Amazing Science
630.9K views | +262 today
 
Suggested by Michele Lally
onto Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

Climate Change Seen Posing Risk to Food Supplies

Climate Change Seen Posing Risk to Food Supplies | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
A leaked draft of a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said that climate change could reduce output and send prices higher in a period when global food demand is expected to soar.

 

In a departure from an earlier assessment, the scientists concluded that rising temperatures will have some beneficial effects on crops in some places, but that globally they will make it harder for crops to thrive — perhaps reducing production over all by as much as 2 percent each decade for the rest of this century, compared with what it would be without climate change.

 

And, the scientists say, they are already seeing the harmful effects in some regions. The warnings come in a leaked draft of a report under development by a United Nations panel, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The document is not final and could change before it is released in March.


The report also finds other sweeping impacts from climate change already occurring across the planet, and warns that these are likely to intensify as human emissions of greenhouse gases continue to rise. The scientists describe a natural world in turmoil as plants and animals colonize new areas to escape rising temperatures, and warn that many could become extinct.

more...
No comment yet.
Amazing Science
Amazing science facts - 3D_printing • aging • AI • anthropology • art • astronomy • bigdata • bioinformatics • biology • biotech • chemistry • computers • cosmology • education • environment • evolution • future • genetics • genomics • geosciences • green_energy • history • language • map • material_science • math • med • medicine • microscopy • nanotech • neuroscience • paleontology • photography • photonics • physics • postings • robotics • science • technology • video
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

20,000+ FREE Online Science and Technology Lectures from Top Universities

20,000+ FREE Online Science and Technology Lectures from Top Universities | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

FOR FULL GENOME SEQUENCING CONTACT DIAGNOMICS

(www.diagnomics.com)

Toll Free:1-800-605-8422  FREE
Regular Line:1-858-345-4817

  

 

NOTE: To subscribe to the RSS feed of Amazing Science, copy http://www.scoop.it/t/amazing-science/rss.xml into the URL field of your browser and click "subscribe".

 

This newsletter is aggregated from over 1450 news sources:

http://www.genautica.com/links/1450_news_sources.html

 

All my Tweets and Scoop.It! posts sorted and searchable:

http://www.genautica.com/tweets/index.html

 

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

You can search through all the articles semantically on my

archived twitter feed

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

NOTE: All articles in the amazing-science newsletter can also be sorted by topic. To do so, click the FIND buntton (symbolized by the FUNNEL on the top right of the screen)  and display all the relevant postings SORTED by TOPICS.

 

You can also type your own query:

 

e.g., you are looking for articles involving "dna" as a keyword

 

http://www.scoop.it/t/amazing-science/?q=dna

 

Or 

CLICK on the little

FUNNEL symbol at the

 

========================================================

 

***MOST READS***

• 3D-printing • aging • AI • anthropology • art • astronomy • bigdata • bioinformatics • biology • biotech • chemistry • computers • cosmology • education • environment • evolution • future • genetics • genomics • geosciencesgreen-energy • history • language • mapmaterial-science • math • med • medicine • microscopy • nanotech • neuroscience • paleontology • photography • photonics • physics • postings • robotics • science • technology • video 

more...
Siegfried Holle's curator insight, July 4, 2014 8:45 AM

Your knowledge is your strength and power 

Saberes Sin Fronteras OVS's curator insight, November 30, 2014 5:33 PM

Acceso gratuito a documentos de las mejores universidades del mundo

♥ princess leia ♥'s curator insight, December 28, 2014 11:58 AM

WoW  .. Expand  your mind!! It has room to grow!!! 

Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

The Most Amazing Galaxies In The Universe

The Most Amazing Galaxies In The Universe | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

There could be as many as 100 to 200 billion galaxies in the observable universe. One of the most comprehensive listings comes from Galaxy Zoo, a crowdsourced astronomy project launched in 2007, which has so far classified over one million galaxy images from Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Hubble Space Telescope, and the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. From such a vast database, it is hard to pick favorites - they are all dazzling clusters of stars and celestial objects. Nevertheless, here is a list of some of the most amazing galaxies categorized according to their general type (Milky Way excluded).

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Scientists Find a Better Way to Make Structures to Create DNA Based Tech

Scientists Find a Better Way to Make Structures to Create DNA Based Tech | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Researchers have designed a new algorithm that automates the manipulation and sculpting of DNA into different shapes—a process known as DNA origami.

 

A team of researchers from MIT, Arizona State University, and Baylor University have devised a new computer algorithm that does all the hard work for you. The results of their research have been published in the journal Science.

 

“The paper turns the problem around from one in which an expert designs the DNA needed to synthesize the object, to one in which the object itself is the starting point, with the DNA sequences that are needed automatically defined by the algorithm,” says Mark Bathe, associate professor of biological engineering at MIT, and lead researcher for the study.

 

The new algorithm, which the team has called DAEDALUS, automates the entire business of sculpting DNA shapes; essentially, you begin with the desired shape (which must have a closed surface) and feed it into the algorithm, which then maps out the order of bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine) needed to produce the DNA “scaffold.”

 

DAEDALUS means “open source” DNA origami, enabling anyone with the inclination and access to the algorithm to design and create their own DNA-based, nanoscale objects. What Henry Ford’s assembly line concept did for manufacturing, DAEDALUS promises to do for nanoscale structures.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

The Real Secret of Youth Is Complexity

The Real Secret of Youth Is Complexity | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Youthful health and vigor depend, in many ways, on complexity. Bones get strength from elaborate scaffolds of connective tissue. Mental acuity arises from interconnected webs of neurons. Even seemingly simple bodily functions like heartbeat rely on interacting networks of metabolic controls, signaling pathways, genetic switches, and circadian rhythms. As our bodies age, these anatomic structures and physiologic processes lose complexity, making them less resilient and ultimately leading to frailty and disease.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Physicists Make Black Hole in Lab That May Finally Prove Hawking Radiation Exists

Physicists Make Black Hole in Lab That May Finally Prove Hawking Radiation Exists | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Some 42 years ago, renowned theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking proposed that not everything that comes in contact with a black hole succumbs to its unfathomable nothingness. Tiny particles of light (photons) are sometimes ejected back out, robbing the black hole of an infinitesimal amount of energy, and this gradual loss of mass over time means every black hole eventually evaporates out of existence.

