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Controlling behavior remotely: Researchers use precise lasers to manipulate neurons in worms’ brains

Controlling behavior remotely: Researchers use precise lasers to manipulate neurons in worms’ brains | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Using lasers, researchers were able to take control of Caenorhabditis elegans — tiny, transparent worms — by manipulating neurons in the worms’ brain and instruct it to turn in any direction they chose. They implanted false sensory information, fooling the worm into thinking food was nearby. By taking control of such complex behaviors, researchers hope to understand how a worm's nervous system functions. The work is important because, by taking control of complex behaviors in a relatively simple animal — C. elegans have just 302 neurons ­— researchers can understand how its nervous system functions.

 

The hairy goal is to activate only one neuron, which is challenging because the animal is moving quickly, and the neurons are densely packed near its head, so the challenge is to acquire an image of the animal, process that image, identify the neuron, track the animal, position your laser, and shoot the particular neuron — and do it all in 20 milliseconds, or about 50 times a second. The system that researchers eventually developed uses a movable table to keep the crawling worm centered beneath a camera and laser.

 

The system was not only capable of controlling the worms’ behavior, but their senses as well. In one test, the researchers were able to trick a worm’s brain into believing food was nearby, causing it to make a beeline toward the imaginary meal.

 

“By manipulating the neural system of this animal, we can make it turn left, we can make it turn right, we can make it go in a loop, we can make it think there is food nearby,” the principal investigator Ramanathan said. “We want to understand the brain of this animal, which has only a few hundred neurons, completely, and essentially turn it into a video game, where we can control all of its behaviors.”

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20,000+ FREE Online Science and Technology Lectures from Top Universities | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

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Biotech Firms Battle Over Who Owns Genetic Data

Biotech Firms Battle Over Who Owns Genetic Data | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Cancer-screening firm Ambry Genetics is giving away anonymized data on 10,000 breast and ovarian cancer patients to researchers.

 

Who owns our genetic heritage? It's a contentious question in the multi-billion-dollar genetics industry. Scientists now know not only all three billion-plus letters of the human genome, but many of the key genes that cause hereditary ailments including cancers, autism, Down syndrome, and Parkinson's. That's expensive knowledge, and some firms and institutions that footed the bill for research don't want to just give it away. "Companies are going to do as much as they can to collect as much genetic data as possible," says Sabah Oney, a biotech entrepreneur most recently with prenatal DNA testing firm Ariosa Diagnostics. "Whoever owns the most data is going to be the king."

 

Others say that companies should compete on services they offer, not the data they have collected. A vocal advocate on this side is genetic-testing company Ambry Genetics. It just opened up access to anonymized genetic sequencing and other medical data for 10,000 patients suffering from breast or ovarian cancers. The company promises to keep adding to the database in the future and also expand to data on other cancers on its site, AmbryShare.

 

"We're not here to aggregate data and try to sell it," says Charlie Dunlop, the founder and CEO of Ambry, which just opened a big new lab in Aliso Viejo, south of Los Angeles. Ambry's growth was helped by a lawsuit it won to bust patents by rival Myriad Genetics. So Dunlop has a big interest in the open-access side. Still, the genetic data that Ambry is opening up could be a big contribution to cancer treatments and cures, and set an example for other companies.

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Short-wavelength spin waves generated directly for the first time

Short-wavelength spin waves generated directly for the first time | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

With the rapid advance of miniaturization, data processing using electric currents faces tough challenges, some of which are insurmountable.

 

Smaller, faster, more energy-efficient - this is the mantra for the further development of computers and mobile telephones which is currently progressing at a breathtaking pace. However, Dr. Sebastian Wintz of the HZDR Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research knows only too well, how difficult it already is to achieve any further degree of miniaturization. "One major problem with current technologies," he said, "is the heat which is generated when data are transmitted with the aid of electric currents. We need a new concept." The physicist is working with international colleagues on so-called spin waves (magnons) which are set to replace moving charges in the future as information carriers. The scientists have now succeeded for the first time in generating spin waves of such short wavelengths that they have potential for future applications in data processing.

 

The spin denotes a property which lends the particles a magnetic moment. They then act like tiny magnets which run parallel to each other in ferromagnetic materials. If one of the spins then changes direction, this has a knock-on effect on its neighbors. A chain reaction gives rise to a spin wave.

