Alzheimer’s.

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New, Ultrathin Optical Devices Shape Light in Exotic Ways

New, Ultrathin Optical Devices Shape Light in Exotic Ways | Amazing Science |
Caltech engineers have created flat devices capable of manipulating light in ways that are very difficult or impossible to achieve with conventional optical components.

The new devices are not made of glass, but rather of silicon nanopillars that are precisely arranged into a honeycomb pattern to create a "metasurface" that can control the paths and properties of passing light waves.

These metasurface devices, described in a paper published online on August 31, 2015, in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, could lead to ultracompact optical systems such as advanced microscopes, displays, sensors, and cameras that can be mass-produced using the same photolithography techniques used to manufacture computer microchips.

"Currently, optical systems are made one component at a time, and the components are often manually assembled," says Andrei Faraon (BS '04), an assistant professor of applied physics and materials science, and the study's principal investigator. "But this new technology is very similar to the one used to print semiconductor chips onto silicon wafers, so you could conceivably manufacture millions of systems such as microscopes or cameras at a time."

Seen under a scanning electron microscope, the new metasurfaces that the team created resemble a cut forest where only the stumps remain. Each silicon stump, or pillar, has an elliptical cross section, and by carefully varying the diameters of each pillar and rotating them around their axes, the scientists were able to simultaneously manipulate the phase and polarization of passing light. Light is an electromagnetic field, and the field of single-color, or monochromatic, light oscillates at all points in space with the same frequency but varying relative delays, or phases.
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Evidence of ancient microbial life discovered in mantle rocks deep below the seafloor

Evidence of ancient microbial life discovered in mantle rocks deep below the seafloor | Amazing Science |
Ancient rocks harbored microbial life deep below the seafloor, reports a team of scientists from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Virginia Tech, and the University of Bremen. This new evidence was contained in drilled rock samples of Earth's mantle - thrust by tectonic forces to the seafloor during the Early Cretaceous period. The new study was published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The discovery confirms a long-standing hypothesis that interactions between mantle rocks and seawater can create potential for life even in hard rocks deep below the ocean floor. The fossilized microbes are likely the same as those found at the active Lost City hydrothermal field, providing potentially important clues about the conditions that support 'intraterrestrial' life in rocks below the seafloor.

"We were initially looking at how seawater interacts with mantle rocks, and how that process generates hydrogen," said Frieder Klein, an associate scientist at WHOI and lead author of the study. "But during our analysis of the rock samples, we discovered organic-rich inclusions that contained lipids, proteins and amino acids - the building blocks of life - mummified in the surrounding minerals."

This study, which was a collaborative effort between Klein, WHOI scientists Susan Humphris, Weifu Guo and William Orsi, Esther Schwarzenbach from Virginia Tech and Florence Schubotz from the University of Bremen, focused on mantle rocks that were originally exposed to seawater approximately 125 million years ago when a large rift split the massive supercontinent known as Pangaea. The rift, which eventually evolved into the Atlantic Ocean, pulled mantle rocks from Earth's interior to the seafloor, where they underwent chemical reactions with seawater, transforming the seawater into a hydrothermal fluid.

"The hydrothermal fluid likely had a high pH and was depleted in carbon and electron acceptors," Klein said. "These extreme chemical conditions can be challenging for microbes. However, the hydrothermal fluid contained hydrogen and methane and seawater contains dissolved carbon and electron acceptors. So when you mix the two in just the right proportions, you can have the ingredients to support life."

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Neuroscientists Find New Brain Network

Neuroscientists Find New Brain Network | Amazing Science |

Humans abound with remarkable skills: we write novels, build bridges, compose symphonies, and even navigate Boston traffic. But despite our mental prowess, we share a surprising deficit: our working memory can track only four items at one time.

“Would you buy a computer with a RAM capacity of 4?” asks David Somers, professor and chair of the Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences. “Not 4 MB or GB or 4K—just 4. So how the heck do humans do all this stuff?”

“There’s so much information out there, and our brains are very limited in what we’re able to process,” adds Samantha Michalka, a postdoctoral fellow at the Center for Computational Neuroscience & Neural Technology. “We desperately need attention to function in the world.”

Michalka is lead author and Somers is senior author of a new study that sheds light on this enduring mystery of neuroscience: how humans achieve so much with such limited attention. Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the work identifies a previously unknown attention network in the brain. It also reveals that our working memory for space and time can recruit our extraordinary visual and auditory processing networks when needed. The research appeared on August 19, 2015, in the journal Neuron.