 

Known as Hawking radiation, these escaping particles help us make sense of one of the greatest enigmas in the known Universe, but after more than four decades, no one’s been able to actually prove they exist, and Hawking’s proposal remained firmly in hypothesis territory.

 

But all that could be about to change, with two independent groups of researchers reporting that they’ve found evidence to back up Hawking’s claims, and it could see one of the greatest living physicists finally win a Nobel Prize.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Mixed-up metals make for stronger, tougher, stretchier alloys

Mixed-up metals make for stronger, tougher, stretchier alloys | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Materials scientists are creating next-generation mixtures with remarkable properties.

 

At first glance, the machine seems to be building a miniature cityscape. A ring of nozzles fires four jets of powdered metal into a downward-pointed laser beam, which fuses the colliding grains in a bright orange glow. The mixed grains then solidify on the growing tip of a small pillar of metal alloy. Once the pillar is 1–2 centimeters high, the platform that holds it shifts to the side, and the machine starts to build another one right next door. The result looks like a forest of toy skyscrapers.

 

In reality, these towers, generated at the Ames Laboratory in Iowa, reflect a major shift in how researchers think about alloys. The standard recipe — used for technologies ranging from ancient swords and arrowheads to modern jet-engine turbines — is to take a useful metal and mix in a pinch of this or a touch of that to improve its properties. One classic example is the addition of carbon to iron to make steel.

 

But the machine at Ames is making experimental samples of 'high-entropy' alloys, which consist of four, five or more elements mixed together in roughly equal ratios. This deceptively simple recipe can yield alloys that are lighter and stronger than their conventional counterparts, while being much more resistant to corrosion, radiation or severe wear. Eventually, researchers hope, this approach could even produce alloys that have magnetic or electrical properties never seen before, leading to whole new generations of technology.

 

“We have almost explored everything for traditional alloys,” says Yong Zhang, a materials scientist with the State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials at the University of Science and Technology Beijing. “For high-entropy alloys, the science is very new,” he says — so new that no such alloy has yet made the leap from lab to market. But some researchers are working to make that happen, eyeing potential applications that range from high-temperature furnace linings to ultralightweight aerospace materials. And the field has attracted funding from research agencies in China, Europe, the United States and elsewhere.

 

“We're not talking about a narrow class of materials, but an extremely broad philosophy on how to combine elements,” says Daniel Miracle, a materials scientist at the Air Force Research Laboratory at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio. “The opportunity to find something new and exciting is very high.” Last year, he and his colleagues estimated1 that almost 313,560 different alloys can be made by combining exactly equal proportions of 3, 4, 5 or 6 metallic elements from a set of just 26. More possibilities can come from varying the proportions or expanding the choice of elements.

 

But not every combination is a winner, says Easo George, a materials engineer at Ruhr University Bochum in Germany. Scientists are still learning what works and what doesn't. Still, he says, “the space available for exploration is really huge, and we have only looked at a small portion of the Universe”.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Fast, stretchy circuits could yield new wave of wearable electronics

Fast, stretchy circuits could yield new wave of wearable electronics | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

The consumer marketplace is flooded with a lively assortment of smart wearable electronics that do everything from monitor vital signs, fitness or sun exposure to play music, charge other electronics or even purify the air around you - all wirelessly.

 

Now, a team of University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers has created the world's fastest stretchable, wearable integrated circuits, an advance that could drive the Internet of Things and a much more connected, high-speed wireless world.

 

Led by Zhenqiang "Jack" Ma, the Lynn H. Matthias Professor in Engineering and Vilas Distinguished Achievement Professor in electrical and computer engineering at UW-Madison, the researchers published details of these powerful, highly efficient integrated circuits today, May 27, 2016, in the journal Advanced Functional Materials.

 

The advance is a platform for manufacturers seeking to expand the capabilities and applications of wearable electronics—including those with biomedical applications—particularly as they strive to develop devices that take advantage of a new generation of wireless broadband technologies referred to as 5G.

 

With wavelength sizes between a millimeter and a meter, microwave radio frequencies are electromagnetic waves that use frequencies in the .3 gigahertz to 300 gigahertz range. That falls directly in the 5G range.

 

In mobile communications, the wide microwave radio frequencies of 5G networks will accommodate a growing number of cellphone users and notable increases in data speeds and coverage areas.

 

In an intensive care unit, epidermal electronic systems (electronics that adhere to the skin like temporary tattoos) could allow health care staff to monitor patients remotely and wirelessly, increasing patient comfort by decreasing the customary tangle of cables and wires.

 

What makes the new, stretchable integrated circuits so powerful is their unique structure, inspired by twisted-pair telephone cables. They contain, essentially, two ultra-tiny intertwining power transmission lines in repeating S-curves.

 

This serpentine shape—formed in two layers with segmented metal blocks, like a 3-D puzzle—gives the transmission lines the ability to stretch without affecting their performance. It also helps shield the lines from outside interference and, at the same time, confine the electromagnetic waves flowing through them, almost completely eliminating current loss. Currently, the researchers' stretchable integrated circuits can operate at radio frequency levels up to 40 gigahertz.

 

And, unlike other stretchable transmission lines, whose widths can approach 640 micrometers (or .64 millimeters), the researchers' new stretchable integrated circuits are just 25 micrometers (or .025 millimeters) thick. That's tiny enough to be highly effective in epidermal electronic systems, among many other applications.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

New telescopes will search for signs of life on distant planets

New telescopes will search for signs of life on distant planets | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Researchers are coming up with creative ways to pick up biosignatures in far-away planetary atmospheres.