 

The processing of information is presently based on electric currents. The charged particles speed through a network of wires which are squeezed closer and closer together, driven by the desire for ever more compact chips. On their way, the electrons collide with atoms, causing them to rock to and fro in the crystal lattice thereby generating heat. If the wires are too close together, this heat can no longer be dissipated and the system breaks down. "The great advantage of spin waves is that the electrons themselves don't move," explained Wintz, "therefore precious little heat is produced by the flow of data."

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Chinese team to pioneer first human CRISPR trial

Chinese team to pioneer first human CRISPR trial | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

The CRISPR gene editing technique has been in the news a lot of late as scientists creep ever closer to using it as a means to treat diseases or to change the very nature of biological beings. China has been a leader in promoting such research on human beings—they were the first to use the technique to on human embryos.

 

The new effort is seen as far less controversial—a team in the U.S. is planning a similar study as soon as they can get regulators to greenlight their project. The Chinese team plans to retrieve T cells from patients that have incurable lung cancer and then edit the genes in those cells. More specifically, they will be looking to disable a gene that encodes for a protein called PD-1—prior research has shown that it acts as a brake on an immune response to help prevent attacks on healthy cells. Once the cells have been edited and inspected very carefully to make sure there were no editing errors they will be allowed to multiply and then all of the cells will be injected back into the same patient's bloodstream. It is hoped that the edited cells will cause the immune system to mount a more aggressive attack on tumor cells, killing them and curing the patient.

 

The researchers acknowledge that they do not know for sure how the body will respond, whether it will cause a more aggressive attack on the tumor cells or kick off other problems related to an overzealous immune response.

 

The clinical trial is set to start next month, 30 candidates have been chosen, but only one will get the edited cellsinitially—a three dose regimen. That patient will be monitored very closely for both positive and negative responses—the overall goal is to see if the procedure is safe, but the researchers are hoping, of course, to see some sign of tumor reduction.

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Physicists have discovered what looks like an entire family of new particles in the LHC

Physicists have discovered what looks like an entire family of new particles in the LHC | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
They can’t be explained by our existing laws of physics.

 

The new particles have been named X(4140), X(4274), X(4500), and X(4700) after their respective masses, and each one has been found to contain a unique combination of two charm quarks and two strange quarks.

 

This makes them the first four-quark particles found to be composed entirely of heavy quarks, Symmetry reports.

 

By 'exciting' the individual quarks inside their new tetraquark particles, the researchers were able to observe their unique internal structure, mass, and quantum numbers. In doing so, they discovered something that doesn’t fit with current physics models that work with so-called ordinary particles, such as composite hadrons built from either a quark and an anti-quark, or three separate quarks, CERN reports.

 

Physicists are now trying to come up with new models to explain their results. The results have been published in two papers on the pre-print website arXiv.org here and here, so are now going to be scrutinized by independent physicists ahead of the formal peer-review process. 

 

The discovers are expecting one of two possibilities to be confirmed with further research: theoretical physicists are either going to have to explain the existence of this new family of particles, or they could be identified as the result of strange 'ripple effects' emanating from never-before-seen behaviors of existing particles.


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New brain map identifies 97 new areas previously unknown

New brain map identifies 97 new areas previously unknown | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A new 21st century map of the human brain contains 180 distinct areas in each hemisphere, including 97 previously undiscovered territories, research published Wednesday in the journal Nature revealed. It's not quite Google Maps, but the new optic still provides the most detailed understanding of the cerebral cortex to date, based on the freshest data from the latest technologies.

 

The new map "is a major revision and updating" of previous maps," said David Van Essen, senior author of the study. "Most of the new areas are in regions we associate with higher cognitive function," he said.

 

This is version 1.0, and as new data comes in, there will be revisions, said Dr. Greg Farber, director of technology development at the National Institute of Mental Health, echoing the authors of the research.

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Why Did NASA Just Send a DNA Sequencer to Space?

Why Did NASA Just Send a DNA Sequencer to Space? | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A DNA sequencer that was just delivered to the International Space Station can test not just known Earthly organisms. Turns out, the little device may also be able to analyze samples taken from alien life, NASA said.

 

The SpaceX Dragon capsule met up with the International Space Station (ISS) early yesterday morning (July 20), after being launched aboard the Falcon 9 rocket on July 18. Among the goods delivered was the MinION — a palm-sized sequencer with a lot of promise that weighs just 120 grams (0.27 pounds).