Prior to this work, scientists believed that visual information from the eyes and auditory information from the ears merged before reaching the frontal lobes, where abstract thought occurs. The team of BU scientists, which also included Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory Director Barbara Shinn-Cunningham, performed functional MRI experiments to test the conventional wisdom. The experiments revealed that what was thought to be one large attention network in the frontal lobe is actually two interleaved attention networks, one supporting vision and one supporting hearing. “So instead of talking about a single attention network,” says Somers, “we now need to talk about a visual attention network and an auditory attention network that work together.”

Sandeep Gautam's curator insight, August 30, 11:33 PM

an auditory attention network along with a visual attention network!

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Super-low loss quantum energy transport could revolutionize sunlight to energy conversion

Super-low loss quantum energy transport could revolutionize sunlight to energy conversion | Amazing Science |

The use of sunlight as an energy source is achieved in a number of ways, from conversion to electricity via photovoltaic (PV) panels, concentrated heat to drive steam turbines, and even hydrogen generation via artificial photosynthesis. Unfortunately, much of the light energy in PV and photosynthesis systems is lost as heat due to the thermodynamic inefficiencies inherent in the process of converting the incoming energy from one form to another. Now scientists working at the University of Bayreuth claim to have created a super-efficient light-energy transport conduit that exhibits almost zero loss, and shows promise as the missing link in the sunlight to energy conversion process.

Using specifically-generated nanofibers at its core, this is reported to be the very first time a directed energy transport system has been exhibited that effectively moves intact light energy over a distance of several micrometers, and at room temperature. And, according to the researchers, the transference of energy from block to block in the nanofibers is only adequately explained at the quantum level with coherence effects driving the energy along the individual fibers.

Quantum coherence is the phenomenon where subatomic waves are closely interlinked via shared electromagnetic fields. As they travel in phase together, these quantum coherent waves start to act as one very large synchronous wave propagating across a medium. In the case of the University of Bayreuth device, these coherent waves of energy travel across the molecular building blocks from which the nanofibers are made, passing from block to block and moving as one continuous energy wave would in unbound free space.

It is this effect that the scientists say is driving the super-low energy loss capabilities of their device, and have confirmed this observation using a variety of microscopy techniques to visualize the conveyance of excitation energy along the nanofibers. The nanofibers themselves are specifically-prepared supramolecular strands, manufactured from a chemically bespoke combination of carbonyl-bridged (molecularly connected) triarylamine (an organic compound) combined with three naphthalimide bithiophene chromophores (copolymer molecules that absorb and reflect specific wavelengths of light). When brought together under particular conditions, these elements spontaneously self-assemble into 4 micrometer long, 0.005 micrometer diameter nanofibers made up of more than 10,000 identical chemical building blocks.

"These highly promising nanostructures demonstrate that carefully tailoring materials for the efficient transport of light energy is an emerging research area," said Dr. Richard Hildner, an experimental physicist at the University of Bayreuth. The results of this research were recently published in the journal Nature.

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Revealed: How did our planet ever escape 'snowball Earth'?

Revealed: How did our planet ever escape 'snowball Earth'? | Amazing Science |
Glaciers once covered most of Earth's surface and reflected the sun's heat back into space.

New details of a nightmare period on Earth with surface conditions as frigid as present-day central Antarctica at the equator have been revealed thanks to the publication of a study of ancient glacier water. The research, by an international team led by Daniel Herwartz, is published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and shows that even tropical regions were once covered in snow and ice.

The idea of a deep-frozen world, “snowball Earth”, has captured the imagination since first proposed in the 1990s. On several occasions in history, long before animals evolved, apparently synchronous ice sheets existed on all the continents. However, much like falling into a crevasse on a glacier, it’s easy enough to enter such an ice age, but very difficult to escape.

The snowball Earth theory came from climate modelers who found that low carbon dioxide levels could trigger the growth of ice sheets. The whole planet would become glaciated and its mean temperature drop to as low as -45°C. As ice is much more reflective than the sea, or bare land, the Earth at that point would have been bouncing nearly all of the sun’s radiation back into space. So how could the planet ever emerge from such an ice age?

Volcanoes had to be the answer. Only they could emit enough carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to overcome the effects of Earth’s cool reflective surface. But climate models still found it difficult to plausibly describe how the Earth could have shed its glaciers.

We now have the first full explanation for how the best-known snowball event, the Marinoan, finished 635 million years ago with a several hundred meter rise in sea level. The study is the result of work by an international team of scientists. The results are published in the journal Nature Geoscience.