 

Our galaxy is teeming with planets. Over the last 25 years, astronomers have cataloged about 2,000 worlds in 1,300 systems scattered around our stellar neighborhood. While most of these exoplanets look nothing like Earth (and in some cases, like nothing that orbits our sun), the bonanza of alien worlds implies a tantalizing possibility: There is a lot of real estate out there suitable for life.

 

We haven’t explored every corner of our solar system. Life might be lurking beneath the surface of some icy satellites or in the soil of Mars. For such locales, we could conceivably visit and look for anything wriggling or replicating. But we can’t travel (yet) to worlds orbiting remote suns dozens of light-years away. An advanced alien civilization might transmit detectable radio signals, but primitive life would not be able to announce its presence to the cosmos.

 

People have contemplated the possibility of extraterrestrial life since medieval times. We’re still looking for answers today. What would aliens look like? Where should we look to find them? Why are we so obsessed? Science News writers explore these questions and more in this special report.

 

On Earth, life alters the atmosphere. If plants and critters weren’t around to keep churning out oxygen and methane, those gases would quickly vanish. Water, carbon dioxide, methane, oxygen and ozone are examples of “biosignatures,” key markers of a planet crawling with life as we know it. Setting aside questions about how recognizable alien life might be, detecting biosignatures in the atmosphere of an exoplanet would give astronomers the first strong clue that we are not alone.

 

Biosignatures aren’t proof of thriving ecosystems. Ultraviolet light from a planet’s sun can zap water molecules and create a stockpile of oxygen; seawater filtering through rocks can produce methane. “We’ll never be able to say 100 percent that a planet has life,” says Sarah Rugheimer, an astrophysicist at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland. But astronomers hope that, given enough information about an exoplanet and the star it orbits, they can build a case for a world where sunlight and geology aren’t enough to explain its chemistry — one where life is a viable possibility. Finding a planet similar to Earth is probably still decades away, but thanks to a couple of upcoming telescopes, astronomers might be on the verge of spying on habitable worlds around nearby stars.

 

NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, or TESS, will launch in 2017 on a quest to detect many of the exoplanets that orbit the stars closest to us. One year later, the James Webb Space Telescope will launch and peek inside some of these newfound atmospheres. With their powers combined, TESS and James Webb could identify nearby planets that are good candidates for life. These worlds will probably be quite different from Earth — they’ll be a bit larger and orbit faint, red suns — but some researchers hope that a few will offer hints of alien biology.

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Two Worlds, One Sun: Blue Sunsets on Mars

Two Worlds, One Sun: Blue Sunsets on Mars | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
While Earth can have lovely red sunsets, Mars can have a sunset that is truly blue.

 

Earth has a relatively thick atmosphere, so most of the atmospheric scattering occurs when light strikes a molecule of air, known as Rayleigh scattering. Rayleigh scattering occurs when the object a photon scatters off (the air molecule) is much smaller than the wavelength of the photon. The closer the wavelength is to the size of the molecule, the more likely it is to scatter. This means that red wavelengths (which are the longer wavelengths of visible light) don’t scatter with air molecules much, while blue wavelengths (which are shorter) tend to scatter a lot. In fact blue light is almost 10 times more likely to scatter against air molecules than red light. This is why the sky appears blue, since so much of the blue light is scattered.

 

When the Sun is low in the sky, it’s light has to travel a long path through the atmosphere to reach you. As the light travels through the atmosphere some of the photons are scattered off the air molecules. When the photons scatter off air molecules, they scatter randomly in all directions, so usually when a photon scatters, it scatters away from your line of sight. Since blue photons scatter much more often than red ones, much of the blue light is scattered away. This leaves red photons to reach your eye. Hence the Sun looks red when low in the sky. When the Sun is overhead, the path it takes to reach you is much shorter, so only a bit of the blue light is scattered. So the Sun looks yellow.

 

Mars has a much thinner atmosphere, so the amount of Rayleigh scattering is much less. But Mars also has a dry, dusty surface, and a weaker surface gravity, so the atmosphere of Mars is often filled with fine dust particles. These particles are more comparable in size to the wavelengths of visible light, so most of the light is scattered by Mie scattering. One of the main differences between Rayleigh and Mie scattering is that Rayleigh scattering tends to occur in all directions, but Mie scattering varies with scattering angle. What this means is that longer wavelengths (reds) tend to scatter more uniformly, while shorter wavelengths (blues) tend to scatter at slight angles. This means that blue light tends to be deflected less than red light. This means Mars can have a dusty red daytime sky, and a blue sunset.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Scientists discover how supermassive black holes keep galaxies turned off

Scientists discover how supermassive black holes keep galaxies turned off | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
An international team of scientists has identified a common phenomenon in galaxies that could explain why huge numbers of them turn into cosmic graveyards.

 

Galaxies begin their existence as lively and colourful spiral galaxies, full of gas and dust, and actively forming bright new stars. However, as galaxies evolve, they quench their star formation and turn into featureless deserts, devoid of fresh new stars, and generally remain as such for the rest of their evolution. But the mechanism that produces this dramatic transformation and keeps galaxies turned off, is one of the biggest unsolved mysteries in galaxy evolution.

 

Now, thanks to the new large SDSS-IV MaNGA survey of galaxies, a collaborative effort led by the University of Tokyo and involving the University of Oxford has discovered a surprisingly common new phenomenon in galaxies, dubbed "red geysers", that could explain how the process works.

 

Researchers interpret the red geysers as galaxies hosting low-energy supermassive black holes which drive intense interstellar winds. These winds suppress star formation by heating up the ambient gas found in galaxies and preventing it to cool and condense into stars.