 

"This one piece of equipment might do a lot for us, in terms of exploration, research and crew health-related issues," said Sarah Wallace, a NASA microbiologist and member of the team working on the MinION experiment, in a recent conversation with Live Science.

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Vast asteroid created 'Man in Moon's eye' crater

Vast asteroid created 'Man in Moon's eye' crater | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

One of the Moon's biggest craters was created by an asteroid more than 250km (150 miles) across, a study suggests. It smashed into the lunar surface about 3.8 billion years ago, forming Mare Imbrium - the feature also known as the right eye of the "Man in the Moon".

 

Scientists say the asteroid was three times bigger than previously estimated and debris from the collision would have rained down on the Earth. The research is published in the journal Nature.

 

The asteroid was so big it could be classified as a protoplanet - a space rock with the potential to become a fully formed world. Lead author Prof Peter Schultz, a planetary geologist from Brown University in the United States, said: "One implication of this work is that the asteroids may not have been these small chunks flying around - there may have been many more of these very large protoplanets. "It was a catastrophic period of time."

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A Bird’s-Eye View of Nature’s Hidden Order

A Bird’s-Eye View of Nature’s Hidden Order | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Scientists are exploring a mysterious pattern, found in birds’ eyes, boxes of marbles and other surprising places, that is neither regular nor random.

 

Many years ago, Joe Corbo stared into the eye of a chicken and saw something astonishing. The color-sensitive cone cells that carpeted the retina (detached from the fowl, and mounted under a microscope) appeared as polka dots of five different colors and sizes. But Corbo observed that, unlike the randomly dispersed cones in human eyes, or the neat rows of cones in the eyes of many fish, the chicken’s cones had a haphazard and yet remarkably uniform distribution. The dots’ locations followed no discernible rule, and yet dots never appeared too close together or too far apart. Each of the five interspersed sets of cones, and all of them together, exhibited this same arresting mix of randomness and regularity. Corbo, who runs a biology lab at Washington University in St. Louis, was hooked.

 

“It’s extremely beautiful just to look at these patterns,” he said. “We were kind of captured by the beauty, and had, purely out of curiosity, the desire to understand the patterns better.” He and his collaborators also hoped to figure out the patterns’ function, and how they were generated. He didn’t know then that these same questions were being asked in numerous other contexts, or that he had found the first biological manifestation of a type of hidden order that has also turned up all over mathematics and physics.

 

Corbo did know that whatever bird retinas are doing is probably the thing to do. Avian vision works spectacularly well (enabling eagles, for instance, to spot mice from a mile high), and his lab studies the evolutionary adaptations that make this so. Many of these attributes are believed to have been passed down to birds from a lizardlike creature that, 300 million years ago, gave rise to both dinosaurs and proto-mammals. While birds’ ancestors, the dinos, ruled the planetary roost, our mammalian kin scurried around in the dark, fearfully nocturnal and gradually losing color discrimination. Mammals’ cone types dropped to two — a nadir from which we are still clambering back. About 30 million years ago, one of our primate ancestors’ cones split into two — red- and green-detecting — which, together with the existing blue-detecting cone, give us trichromatic vision. But our cones, particularly the newer red and green ones, have a clumpy, scattershot distribution and sample light unevenly.

 

Bird eyes have had eons longer to optimize. Along with their higher cone count, they achieve a far more regular spacing of the cells. But why, Corbo and colleagues wondered, had evolution not opted for the perfect regularity of a grid or “lattice” distribution of cones? The strange, uncategorizable pattern they observed in the retinas was, in all likelihood, optimizing some unknown set of constraints. What these were, what the pattern was, and how the avian visual system achieved it remained unclear. The biologists did their best to quantify the regularity in the retinas, but this was unfamiliar terrain, and they needed help. In 2012, Corbo contacted Salvatore Torquato, a professor of theoretical chemistry at Princeton University and a renowned expert in a discipline known as “packing.” Packing problems ask about the densest way to pack objects (such as cone cells of five different sizes) in a given number of dimensions (in the case of a retina, two). “I wanted to get at this question of whether such a system was optimally packed,” Corbo said. Intrigued, Torquato ran some algorithms on digital images of the retinal patterns and “was astounded,” Corbo recalled, “to see the same phenomenon occurring in these systems as they’d seen in a lot of inorganic or physical systems.”

 
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Radio telescope finds hundreds of previously undetectable galaxies

Radio telescope finds hundreds of previously undetectable galaxies | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A South African radio telescope has revealed hundreds of galaxies in a tiny corner of the universe where only 70 had been seen before. The images, taken by MeerKAT telescope, are an indication of the detail the southern hemisphere's most powerful radio telescope may be able to provide when it is fully operational later this year.