The team of researchers found slight wobbles of the Earth’s spin axis caused differences in the heat received at different places on the planet’s surface. These changes were small, but enough over thousands of years to cause a change in the places where snow accumulated or melted, leading the glaciers to advance and retreat.

The Earth was left looking just like the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica – arid, with lots of bare ground, but also containing glaciers up to 3 km thick. Such an Earth would have been darker than previously envisaged, absorbing more of the sun’s radiation; it was easier to see how the escape from the snowball happened.

Today, to find exposed rocks that can tell us about the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere in the Marinoan, you have to go to the Norwegian Arctic island of Svalbard. In 2009 snowball theory was vindicated after we found the telltale signal of high carbon dioxide levels in Svalbard limestone that formed during the ice age.

Immediately underneath the Marinoan deposits are some beds of rocks deposited at very regular intervals – so regular that they must have formed over thousands of years, influenced by wobbles in the Earth’s orbit. Since Svalbard was near the Equator at the time, the most likely type of wobble is caused by the Earth slowly shifting (“precessing”) its axis on cycles of approximately 20,000 years.

Researchers also found evidence of the same process in the Snowball deposits themselves. Fluctuations in ice in relation to the Earth’s orbit are a feature of our modern ice ages over the past million years, but had not been found in such an old glaciation.

For a long time the Earth was too cold for glaciers to erode and deposit sediment – the main snowball period. The sediments then show several advances and retreats of the ice. When the glaciers retreated, they left behind a patchwork of environments: shallow and deep lakes, river channels, and floodplains that appeared as arid as anything known in Earth’s history.

Carbon dioxide appears to have remained at the same high level throughout the deposition of these sediments. Since it takes millions of years for CO2 to build up in the atmosphere, this implies the sediment layers must have formed quickly – on the order of 100,000 years. All this fits with the idea of 20,000 year precession cycles.

group of climate modellers from Paris tested the theory. The rocks and the models agreed: wobbles in the Earth’s axis had caused the planet to escape its snowball phase.

So after several million years of being frozen, this icy Earth with a hot atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide had reached a Goldilocks zone – too warm to stay completely frozen, too cold to lose its ice. This transitional period lasted around 100,000 years before the glaciers fully melted and present-day Svalbard was flooded by the sea.

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How to build tiny models of human tissues, called organoids, more precisely than ever before

How to build tiny models of human tissues, called organoids, more precisely than ever before | Amazing Science |

A UCSF-led team has developed a technique to build tiny models of human tissues, called organoids, more precisely than ever before using a process that turns human cells into a biological equivalent of LEGO bricks. These mini-tissues in a dish can be used to study how particular structural features of tissue affect normal growth or go awry in cancer. They could be used for therapeutic drug screening and to help teach researchers how to grow whole human organs.

The new technique — called DNA Programmed Assembly of Cells (DPAC) and reported in the journal Nature Methods on Aug. 31 — allows researchers to create arrays of thousands of custom-designed organoids, such as models of human mammary glands containing several hundred cells each, which can be built in a matter of hours.

There are few limits to the tissues this technology can mimic, said Zev Gartner, PhD, the paper’s senior author and an associate professor of pharmaceutical chemistry at UCSF. “We can take any cell type we want and program just where it goes. We can precisely control who’s talking to whom and who’s touching whom at the earliest stages. The cells then follow these initially programmed spatial cues to interact, move around, and develop into tissues over time.”

“One potential application,” Gartner said, “would be that within the next couple of years, we could be taking samples of different components of a cancer patient’s mammary gland and building a model of their tissue to use as a personalized drug screening platform. Another is to use the rules of tissue growth we learn with these models to one day grow complete organs.”

Our bodies are made of more than 10 trillion cells of hundreds of different kinds, each of which plays its unique role in keeping us alive and healthy. The way these cells organize themselves structurally in different organ systems helps them coordinate their amazingly diverse behaviors and functions, keeping the whole biological machine running smoothly. But in diseases such as breast cancer, the breakdown of this order has been associated with the rapid growth and spread of tumors.

“Cells aren’t lonely little automatons,” Gartner said. “They communicate through networks to make group decisions. As in any complex organization, you really need to get the group’s structure right to be successful, as many failed corporations have discovered. In the context of human tissues, when organization fails, it sets the stage for cancer.”

But studying how the cells of complex tissues like the mammary gland self-organize, make decisions as groups, and break down in disease has been a challenge to researchers. The living organism is often too complex to identify the specific causes of a particular cellular behavior. On the other hand, cells in a dish lack the critical element of realistic 3-D structure.