 

The research will be published in the journal Nature. Lead author Dr Edmond Cheung, from the University of Tokyo's Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, said: 'Stars form from the gas, but in many galaxies stars were found not to form despite an abundance of gas. It was like having deserts in densely clouded regions. We knew quiescent galaxies needed some way to suppress star formation, and now we think the red geysers phenomenon may represent how typical quiescent galaxies maintain their quiescence.'

 

'Stars form from the gas, a bit like the drops of rain condense from the water vapour. And in both cases one needs the gas to cool down, for condensation to occur. But we could not understand what was preventing this cooling from happening in many galaxies,' said Co-author Dr Michele Cappellari, from the Department of Physics at Oxford University. 'But when we modelled the motion of the gas in the red geysers, we found that the gas was being pushed away from the galaxy centre, and escaping the galaxy gravitational pull.'

 

'The discovery was made possible by the amazing power of the ongoing MaNGA galaxy survey' said Dr Kevin Bundy, from the University of Tokyo, the overall leader of the collaboration. 'The survey allows us to observe galaxies in three dimensions, by mapping not only how they appear on the sky, but also how their stars and gas move inside them.'

 

Using a near-dormant distant galaxy named Akira as a prototypical example, the researchers describe how the wind's driving mechanism is likely to originate in Akira's galactic nucleus. The energy input from this nucleus, powered by a supermassive black hole, is capable of producing the wind, which itself contains enough mechanical energy to heat ambient, cooler gas in the galaxy and thus suppress star formation.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Mars Has Just Exited an Extreme Ice Age, Peaking 370,000 Years Ago

Mars Has Just Exited an Extreme Ice Age, Peaking 370,000 Years Ago | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Just a few hundred thousand years ago, the Red Planet was hardly that.​

 

Had you searched the sky with a telescope just a few hundred thousand years ago, you would have struggled to find a red planet. Instead, you would have seen a gleaming-white ice ball where Mars should be. A team of astronomers led by Isaac Smith, an astrophysicist at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado, has collected the first concrete evidence that Mars has just exited an extreme ice age, one so intense it would have put Earth's recent frosty foray to shame. 

 

Using cameras and a radar-pinging device on board NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Smith's team deduced this history by dating the miles-deep layers of snow and ice packed onto the Red Planet's northern pole. They found that only a mere 370,000 years ago, "Mars would have actually looked more white than red," says Smith. The Mars research is outlined today in the journal Science

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Stem cell gene Oct4 helps to prevent heart attack, stroke, and counteracts aging

Stem cell gene Oct4 helps to prevent heart attack, stroke, and counteracts aging | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

University of Virginia School of Medicine have discovered that a gene called Oct4 — which scientific dogma insists is inactive in adults — actually plays a vital role in preventing ruptured atherosclerotic plaques inside blood vessels, the underlying cause of most heart attacks and strokes.

 

The researchers found that Oct4 controls the conversion of smooth muscle cells into protective fibrous “caps” inside plaques, making the plaques less likely to rupture. They also discovered that the gene promotes many changes in gene expression that are beneficial in stabilizing the plaques. In addition, the researchers believe it may be possible to develop drugs or other therapeutic agents that target the Oct4 pathway as a way to reduce the incidence of heart attacks or stroke.

 

The researchers are also currently testing Oct4′s possible role in repairing cellular damage and healing wounds, which would make it useful for regenerative medicine.

 

Oct4 is one of the “stem cell pluripotency factors” described by Shinya Yamanaka, PhD, of Kyoto University, for which he received the 2012 Nobel Prize. His lab and many others have shown that artificial over-expression of Oct4 within somatic cells grown in a lab dish is essential for reprogramming these cells into induced pluripotential stem cells, which can then develop into any cell type in the body or even an entire organism.

 

“Finding a way to reactivate this pathway may have profound implications for health and aging,” said researcher Gary K. Owens, director of UVA’s Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center. “This could impact many human diseases and the field of regenerative medicine. [It may also] end up being the ‘fountain-of-youth gene,’ a way to revitalize old and worn-out cells.”

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Gene editing creates hornless cattle

Gene editing creates hornless cattle | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Alison L. Van Eenennaam, PhD, a geneticist and cooperative extension specialist also at UC-Davis, is working with the Minnesota-based company Recombinetics on, among other things, a project that has produced some of the Holstein dairy cattle that lack horns by editing one allele to match another found in Angus cattle.

“We’ve still got a dairy cow with all the good dairy genetics,” she said. “We’ve just gone in and tweaked a little snippet of DNA at the gene that makes horns and made it so it’s the variant for Angus, which doesn’t grow horns.”
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

New in-ear device could be the beginning of a world without language barriers

New in-ear device could be the beginning of a world without language barriers | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

From Gene Roddenberry in Star Trek to Douglas Adams in The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, anyone who spends much time forecasting the future comes to realize that language has simply got to go. In a connected world, it’s one of the only things remaining that truly separates us — it’s what keeps keeps us from being able to directly consume and understand one another’s film and literature, and what keeps occupying soldiers from being able to effectively make alliances with local peoples. It’s a primitive relic of a bygone age — if we can convert MP4 to AVI, certainly we ought to be able to convert Mandarin to German. Now, a new device called Pilot could make that dream (mostly) a reality.

 

A real-world Babelfish, or Universal Translator if you prefer, has been slow to materialize. We’ve got speech recognition, and we’ve got translation, and we’ve even got both of those things in real-time in some very specific cases, but a portable, near-real-time translation device that moves with you? Despite rumors of GoogleX super-projects, it hasn’t happened yet.

 

One big reason is that real-time translation is hard. It’s so hard, in fact, that all the advancement in computing power we’ve seen in the past 20 years did little to get us closer to the goal. It took a revolution in how we compute information, the influx of neural network models and machine learning algorithms, before we could crunch natural language and produce a translation in a reasonable amount of time — but there’s still a problem. Neural networks are themselves very hard to run, meaning we need a super-computer to do translation.