 

At present, 16 of MeerKAT's 64 dishes are scanning the skies. As well as its scientific goals, the project serves as a technological demonstration of South Africa's capability to host the Square Kilometer Array, a huge multiradio-telescope project to be built in Australia and South Africa comprising dozens of dishes.

 

"Based on the results being shown today, we are confident that after all 64 dishes are in place, MeerKAT will be the world's leading telescope of its kind until the advent of SKA," Professor Justin Jonas, SKA South Africa chief technologist, said in a statement.

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UW professor is digitizing every fish species in the world

UW professor is digitizing every fish species in the world | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Nearly 25,000 species of fish live on our planet, and a University of Washington professor wants to scan and digitize them all. That means each species will soon have a high-resolution, 3D visual replica online, available to all and downloadable for free. Scientists, teachers, students and amateur ichthyologists will be able to look at the fine details of a smoothhead sculpin’s skeleton, or 3-D print an exact replica of an Arctic alligatorfish.

 

“These scans are transforming the way we think about 3-D data and accessibility,” said Adam Summers, a UW professor of biology and aquatic and fishery sciences who is spearheading the project.

 

Summers, who is based at the UW’s Friday Harbor Laboratories, uses a small computerized tomography (CT) scanner in the back room of a lab to churn out dozens of fish scans from specimens gathered around the world. The machine works like a standard CT scanner used in hospitals: A series of X-ray images is taken from different angles, then combined using computer processing to create three-dimensional images of the skeleton.

 

The goal is to make it possible for scientists to examine the morphology of a particular species, or try to understand why a group of fish all have similar physical characteristics such as bony head “armor” or the ability to burrow into the sand.

“It’s been so fun to throw this data up on the web and have people actually use it,” Summers said.

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Scientist sequence genome of a very abundant ocean microbe

Scientist sequence genome of a very abundant ocean microbe | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Sea turtles and whales may be the charismatic critters of the sea, but the true kingpins of the ocean make up 98 percent of the ocean’s biomass — and yet individually are too small to see with the naked eye.

 

An almost unknown organism by the name Candidatus Thioglobus autotrophicus, is present in low-oxygen waters around the world and is one of the dominant organisms in these areas — between 40 and 60 percent of all cells in some regions.

 

Living things use oxygen for their metabolic activities, but in low-oxygen areas, bacteria and archaea have evolved to “breathe” other elements available in seawater. One of those is a chemical called nitrate which, when respired, produces gaseous nitrogen. That gas escapes to the atmosphere, effectively leaving the ocean and removing valuable nitrogen from the water.

 

The bacteria grown and sequenced by the UW oceanographers have been pegged as playing a big role in removing nitrogen from the ocean, but until now scientists didn’t have a complete picture of how it happened.

 

“We are filling in the gaps by providing a full genome,” said lead author Vega Shah, a UW doctoral student in oceanography. “Now we can talk about both what these organisms can and can’t do.”

 

The research team confirmed the bacteria are contributing to nitrogen loss, but in a different way than expected. More specifically, they are responsible for a key step — converting nitrate to a similar chemical called nitrite — which then goes on to fuel other nitrogen-removal processes. Earlier research had hypothesized that these microbes also produce ammonia, another nitrogen-containing chemical. Instead, the UW team found that the microbes consume ammonia, essentially competing with other organisms for this nitrogen compound that is also important for growth and development.

 

The findings were published July 19, 2016, in the Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology, a Nature publication.


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First half of 2016 hit record-setting global warmth In 100 years

First half of 2016 hit record-setting global warmth In 100 years | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

After 2014 set the record for annual average global surface temperature, 2015 promptly smashed it. By the end of 2015, the incredibly strong El Niño that had developed to help fuel that record enabled climate scientists to predict that 2016 was almost certain to break the record again. With the first half of 2016’s temperatures in the books, this prediction is proving to be on target.

 

In a press conference Tuesday, NASA scientists highlighted the standout temperatures we've seen so far in 2016. This has been, far and away, the warmest January-to-June period on record. Even though the El Niño event has now come to an end, with forecasts pointing to cooler La Niña waters in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, 2016 is a virtual lock to be significantly warmer than 2015.

 

June 2016 also set the record for the warmest temperature on record in June—the 8th straight month that this has happened.