“This technique lets us produce simple components of tissue in a dish that we can easily study and manipulate,” said Michael Todhunter, PhD, who led the new study with Noel Jee, PhD, when both were graduate students in the Gartner research group. “It lets us ask questions about complex human tissues without needing to do experiments on humans.”

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Richness of genes located in the genome of Euglena pond algae

Richness of genes located in the genome of Euglena pond algae | Amazing Science |

Transcriptome sequencing reveals Euglena’s unexpected metabolic capabilities.

The pond algae Euglena gracilis has a surprising wealth of metabolic pathways for unexpected natural products, new research shows. Genes from this common single-celled organism could therefore be manipulated to synthesise a host of unusual, and potentially useful, compounds.

Euglenoids are a group of algae that grow abundantly in nutrient-rich freshwater environments, such as garden ponds. Euglena gracilis is known to produce many nutritional compounds including vitamins A, C and E, essential amino acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, sequencing its genome in a bid to unlock these valuable natural products has proved very challenging due to its large size, complexity and incorporation of the unusual nucleotide base J.

Researchers, led by Rob Field at the John Innes Centre in the UK, have tackled this problem by instead looking at Euglena’s transcriptome – the mRNA transcribed from the genome that shows what genes an organism is using at a given time.

The results are intriguing: this single celled organism possesses over 30,000 protein-encoding genes – significantly more than the 21,000 found in humans. Only a third of these genes were constantly active, while the rest seemed to be light-responsive. ‘Around 10,000 genes are switched on when the lights are on and 10,000 switched off, so it’s almost as if Euglena is two different organisms living in the same chassis,’ explains Field. A vast number of genes – nearly 60% – had no known match in other studied organisms, meaning we simply don’t know what they do.

There were some revelations among the genes that could be identified too, including unexpected genes for the production of a variety of potentially useful classes of natural products that have not been associated with Euglena before, such as polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides. This is a very interesting finding according to Wilfred van der Donk, a natural products biochemist at the University of Illinois, US, because ‘products of these types of genes have seldom or never been isolated from these organisms. Thus, these findings open the door to isolation and structural elucidation of these compounds, and investigation of their function.’

This transcriptome approach to studying Euglena could be applied to other related organisms too, such as algal blooms suffocating parts of the UK’s Norfolk Broads. Taking what they’ve learned from Euglena, Field’s group have now begun to study how algae produce toxic natural products and what environmental factors might trigger this production. 

Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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Fungus may block misfolded tau protein in Alzheimer's disease

Fungus may block misfolded tau protein in Alzheimer's disease | Amazing Science |
Some natural types of fungus appear to inhibit the build-up of tau—a protein linked to Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

“Tau is a protein that is produced by the body,” says T. Chris Gamblin, associate professor of molecular biosciences at the University of Kansas. “It’s found primarily in neurons in the normal brain where it helps them maintain their shape and function.

“In Alzheimer’s disease, through a mechanism we don’t quite understand, tau is changed in a way that causes it to start clumping together with other tau molecules, forming string-like fibrils that accumulate into the pathological structure in Alzheimer’s disease called ‘neurofibrillary tangles.''

For a new study published in Planta Medicaresearchers tested 17 natural fungal products, most of which had similar structures to compounds seen by previous researchers to hinder tau formation. “Because fungi have historically been a rich source of biologically useful compounds, we thought it would be worth screening them to determine their activity,” Gamblin says. “We used advanced genetic techniques to get the fungus to overproduce many, many different types of natural products so we could purify and identify them.”

Of the 17 natural products, the researchers discovered three that were effective in inhibiting tau accumulation: 2,ω-dihydroxyemodin, asperthecin, and asperbenzaldehyde. “All three of them did block the aggregation of tau 100 percent as far as we can tell,” says Gamblin. “Some of them took very high concentrations to do so though.

Via Linda Denty
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Penn and German Researchers Help Identify Neural Basis of Multitasking

Penn and German Researchers Help Identify Neural Basis of Multitasking | Amazing Science |

What makes someone better at switching between different tasks? Looking for the mechanisms behind cognitive flexibility, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania and Germany’s Central Institute of Mental Health in Mannheim and Charité University Medicine Berlin have used brain scans to shed new light on this question.

By studying networks of activity in the brain’s frontal cortex, a region associated with control over thoughts and actions, the researchers have shown that the degree to which these networks reconfigure themselves while switching from task to task predicts people’s cognitive flexibility.

Experiment participants who performed best while alternating between a memory test and a control test showed the most rearrangement of connections within their frontal cortices as well as the most new connections with other areas of their brains.