 

In the context of a wearable, that means you’ll probably need an always-on data connection, which itself means you’ll need a subscription and a hefty power supply to keep the connection going all day. Pilot gets around this by wirelessly accessing your cell phone’s processor to do the work locally; prior on-phone translation services have been imperfect, but Pilot claims to have reached true real-time speeds.

 

What this does to your cellphone’s battery is anybody’s guess, but I’d bet this sort of intensive crunching would burn through even giant Galaxy S-series batteries in a short time. It’s not exactly living “untethered” if you have to plug your phone in every 45 minutes, but sci-fi beggars can’t be choosers, and the early adopters who buy one of these for a cool $300 will still be able to feel like they’re legitimately at the forefront of a tech revolution.

 

The other problem that has held back universal translators is that making one is a complex challenge many practical concerns. Do you turn it on only when you need it, and if so aren’t you going to miss a lot of the unexpected banter that you’d want to hear? How does it know who you’re talking to, in a crowded room full of people speaking? How does it fit on my damn head?

 

Pilot gets around these problems by splitting the service into two pieces. It’s not actually an earpiece, but two earpieces. When you’ve decided you want to talk to somebody (like the dreamy French girl who allegedly inspired this thing), you simply hand them their ear-piece to begin talking. Each of you now has a translator, so you can both understand one another — this takes the place of any sort of speaker that most sci-fi translators use to say our words out loud.

 

So, it’s not quite a “put it in your ear and it’s like everyone’s speaking English” super-invention, and since this came out of an Indiegogo campaign, you wouldn’t really expect it to. But it is incredibly ambitious, and it could spark existing translation efforts from Skype (Microsoft) and Google to shoot a little higher, a little faster.

more...
Lynnette Van Dyke's curator insight, Today, 7:00 AM
Share your insight
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Dubai unveils world's first 3D-printed office building

Dubai unveils world's first 3D-printed office building | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

The world's first 3D-printed office building opened this week in DubaiReuters reports. The 2,700-square-foot, single-story building was built in just 17 days using a gigantic, 20-foot tall 3D printer and a special mix of concrete, fiber reinforced plastic and glass fiber reinforced gypsum.

 

Although the "printer" was massive at about two stories tall, 120 feet long and 40 feet wide, it only needed one staffer to make sure it was functioning properly. The rest of the 18-person construction crew consisted of installers, electricians and mechanical engineers who completed the job for a mere $140,000 in construction and labor costs — or about half the price of a comparable structure built with conventional methods. Of course, the building is more than just another gold star in the UAE's ultramodern playland — it will also serve, appropriately enough, as the temporary headquarters for the Dubai Future Foundation. Next year, the structure is scheduled to become the home of Dubai's Museum of the Future.

 

"This is the first 3D-printed building in the world, and it's not just a building, it has fully functional offices and staff," the UAE Minister of Cabinet Affairs, Mohamed Al Gergawi said. According to Gergawi, Dubai plans to have 25 percent of the buildings in the emirate built via 3D printing by the year 2030.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Airbus Released World's First Functional 3D Printed Motorcycle

Airbus Released World's First Functional 3D Printed Motorcycle | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Airbus subsidiary APWorks just announced its creation of the world’s first fully-functional 3D printed motorcycle. Printed using APWorks’ patented materials and techniques, the motorcycle weighs only 35 kg. Nicknamed the “Light Rider,” this new design is certainly lightweight: it is 30% lighter than conventionally manufactured e-motorcycles, with a 6 kg frame and a small 6 kW electric motor powering it from zero to 80 km per hour in just seconds.

 

The design makes full use of 3D printing technology. It has hollow frame parts instead of solid ones, allowing for integrated cables, pipes and screw-on points in the final structure. The printing system melts millions of aluminum alloy particles together creating thousands of thin layers just 60 microns thick.

 

To make the Light Rider, the company used their own proprietary material, Scalmalloy, for the construction of the frame. Scalmalloy is a corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy that is virtually as strong as titanium, boasting high strength and ductility

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

The first ever photograph of light as both a particle and wave

The first ever photograph of light as both a particle and wave | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

(Phys.org)—Light behaves both as a particle and as a wave. Since the days of Einstein, scientists have been trying to directly observe both of these aspects of light at the same time.

 

Quantum mechanics tells us that light can behave simultaneously as a particle or a wave. However, there has never been an experiment able to capture both natures of light at the same time; the closest we have come is seeing either wave or particle, but always at different times. Taking a radically different experimental approach, EPFL scientists have now been able to take the first ever snapshot of light behaving both as a wave and as a particle. The breakthrough work is published in Nature Communications.

 

When UV light hits a metal surface, it causes an emission of electrons. Albert Einstein explained this "photoelectric" effect by proposing that light – thought to only be a wave – is also a stream of particles. Even though a variety of experiments have successfully observed both the particle- and wave-like behaviors of light, they have never been able to observe both at the same time.

 

A research team led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL has now carried out an experiment with a clever twist: using electrons to image light. The researchers have captured, for the first time ever, a single snapshot of light behaving simultaneously as both a wave and a stream of particles.

 

The experiment is set up like this: A pulse of laser light is fired at a tiny metallic nanowire. The laser adds energy to the charged particles in the nanowire, causing them to vibrate. Light travels along this tiny wire in two possible directions, like cars on a highway. When waves traveling in opposite directions meet each other they form a new wave that looks like it is standing in place. Here, this standing wave becomes the source of light for the experiment, radiating around the nanowire.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Two-hundred-terabyte maths proof is largest ever, larger than US Library of Congress

Two-hundred-terabyte maths proof is largest ever, larger than US Library of Congress | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Three computer scientists have announced the largest-ever mathematics proof: a file that comes in at a whopping 200 terabytes1, roughly equivalent to all the digitized text held by the US Library of Congress. The researchers have created a 68-gigabyte compressed version of their solution — which would allow anyone with about 30,000 hours of spare processor time to download, reconstruct and verify it — but a human could never hope to read through it.