The early expectation for 2017, however, is that the developing neutral or La Niña conditions will put an end to the streak of record years.

 

The El Niño/La Niña see-saw is a an important factor in the year-to-year variability of global temperature, but it's obviously taking place on top of the long-term warming trend driven by human activities.

 

Every year, an El Niño is capable of pushing average global temperatures a little higher than it could the year before. NASA’s Gavin Schmidt estimated that only about 40 percent of 2016’s increase over 2015 can be blamed on El Niño conditions.

 

Meanwhile, Arctic sea ice is also having an interesting year. The extent of Arctic sea ice has been at or near a record low all year long. That's due to weather—warm temperatures (especially an early start to the melt season) and winds conducive to dispersing the ice pack. So will 2016 break 2012’s record for the lowest Arctic sea ice extent at the end of the melt season in September? NASA’s Walt Meier cautioned that while it’s certainly likely to be low—also following the longer-term trend—we have a couple months of weather yet that will determine the final result. “The first six months certainly have primed things to potentially be a record, but the summer melt season [from June to August] is really crucial. It really depends a lot on what happens there,” Meier said.


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Dr. Stephen Kingsmore Sets Guinness World Records Title for Fastest Genetic Diagnosis

Dr. Stephen Kingsmore Sets Guinness World Records Title for Fastest Genetic Diagnosis | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Stephen Kingsmore, M.D., D.Sc., president and CEO of Rady Children's Institute for Genomic Medicine at Rady Children's Hospital – San Diego, is the official title holder of the Guinness World Records® designation for fastest genetic diagnosis, which he accomplished by successfully diagnosing critically ill newborns in just 26 hours, as published in the journal Genome Medicine.

 

The feat was made possible by several time-shrinking technologies, including Edico Genome's genomic data-crunching computer chip, DRAGEN, and one of Illumina's high-throughput sequencing instruments. In addition, other parameters of the sequencing process were optimized.

 

Dr. Kingsmore achieved this Guinness World Records title while serving as executive director of Medical Panomics at Children's Mercy Kansas City; he will implement the enabling technologies at the new Rady Children's Institute for Genomic Medicine. Today's celebration in San Diego, often called "the genomics capital of the world," is being held on National DNA Day, which commemorates the completion of the Human Genome Project and the discovery of DNA's double helix.

 

"Diagnosing acutely ill babies is a race against the clock, which is why it's so essential for physicians to have access to technology that will provide answers faster and help set the course of treatment," Dr. Kingsmore said. "My work at Children's Mercy Kansas City that led to this recognition would not have been possible without our key technology partners Edico Genome and Illumina, who share a vision for unraveling mysteries of disease and giving hope to families with ill newborns. I look forward to collaborating with both parties to implement this approach at Rady Children's Institute for Genomic Medicine and ultimately neonatal and pediatric intensive care units across the country."

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Teal drone is up for pre-orders, can do 70 mph, stay stable in winds up to 40 mph

Teal drone is up for pre-orders, can do 70 mph, stay stable in winds up to 40 mph | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Teal is self-promoted as the world's fastest production drone. It is fast and can withstand 40mh winds. It is built to run as many apps as you can think of and it has a supercomputer on board.

 

Among the key features: modes for beginners to hardcore racers; control it from a smartphone, tablet or hobby controller; has something called Teal OS as a software platform, opening the way for people to build apps around it; fast processors on board the drone.

 

The drone is powered by NVIDIA TX1. It handles machine learning, autonomous flight, image recognition and more onboard. "This makes Teal a flying supercomputer. You can even plug Teal into a monitor, use it like a normal computer, play games on it...", Teal's inventor explains.

 

Teal has a 13MP wide field of view camera that supports 4K video recording and 3-axis electronic stabilization. Videos and photos can be stored directly on built in 16GB storage or to a microSD card.

 

Speed? How fast is fast? The max horizontal speed is listed as 70 mph. The site FAQ page stated that "Teal can fly over 70 MPH! In test runs, teal has even reached speeds over 85 MPH under certain conditions."

 

Teal is small enough to fit in a standard backpack without disassembly. The diagonal motor to motor measurement is listed as 261mm.

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Scientists program cells to remember and respond to series of stimuli

Scientists program cells to remember and respond to series of stimuli | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Synthetic biology allows researchers to program cells to perform novel functions such as fluorescing in response to a particular chemical or producing drugs in response to disease markers. In a step toward devising much more complex cellular circuits, MIT engineers have now programmed cells to remember and respond to a series of events.