A more fundamental understanding of how the brain manages multitasking could lead to better interventions for medical conditions associated with reduced executive function, such as autism, schizophrenia or dementia.

Danielle Bassett, the Skirkanich Assistant Professor of Innovation in Penn’s School of Engineering and Applied Science, is senior author on the study. Manheim’s Urs Braun and Axel Schäfer were the lead authors. The research also featured work from Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg and Heike Tost of Mannheim, Henrik Walter of Charité, and others. It was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Rather than looking at the role a single region in the brain plays, Bassett and colleagues study the interconnections between the regions as indicated by synchronized activity. Using fMRI, they can measure which parts of the brain are “talking” to one another as study participants perform various tasks. Mapping the way this activity network reconfigures itself provides a more holistic view of how the brain operates.

“We try to understand how dynamic flexibility of brain networks can predict cognitive flexibility, or the ability to switch from task to task,” Bassett said. “Rather than being driven by the activity of single brain areas, we believe executive function is a network-level process.”

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Phagraphene, a new “Relative” of Graphene Discovered

Phagraphene, a new “Relative” of Graphene Discovered | Amazing Science |

A group of scientists from Russia, the USA and China, led by Artyom Oganov from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), using computer generated simulation have predicted the existence of a new two-dimensional carbon material, a “patchwork” analogue of graphene called phagraphene. The results of their investigation were recently published in the journal Nano Letters.     

“Unlike graphene, a hexagonal honeycomb structure with atoms of carbon at its junctions, phagraphene consists of penta-, hexa- and heptagonal carbon rings. Its name comes from a contraction of Penta-Hexa-heptA-graphene,” says Oganov, head of the MIPT Laboratory of Computer Design.  

Two-dimensional materials, composed of a one-atom-thick layer, have attracted great attention from scientists in the last few decades.  The first of these materials, graphene, was discovered in 2004 by two MIPT graduates, Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov. In 2010 Geim and Novoselov were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for that achievement.

Due to its two-dimensional structure, graphene has absolutely unique properties. Most materials can transmit electric current when unbound electrons have an energy that corresponds to the conduction band of the material. When there is a gap between the range of possible electron energies, the valence band, and the range of conductivity (the so-called forbidden zone), the material acts as an insulator. When the valence band and conduction band overlap, it acts a conductor, and electrons can move under the influence of electric field.

In graphene each carbon atom has three electrons that are bound to electrons in neighboring atoms, forming chemical bonds. The fourth electron of each atom is “delocalized” throughout the whole graphene sheet, which allows it to conduct electrical current. At the same time, the forbidden zone in the graphene has zero width. If you plot the electron energy and their location in graph form, you get a figure resembling an hour glass, i.e. two cones connected by vertices. These are known as Dirac cones.

Due to this unique condition, electrons in graphene behave very strangely: all of them have one and the same velocity (which is comparable to the velocity of light), and they possess no inertia. They appear to have no mass. And, according to the theory of relativity, particles traveling at the velocity of light must behave in this manner. The velocity of electrons in graphene is about 10 thousand kilometers a second. Electron velocities in a typical conductor vary from centimeters up to hundreds of meters per second.

Phagraphene, discovered by Oganov and his colleagues through the use of the USPEX algorithm, as well as graphene, is a material where Dirac cones appear, and electrons behave similar to particles without mass.

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Newly Discovered Prion May Cause A Neurodegenerative Disease That Is Transmissible

Newly Discovered Prion May Cause A  Neurodegenerative Disease That Is Transmissible | Amazing Science |

Animal experiments show how a just-discovered prion triggers a rare Parkinson’s-like disease.

Scientists claim to have discovered the first new human prion in almost 50 years. Prions are misfolded proteins that make copies of themselves by inducing others to misfold. By so doing, they multiply and cause disease. The resulting illness in this case is multiple system atrophy (MSA), a neurodegenerative disease similar to Parkinson's. The study, published August 31 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, adds weight to the idea that many neurodegenerative diseases are caused by prions.

In the 1960s researchers led by Carleton Gajdusek at the National Institutes of Health transmitted kuru, a rare neurodegenerative disease found in Papua New Guinea, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), a rare human dementia, to chimpanzees by injecting samples from victims' brains directly into those of chimps. It wasn't until 1982, however, that Stanley Prusiner coined the term prion (for “proteinaceous infectious particle”) to describe the self-propagating protein responsible.