Computer-assisted proofs too large to be directly verifiable by humans have become commonplace, and mathematicians are familiar with computers that solve problems in combinatorics — the study of finite discrete structures — by checking through umpteen individual cases. Still, “200 terabytes is unbelievable”, says Ronald Graham, a mathematician at the University of California, San Diego. The previous record-holder is thought to be a 13-gigabyte proof2, published in 2014.

The puzzle that required the 200-terabyte proof, called the Boolean Pythagorean triples problem, has eluded mathematicians for decades. In the 1980s, Graham offered a prize of US$100 for anyone who could solve it. (He duly presented the cheque to one of the three computer scientists, Marijn Heule of the University of Texas at Austin, earlier this month.) The problem asks whether it is possible to colour each positive integer either red or blue, so that no trio of integers a, b and c that satisfy Pythagoras’ famous equation a2 + b2 = c2 are all the same colour. For example, for the Pythagorean triple 3, 4 and 5, if 3 and 5 were coloured blue, 4 would have to be red.

In a paper posted on the arXiv server on 3 May, Heule, Oliver Kullmann of Swansea University, UK, and Victor Marek of the University of Kentucky in Lexington have now shown that there are many allowable ways to colour the integers up to 7,824 — but when you reach 7,825, it is impossible for every Pythagorean triple to be multicoloured1. There are more than 102,300 ways to colour the integers up to 7,825, but the researchers took advantage of symmetries and several techniques from number theory to reduce the total number of possibilities that the computer had to check to just under 1 trillion. It took the team about 2 days running 800 processors in parallel on the University of Texas’s Stampede supercomputer to zip through all the possibilities. The researchers then verified the proof using another computer program.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Possible case for fifth force of nature

Possible case for fifth force of nature | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A team of physicists at the University of California has uploaded a paper to the arXiv preprint server in which they suggest that work done by a team in Hungary last year might have revealed the existence of a fifth force of nature. Their paper has, quite naturally, caused quite a stir in the physics community as several groups have set a goal of reproducing the experiments conducted by the team at the Hungarian Academy of Science's Institute for Nuclear Research.

 

The work done by the Hungarian team, led by Attila Krasznahorkay, examined the possible existence of dark photons—the analog of conventional photons but that work with dark matter. They shot protons at lithium-7 samples creating beryllium-8 nuclei, which, as it decayed, emitted pairs of electrons and positrons. Surprisingly, as they monitored the emitted pairs, instead of a consistent drop-off, there was a slight bump, which the researchers attributed to the creation of an unknown particle with a mass of approximately 17 MeV. The team uploaded their results to the arXiv server, and their paper was later published by Physical Review Letters. It attracted very little attention until the team at UoC uploaded their own paper suggesting that the new particle found by the Hungarian team was not a dark photon, but was instead possibly a protophobic X boson, which they further suggested might carry a super-short force which acts over just the width of an atomic nucleus—which would mean that it is a force that is not one of the four described as the fundamental forces that underlie modern physics.

 

The paper uploaded by the UoC team has created some excitement, as well as public exclamations of doubt—reports of the possibility of a fifth force of nature have been heard before, but none have panned out. But still, the idea is intriguing enough that several teams have announced plans to repeat the experiments conducted by the Hungarian team, and all eyes will be on the DarkLight experiments at the Jefferson Laboratory, where a team is also looking for evidence of dark photons—they will be shooting electrons at gas targets looking for anything with masses between 10 and 100 MeV, and now more specifically for those in the 17 MeV region. What they find, or don't, could prove whether an elusive fifth force of nature actually exists, within a year's time.

 

More information: arxiv.org/pdf/1604.07411v1.pdf
A. J. Krasznahorkay et al. Observation of Anomalous Internal Pair Creation in: A Possible Indication of a Light, Neutral Boson, Physical Review Letters (2016).

 

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.042501

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Teaching robots to feel pain to protect themselves

Teaching robots to feel pain to protect themselves | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A pair of researchers with Leibniz University of Hannover has demonstrated the means by which robots might be programmed to experience something akin to pain in animals. As part of their demonstration at last week's IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation held in Stockholm, Johannes Kuehn and Sami Haddaddin showed how pain might be used in robots, by interacting with a BioTac fingertip sensor on the end of a Kuka robotic arm that had been programmed to react differently to differing amounts of "pain."

 

The researchers explained that the reason for giving robots pain sensors is the same as for existing biological adaptations—to ensure a reaction that will lessen the damage incurred by our bodies, and perhaps, even more importantly, to help us to remember to avoid similar situations in the future. In the case of the robots, the researchers have built an electric network behind the fingertip sensor meant to mimic nerve pathways below the skin in animals, allowing the robot to "feel" what has been programmed to describe various types, or degrees of pain.

 

In the demonstration, the researchers inflicted varying degrees of pain on the robot, explaining the reasoning behind the programmed reaction: When experiencing light pain or discomfort, for example, the robot recoiled slowly, removing itself from the problem. Moderate pain, on the other hand called for a rapid response, moving quickly away from the source, though it had the option to move back, albeit, tentatively, if need be. Severe pain, on the other hand, is often indicative of damage, thus the robot had been programmed to become passive to prevent further damage.

 

Such robots are likely to incite a host of questions, of course, if they become more common—if a robot acts the same way a human does when touching a hot plate, are we to believe it is truly experiencing pain? And if so, will lawmakers find the need to enact laws to prevent cruelty to robots, as is the case with animals? Only time will tell of course, but one thing that is evident in such demonstrations—as robotics technology advances, researchers are more often forced to make hard decisions, some of which may fall entirely outside the domain of engineers.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Of monsters, moonshine and shadows

Of monsters, moonshine and shadows | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Monsters, moonshine and shadows sound like the ingredients for an excellent fairy tale. They are also part of a fascinating mathematical story that brings together some of our favorite things – number theory, group theory, string theory and even quantum gravity – as well as some of our favorite mathematicians.
 