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A way to get electrons to attract each other is using other electrons

A way to get electrons to attract each other is using other electrons | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
A team of researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, with assistance from another at Freie Universität Berlin in Germany has found a new way to get electrons to attract one. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used and the ways their results might prove useful. Takis Kontos with Ecole Normale Supérieure in France offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue and in addition to outlining their work offers some history on its development by others in the field.

 

Getting electrons to attract each is a big part of superconductivity, but unfortunately, due to the need for extremely cold temperatures most such materials have not proved to be of practical use. What scientists would really like to find is a material that could be a superconductor at room temperature and one promising avenue of research has been attempting to realize a theory proposed by William Little half a century ago—he suggested it might be possible to get electrons to attract one another by using the repulsion of other electrons. In this new effort, the researchers have attempted to prove this theory correct by using carbon nanotubes placed near one another.

 

Their experiment consisted of coaxing just two electrons into a carbon nanotube and a polarizer in the form of two energy wells in a second carbon nanotube. They then positioned the two nanotubes perpendicular to each other, with one over the top of the over forming a cross, though they were not allowed to touch—one was kept approximately 100 nanometers away from the other. At that distance, the researchers confirmed that the electrons became attracted to one another.

 

In theory, the team notes, it should be possible to create a superconductor using their method—unfortunately, creating an entire crystal, or even a short chain of material in such a way, is likely to be exceedingly difficult. Still, Kontos suggests that it could be used to create a quantum simulator which could be added as yet another tool for researchers in the field.

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Organisms age in myriad ways, but some just don't seem to age at all

Organisms age in myriad ways, but some just don't seem to age at all | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Death rates in humans increase dramatically in later life, leading to an upsweeping mortality curve (far right, 2009 data from Japanese women). But the mortality curves of plants and animals vary greatly, according to a recent data analysis. Hydra don’t appear to age at all, and the death rates of desert tortoises can actually decline later in life. 

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We've Been Wrong About Lichen For 150 Years

We've Been Wrong About Lichen For 150 Years | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Hundreds of millions of years ago, a tiny green microbe joined forces with a fungus, and together they conquered the world. It’s a tale of two cross-kingdom organisms, one providing food and the one other shelter, and it’s been our touchstone example of symbiosis for 150 years. Trouble is, that story is nowhere near complete.

 

A sweeping genetic analysis of lichen has revealed a third symbiotic organism, hiding in plain sight alongside the familiar two, that has eluded scientists for decades. The stowaway is another fungus, a basidiomycete yeast. It’s been found in 52 genera of lichen across six continents, indicating that it is an extremely widespread, if not ubiquitous, part of the symbiosis. And according to molecular dating, it’s probably been along for the ride since the beginning.

 

“I think this will require some rewriting of the textbooks,” said Catharine Aime, a mycologist at Purdue University and co-author on the study published today in Science.

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Peter Buckland's curator insight, July 23, 4:14 AM
A fascinating discovery
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Sunlight helps scientists derive hydrogen from grass

Sunlight helps scientists derive hydrogen from grass | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

Scientists in Wales see gas in the grass. The green stuff growing in your yard might be an inexpensive source of renewable energy. With just sunlight and the help of a cheap catalyst, researchers at Cardiff University have found a way to derive hydrogen gas from fescue grass.

 

"Hydrogen is seen as an important future energy carrier as the world moves from fossil fuels to renewable feedstocks, and our research has shown that even garden grass could be a good way of getting hold of it," Michael Bowker, a professor at the Cardiff Catalysis Institute, said in a news release.

 

Hydrogen is plentiful on Earth, but it's not easy to unlock from its geological and biological sources. Many of the current synthesis strategies are expensive and energy-intensive, negating hydrogen's environmental benefits.

 

But scientists at Cardiff recently documented the promise of a new strategy called photoreforming, or photocatalysis. During photoreforming, sunlight triggers a catalyst, setting in motion a chemical reaction that converts cellulose and water into hydrogen.

 

Researchers tested three relatively cheap metal-based catalysts -- palladium, gold and nickel -- and found success with all three.

"Our results show that significant amounts of hydrogen can be produced using this method with the help of a bit of sunlight and a cheap catalyst," Bowker said.

 

The researchers shared their findings in a new paper, published this week in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society A.