Prusiner and colleagues at the University of California, San Francisco, showed this process caused a whole class of diseases, called spongiform encephalopathies (for the spongelike appearance of affected brains), including the bovine form known as “mad cow” disease. The same protein, PrP, is also responsible for kuru, which was spread by cannibalism; variant-CJD, which over 200 people developed after eating beef infected with the bovine variety; and others. The idea that a protein could transmit disease was radical at the time but the work eventually earned Prusiner the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He has long argued prions may underlie other neurodegenerative diseases but the idea has been slow to gain acceptance.

In 2013 a team in Prusiner's lab, including neuroscientist Kurt Giles, were trying to transmit Parkinson's disease to mice genetically engineered to produce a human protein involved in Parkinson’s, alpha-synuclein, by injecting them with brain samples from deceased patients. They failed, but for comparison they also used two MSA samples—those mice got sick. “The controls were the ones that worked,” Giles says. “So we got lots more samples.” For the new study, the team obtained 12 more MSA samples from three brain banks in London, Boston and Sydney.

The result was the same: the mice injected with these samples all developed disease within 3.5 to five months. The gene inserted in the mice has a mutation associated with a hereditary form of Parkinson's, which researchers think makes the alpha-synuclein more likely to misfold. Mice with two copies develop disease spontaneously, after about 10 months, but mice with one copy remain healthy. Injecting either type with MSA samples resulted in neurodegeneration and death for both in the same short time span.

Presumably what happens is that alpha-synuclein prions in the MSA brain samples propagate by inducing the human alpha-synuclein proteins in the mice, which are prone to misfold, to take their particular aberrant shape Afterward, these mice's brains also showed buildups of alpha-synuclein in cells, and samples from these brains also caused disease in other mice. Neither a sample from a disease-free brain nor samples from Parkinson's patients, had these effects.

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Morpho butterfly wings help break the status quo in gas sensing

Morpho butterfly wings help break the status quo in gas sensing | Amazing Science |

The unique properties found in the stunning iridescent wings of a tropical blue butterfly could hold the key to developing new highly selective gas detection sensors. Pioneering new research by a team of international scientists, including researchers from the University of Exeter, has replicated the surface chemistry found in the iridescent scales of the Morpho butterfly to create an innovative gas sensor.

The ground-breaking findings could help inspire new designs for sensors that could be used in a range of sectors, including medical diagnostics, industry, and the military.The research, published in the highly respected scientific journal, Nature Communications on September 1st ("Towards outperforming conventional sensor arrays with fabricated individual photonic vapour sensors inspired by Morpho butterflies"), describes how the composition of gases in different environments can be detected by measuring small colour changes of the innovative bio-inspired sensor.

Professor Pete Vukusic, one of the authors of the research and part of the Physics department at the University of Exeter said: "Bio-inspired approaches to the realisation of new technologies are tremendously valuable. In this work, by developing a detailed understanding of the subtle way in which the appearance and colour of the Morpho butterfly arises, and the way this colour depends on its local environment, our team has discovered a remarkable way in which we can advance sensor and detector technology rapidly."

Tiny tree-like nanostructures in the scales of Morpho wings are known to be responsible for the butterfly's brilliant iridescence. Previous studies have shown that vapour molecules adhere differently to the top of these structures than to the bottom due to local chemistry within the scales. This selective response to vapour molecules is the key to this bio-inspired gas sensor.

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Transparent lithium-ion battery that recharges via the sun demonstrated

Transparent lithium-ion battery that recharges via the sun demonstrated | Amazing Science |
A team of researchers with Kogakuin University has demonstrated a lithium ion battery which is not only nearly transparent, but can also be recharged with direct sunlight alone. The battery was demonstrated at Innovation Japan 2015, where the leader of the team, and president of the university explained the goals of their battery research and the benefits consumers might eventually see from it.

It was just four years ago that a team of researchers at Stanford unveiled a nearly transparent lithium-ion battery that was both see-through and bendable. The team in Japan has been working with the new technology since then, two years ago unveiling a nearly transparent battery of their own which was charged with a separate solar panel. Now, the team has upgraded that battery by allowing it to recharge itself when exposed to sunlight.

To make the new battery, the team tweaked the materials that were already in use—lithium iron phosphate for the positive electrode and lithium titanate and lithium hexafluorophosphate for the negative electrode—all ingredients that are already generally used to make lithium-ion batteries. When the battery is exposed to sunlight, it becomes slightly tinted (down to approximately 30 percent transmittance), lowering the amount of light that can pass through. The trick in getting them to be nearly transparent is in making them really thin—the electrodes are just 80nm and 90nm. After discharge, the team reports that light transmittance rises to approximately 60 percent. They also report output from the battery of 3.6V.