The monster in question comes from group theory – the mathematical study of symmetry. A group is a set of things (usually called elements) and a rule for how these elements interact so the resulting system is self contained and satisfies some simple rules. You can read all the details in The power of groups.
 
One of the original inspirations for group theory came from studying symmetry groups – the symmetries that can exists together in an object. For example the symmetries of a rectangle are reflection in the vertical axis, reflection in the horizontal axis and a half-turn around the centre. These symmetries of a rectangle, together with the identity symmetry (that does nothing), form the Klein 4-group – one of the smallest groups.
 
There are also infinite groups, such as the set of whole numbers which form a group under addition. But every group, finite or infinite, is made up of building blocks called simple groups in an analogous way to every number being uniquely expressible as a product of prime factors.
 
One of the greatest mathematical achievements of the last century was the classification of the finite simple groups, an enormous theorem that took over 30 years, 100 mathematicians and 10,000 pages to prove. This result gave a description of every type of finite simple group: they were either one of 18 well-understood infinite families (such as addition modulo a prime number, eg. addition modulo 7) or they were one of 26 other individual possibilities (called the sporadic groups). The largest of these 26 outsiders is the Monster group, which consists of a mind-boggling

808,017,424,794,512,875,886,459,904,961,710,757,005,754,368,000,000,000

symmetries.

 

It turns out that every group, whether it's the symmetries of a rectangle or the whole numbers under addition, can be represented using mathematical objects called matrices. These are extensions of one-dimensional linear functions, such as , to higher dimensions. Each element of the group corresponds to a matrix that acts in -dimensional space, and these matrices behave in the same way that the original group elements (that is if for elements , and in the group, then for the corresponding matrices , and in the group's representation).

 

A single group can even have several different representations in terms of matrices. The smallest irreducible representation of the Monster group is as a group of matrices representing rotations in 196,883-dimensional space. The next largest is in 21,296,876-dimensional space, the one after that is in 842,609,326-dimensional space, and there are 194 such representations of the Monster group (including the trivial 1-dimensional one where all elements of the group act like the identity) in all.

 

MORE

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Kepler Mission Announces Largest Planet Collection Ever Discovered

Kepler Mission Announces Largest Planet Collection Ever Discovered | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
NASA's Kepler mission has verified 1,284 new planets – the single largest finding of planets to date.

 

“This announcement more than doubles the number of confirmed planets from Kepler,” said Ellen Stofan, chief scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “This gives us hope that somewhere out there, around a star much like ours, we can eventually discover another Earth.” 

 

Analysis was performed on the Kepler space telescope’s July 2015 planet candidate catalog, which identified 4,302 potential planets. For 1,284 of the candidates, the probability of being a planet is greater than 99 percent – the minimum required to earn the status of “planet.” An additional 1,327 candidates are more likely than not to be actual planets, but they do not meet the 99 percent threshold and will require additional study. The remaining 707 are more likely to be some other astrophysical phenomena. This analysis also validated 984 candidates previously verified by other techniques.

 

"Before the Kepler space telescope launched, we did not know whether exoplanets were rare or common in the galaxy. Thanks to Kepler and the research community, we now know there could be more planets than stars,” said Paul Hertz, Astrophysics Division director at NASA Headquarters. "This knowledge informs the future missions that are needed to take us ever-closer to finding out whether we are alone in the universe."

 

Kepler captures the discrete signals of distant planets – decreases in brightness that occur when planets pass in front of, or transit, their stars – much like theMay 9 Mercury transit of our sun. Since the discovery of the first planets outside our solar system more than two decades ago, researchers have resorted to a laborious, one-by-one process of verifying suspected planets.

 

This latest announcement, however, is based on a statistical analysis method that can be applied to many planet candidates simultaneously. Timothy Morton, associate research scholar at Princeton University in New Jersey and lead author of the scientific paper published in The Astrophysical Journal, employed a technique to assign each Kepler candidate a planet-hood probability percentage – the first such automated computation on this scale, as previous statistical techniques focused only on sub-groups within the greater list of planet candidates identified by Kepler.

 

"Planet candidates can be thought of like bread crumbs,” said Morton. “If you drop a few large crumbs on the floor, you can pick them up one by one. But, if you spill a whole bag of tiny crumbs, you're going to need a broom. This statistical analysis is our broom."

 

In the newly-validated batch of planets, nearly 550 could be rocky planets like Earth, based on their size. Nine of these orbit in their sun's habitable zone, which is the distance from a star where orbiting planets can have surface temperatures that allow liquid water to pool. With the addition of these nine, 21 exoplanets now are known to be members of this exclusive group.

 

"They say not to count our chickens before they're hatched, but that's exactly what these results allow us to do based on probabilities that each egg (candidate) will hatch into a chick (bona fide planet)," said Natalie Batalha, co-author of the paper and the Kepler mission scientist at NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California. “This work will help Kepler reach its full potential by yielding a deeper understanding of the number of stars that harbor potentially habitable, Earth-size planets -- a number that's needed to design future missions to search for habitable environments and living worlds.”

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Twisted light with high orbital angular momentum travels slower than the speed of light

Twisted light with high orbital angular momentum travels slower than the speed of light | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

That the speed of light in free space c is constant has been a pillar of modern physics since the derivation of Maxwell and in Einstein’s postulate in special relativity.

 

That the speed of light in free space c is constant has been a pillar of modern physics since the derivation of Maxwell and in Einstein’s postulate in special relativity. This has been a basic assumption in light’s various applications. However, a physical beam of light has a finite extent such that even in free space it is by nature dispersive. The field confinement changes its wavevector, hence, altering the light’s group velocity vg. Here, a group of scientists now reports the subluminal vg and consequently the dispersion in free space of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam, a beam known to carry orbital angular momentum. The vg of LG beam, calculated in the paraxial regime, is observed to be inversely proportional to the beam’s divergence θ0, the orbital order ℓ and the radial order p. LG beams of higher orders travel relatively slower than that of lower orders. As a consequence, LG beams of different orders separate in the temporal domain along propagation. This is an added effect to the dispersion due to field confinement.

 

These results are useful for treating information embedded in LG beams from astronomical sources and/or data transmission in free space.

 

 

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Mirror-image polymerase copies mirror-world DNA

Mirror-image polymerase copies mirror-world DNA | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Researchers at Tsinghua University in Beijing have created a mirror-image version of a protein that performs two of the most fundamental processes of life: copying DNA and transcribing it into RNA.

The work is a “small step” along the way to making mirror-image life forms, says molecular biologist Jack Szostak of Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. “It’s a terrific milestone,” adds his Harvard colleague George Church, who hopes one day to create an entire mirror-image cell.

Many organic molecules are ‘chiral’: that is, they can exist in mirror-image forms that cannot be superimposed, like a right-handed and left-handed glove. But life almost always employs one version: cells use left-handed amino acids, and have DNA that twists like a right-handed screw, for instance.

 

Life forms created in this mirrored way would not be able to use any of the biological material of our normal world.

 

In their research paper, the Tsinghua researchers also present their work as an effort to investigate why life’s chirality is the way it is. This remains mysterious: it may simply be down to chance, or it could have been triggered by a fundamental asymmetry in nature.

 

But Steven Benner, at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution in Alachua, Florida, says it’s unlikely that creating a mirror form of biochemical life could shed any light on this question. Almost every physical process behaves identically when viewed in a mirror. The only known exceptions — called ‘parity violations’ — lie in the realm of subatomic physics. Such tiny differences would never show up in these biochemical experiments, says Benner. (He is also interested in making DNA that can avoid unwanted degradation by natural enzymes or viruses, but rather than using mirror-DNA, he has created artificial DNA with non-natural building blocks.)

 

Church’s ultimate goal, to make a mirror-image cell, faces enormous challenges. In nature, RNA is translated into proteins by the ribosome, a complex molecular machine. “Reconstructing a mirror-image of the ribosome would be a daunting task,” says Zhu. Instead, Church is trying to mutate a normal ribosome so that it can handle mirror-RNA.

 

Church says that it is anyone’s guess as to which approach might pay off. But he notes that a growing number of researchers are working on looking-glass versions of biochemical processes. “For a while it was a non-field,” says Church. “But now it seems very vibrant.”

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Scoop.it!

Cancer-patient big data can save lives if shared globally

Cancer-patient big data can save lives if shared globally | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Sharing genetic information from millions of cancer patients around the world could revolutionize cancer prevention and care, according to a paper in Nature Medicine by the Cancer Task Team of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH). Hospitals, laboratories and research facilities around the world hold huge amounts of this data from cancer patients, but it’s currently held in isolated “silos” that don’t talk to each other, according to GA4GH, a partnership between scientists, clinicians, patients, and the IT and Life Sciences industry, involving more than 400 organizations in over 40 countries. GA4GH intends to provide a common framework for the responsible, voluntary and secure sharing of patients’ clinical and genomic data.

 

“Imagine if we could create a searchable cancer database that allowed doctors to match patients from different parts of the world with suitable clinical trials,” said GA4GH co-chair professor Mark Lawler, a leading cancer expert fromQueen’s University Belfast. “This genetic matchmaking approach would allow us to develop personalized treatments for each individual’s cancer, precisely targeting rogue cells and improving outcomes for patients.

 

“This data sharing presents logistical, technical, and ethical challenges. Our paper highlights these challenges and proposes potential solutions to allow the sharing of data in a timely, responsible and effective manner. We hope this blueprint will be adopted by researchers around the world and enable a unified global approach to unlocking the value of data for enhanced patient care.”

 

GA4GH acknowledges that there are security issues, and has created a Security Working Group and a policy paper that documents the standards and implementation practices for protecting the privacy and security of shared genomic and clinical data.

 

Examples of current initiatives for clinico-genomic data-sharing include the U.S.-based Precision Medicine Initiative and the UK’s 100,000 Genomes Project, both of which have cancer as a major focus.

 

more...
Herve Moal's curator insight, May 26, 4:47 AM

l'enjeu du partage des données

Rescooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald from Fragments of Science
Scoop.it!

Bionic Spinal Cord Lets You Move Robotic Limbs With Power of Thought

Bionic Spinal Cord Lets You Move Robotic Limbs With Power of Thought | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Australian researchers have created a “bionic spinal cord.” They claim that this device could give paralyzed people significant hope of walking again. And if that’s not enough, it could do it utilizing the power of thought and without the necessity of open brain surgery.

 

A research team from the Vascular Bionics Laboratory at the University of Melbourne developed the novel neural-recording device, which both eschews invasive surgery and decreases the risks of a blood-brain barrier breach by being implanted into the brain’s blood vessels.

 

Developed under DARPA’s Reliable Neural-Interface Technology (RE-NET) program, the Stentrode can potentially safely expand the use of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) in the treatment of physical disabilities and neurological disorders.

 

The researchers describe their “proof-of-concept results” which come from a study conducted on sheep, demonstrating high-fidelity measurements taken from the region of the brain responsible for controlling voluntary movement (called the motor cortex) with the use of the novel device which, as it happens, is just about the size of a paperclip.

 

Notably, the device records neural activity that has been shown in pre-clinical trials to move limbs through an exoskeleton.

 

The team, led by neurologist Thomas Oxley, M.D., published their study in an article in the journal Nature Biotechnology.


Via Mariaschnee
more...
No comment yet.