The team believes their transparent solar charged batteries could one day be used as "smart" windows for homes or offices, allowing for not only automatic tinting, but as energy capture and storage devices for use in a variety of ways. Taking the concept further, it is possible the idea could be extended at some point to consumer electronics, with displays or even entire casings made of the material to help keep phones, tablets and other gear operating when used outdoors or under other types of lighting. But first the new technology will have to be vetted to make sure it works as promised (it has been tested at 20 charge/discharges) and then to see if it can stand up to the rigors of daily use.

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For the first time, scientists "squeeze" light one particle at a time

For the first time, scientists "squeeze" light one particle at a time | Amazing Science |

A team of scientists has successfully measured particles of light being “squeezed”, in an experiment that had been written off in physics textbooks as impossible to observe.

Squeezing is a strange phenomenon of quantum physics. It creates a very specific form of light which is “low-noise” and is potentially useful in technology designed to pick up faint signals, such as the detection of gravitational waves.

The standard approach to squeezing light involves firing an intense laser beam at a material, usually a non-linear crystal, which produces the desired effect.

For more than 30 years, however, a theory has existed about another possible technique. This involves exciting a single atom with just a tiny amount of light. The theory states that the light scattered by this atom should, similarly, be squeezed.

Unfortunately, although the mathematical basis for this method – known as squeezing of resonance fluorescence – was drawn up in 1981, the experiment to observe it was so difficult that one established quantum physics textbook despairingly concludes: “It seems hopeless to measure it”.

So it has proven – until now. In the journal Nature, a team of physicists report that they have successfully demonstrated the squeezing of individual light particles, or photons, using an artificially constructed atom, known as a semiconductor quantum dot. Thanks to the enhanced optical properties of this system and the technique used to make the measurements, they were able to observe the light as it was scattered, and proved that it had indeed been squeezed.

Professor Mete Atature, from the Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, and a Fellow of St John’s College at the University of Cambridge, led the research. He said: “It’s one of those cases of a fundamental question that theorists came up with, but which, after years of trying, people basically concluded it is impossible to see for real – if it’s there at all.”

“We managed to do it because we now have artificial atoms with optical properties that are superior to natural atoms. That meant we were able to reach the necessary conditions to observe this fundamental property of photons and prove that this odd phenomenon of squeezing really exists at the level of a single photon. It’s a very bizarre effect that goes completely against our senses and expectations about what photons should do.”

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Insecticide coating of nets proves 100% effective against mosquitoes

Insecticide coating of nets proves 100% effective against mosquitoes | Amazing Science |

A new method of applying insecticide to netting has proved 100% effective against some strains of mosquito, an international study reports. The electrostatic coating allows the netting to carry much higher doses of insecticide. In experiments, the coating killed off many more mosquitoes than usual.

Dutch researchers, writing in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, say this could help control diseases such as malaria. Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes has become a significant problem in many parts of the world where malaria is endemic. It is thought that water-based spray insecticides and bed nets, which often contain low levels of insecticide, don't always kill the mosquitoes, allowing them to develop resistance.

In this study, researchers from the Netherlands used a charged surface, originally developed for trapping airborne pollen, and applied insecticide to it. The long-lasting electrostatic charge allowed high levels of insecticide to stick fast to the netting, giving the mosquitoes a lethal overdose when they came into contact with the surface - even for just a few seconds.

The technique was tested on different strains of mosquito in South Africa, Tanzania and at a lab at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. The research team found that the electrostatic coating of insecticide killed more mosquitoes than other nettings and, for certain insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, was 100% effective. Conventional nettings kill fewer than 10% of mosquitoes, the study said.

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Artificial Leaf Harnesses Sunlight for Efficient Fuel Production

Artificial Leaf Harnesses Sunlight for Efficient Fuel Production | Amazing Science |

Generating and storing renewable energy, such as solar or wind power, is a key barrier to a clean-energy economy. When the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) was established at Caltech and its partnering institutions in 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Innovation Hub had one main goal: a cost-effective method of producing fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide, mimicking the natural process of photosynthesis in plants and storing energy in the form of chemical fuels for use on demand. Over the past five years, researchers at JCAP have made major advances toward this goal, and they now report the development of the first complete, efficient, safe, integrated solar-driven system for splitting water to create hydrogen fuels.

"This result was a stretch project milestone for the entire five years of JCAP as a whole, and not only have we achieved this goal, we also achieved it on time and on budget," says Caltech's Nate Lewis, George L. Argyros Professor and professor of chemistry, and the JCAP scientific director.

The new solar fuel generation system, or artificial leaf, is described in the August 27 online issue of the journal Energy and Environmental Science. The work was done by researchers in the laboratories of Lewis and Harry Atwater, director of JCAP and Howard Hughes Professor of Applied Physics and Materials Science.

"This accomplishment drew on the knowledge, insights and capabilities of JCAP, which illustrates what can be achieved in a Hub-scale effort by an integrated team," Atwater says. "The device reported here grew out of a multi-year, large-scale effort to define the design and materials components needed for an integrated solar fuels generator."

satish's curator insight, August 29, 1:24 AM

कृत्रिम पान किंवा प्रकाश संश्लेषण क्रियेसाठी सातत्याने संशोधन होत असून, त्यातील प्रत्येक यशाने आपण कृत्रिम अन्ननिर्मितीकडे जाणार आहोत. भविष्यामध्ये कदाचित आपल्याला खाद्याच्या निर्मितीसाठी वनस्पतीवरही अवलंबावे लागणार नाही, असे दिसते. सध्या या संशोधकांचे ध्येय केवळ इंधन निर्मिती इतकेच असले तरी त्यापुढेही पाहण्यास हरकत नाही.

संशोधकांना शुभेच्छा, त्यांच्या यशातच मानवाचे हित सामावलेले असणार आहे.

- सतीश कुलकर्णी

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Ocean Cleanup project completes Great Pacific Garbage Patch research expedition

Ocean Cleanup project completes Great Pacific Garbage Patch research expedition | Amazing Science |

In May, the Ocean Cleanup project announced that its first deployment would be delivered in the Korea Strait next year. That will pave the way for its ultimate goal of cleaning up the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. With that in mind, a research expedition at the Garbage Patch has just been completed. The concept for the Ocean Cleanup project was conceived by Dutch entrepreneur and inventor Boyan Slat and announced in 2013. Slat realized that the movement of the oceans could be harnessed in order to direct floating plastic waste into the arms of a static collection system.

After a positive feasibility study, a successful crowdfunding campaign and being named a category winner in the 2015 Designs of the Year awards, the Ocean Cleanup project recently set out to gather research in the Pacific. A fleet of 30 vessels, including a 171 ft (52 m) mothership, took part in the month-long voyage, or Mega Expedition, the primary goal of which was to determine just how much plastic is actually floating in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.

According to the Ocean Cleanup project, this was the largest ocean research expedition in history. A series of measurement techniques were employed to sample the concentration of plastic in the area, including trawls and aerial surveys. It is also said to have been the first time that large pieces of plastic, such as ghost nets and Japanese tsunami debris, have been quantified.

Slat explains that it is not just floating bits of plastic that are a problem, but what happens to those pieces over the long term. "The vast majority of the plastic in the garbage patch is currently locked up in large pieces of debris, but UV light is breaking it down into much more dangerous microplastics, vastly increasing the amount of microplastics over the next few decades if we don’t clean it up," he says. "It really is a ticking time bomb."

The research samples collected during the expedition during have to be analyzed, but preliminary findings indicate a "higher-than-expected volume" of plastic objects found at the Pacific site.

The cleanup proper of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is expected to begin in 2020.

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Temples hidden dangers: Incense could be more harmful than cigarette smoke, researchers find

Temples hidden dangers: Incense could be more harmful than cigarette smoke, researchers find | Amazing Science |

In the future, incense might need to carry a health warning, just like tobacco. That’s the conclusion of researchers who for the first time have compared the effects of burning incense indoors to inhaling tobacco smoke. Previous research has already shown how incense smoke can be harmful to a person’s health, but these new findings suggest that it’s worse than cigarettes by several measurements – a result that may alarm some in Asian countries, where incense burning is a common practice in the home and a traditional ritual in many temples.

Clearly, there needs to be greater awareness and management of the health risks associated with burning incense in indoor environments,” said Rong Zhou of the South China University of Technology, in a statement to the press.

The researchers tested two types of incense against cigarette smoke to see their effects on bacteria and the ovary cells of Chinese hamsters. Both the incense products contained the common ingredients agarwood and sandalwood, which are used in incense for their fragrances.

The findings, published in Environmental Chemistry Letters, showed that incense smoke is mutagenic, which means it can cause mutations to genetic material, primarily DNA. Compared to the cigarette smoke, the incense products were found to be more cytotoxic (toxic to cells) and genotoxic (toxic to DNA). Of the 64 compounds identified in the incense smoke, two were singled out as highly toxic.

Obviously none of this sounds very good, and for people frequently exposed to incense smoke in indoor environments, hopefully it serves as a wake-up call: mutagenics, genotoxins, and cytotoxins are all linked to the development of cancers.

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