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Twisted, Tangled and Turbulent: Magnetic Fields in the Milky Way

Twisted, Tangled and Turbulent: Magnetic Fields in the Milky Way | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

If the Milky Way were strewn across a swath of silk and set aflutter in the breeze, it would look something like the rippling images in the gallery above. But these are representations of our home galaxy, produced from nearly 1,500 days of observations made by the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite. Each of the images above corresponds to a numbered section in this map of the Milky Way:

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Game of Genomes: An epic quest to crack the mysteries of our DNA

Game of Genomes: An epic quest to crack the mysteries of our DNA | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
It took hundreds of scientists — and about $3 billion — to assemble the first human genome sequence in 2001. Since then, the cost of DNA sequencing has crashed, while the accuracy has skyrocketed. Scientists have now sequenced the genomes of an estimated 150,000 people.

Despite this sequencing explosion, very few of the people who have their genomes sequenced get their hands on their own genomes. And those few people typically only get a highly filtered report.
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A map of where our food originates from holds some surprises

A map of where our food originates from holds some surprises | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

A new study reveals the full extent of globalization in our food supply. More than two-thirds of the crops that underpin national diets originally came from somewhere else — often far away.

 

Previous work by the same authors had shown that national diets have adopted new crops and become more and more globally alike in recent decades. The new study shows that those crops are mainly foreign.

 

The idea that crop plants have centers of origin, where they were originally domesticated, goes back to the 1920s and the great Russian plant explorer Nikolai Vavilov. He reasoned that the region where a crop had been domesticated would be marked by the greatest diversity of that crop, because farmers there would have been selecting different types for the longest time. Diversity, along with the presence of that crop's wild relatives, marked the center of origin.

 

The Fertile Crescent, with its profusion of wild grasses related to wheat and barley, is the primary center of diversity for those cereals. Thai chilies come originally from Central America and tropical South America, while Italian tomatoes come from the Andes.

 

Khoury and his colleagues extended Vavilov's methods to look for the origins of 151 different crops across 23 geographical regions. They then examined national statistics for diet and food production in 177 countries, covering 98.5 percent of the world's population.


Via DrDids, Neil Bombardier, Fernando Gil
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Neil Bombardier's curator insight, July 18, 6:34 AM
Fascinating map of where your food comes from
Eric Larson's curator insight, July 22, 11:01 AM
Interesting maps. 
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New device lengthens the life of quantum information

New device lengthens the life of quantum information | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information.

 

For the first time, researchers at Yale have crossed the "break even" point in preserving a bit of quantum information for longer than the lifetime of its constituent parts. They have created a novel system to encode, spot errors, decode, and correct errors in a quantum bit, also known as a "qubit." The development of such a robust method of Quantum Error Correction (QEC) has been one of the biggest remaining hurdles in quantum computation.

 

The findings were published online July 20 in the journal Nature.

"This is the first error correction to actually detect and correct naturally occurring errors," said Robert Schoelkopf, Sterling Professor of Applied Physics and Physics at Yale, director of the Yale Quantum Institute, and principal investigator of the study. "It is just the beginning of using QEC for real computing. Now we need to combine QEC with actual computations."

 

Error correction for quantum data bits is exceptionally difficult because of the nature of the quantum state. Unlike the "classical" state of either zero or one, the quantum state can be a zero, a one, or a superposition of both zero and one. Furthermore, the quantum state is so fragile that the act of observing it will cause a qubit to revert back to a classical state.

 

Co-lead author Andrei Petrenko, who is a Yale graduate student, added: "In our experiment we show that we can protect an actual superposition and the QEC doesn't learn whether the qubit is a zero or a one, but can still compensate for the errors."

 

The team accomplished it, in part, by finding a less complicated way to encode and correct the information. The Yale researchers devised a microwave cavity in which they created an even number of photons in a quantum state that stores the qubit. Rather than disturbing the photons by measuring them—or even counting them—the researchers simply determined whether there were an odd or even number of photons. The process relied on a kind of symmetry, via a technique the team developed previously.

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How the gurus behind Google Earth created Niantic's 'Pokémon Go'

How the gurus behind Google Earth created Niantic's 'Pokémon Go' | Amazing Science | Scoop.it

If you spotted dozens of people silently congregating in parks and train stations over the weekend, they were probably just busy trying to catch a Pidgeotto.

 

Niantic's Pokémon Go, the augmented reality mobile game, has become a global phenomenon since it launched Wednesday in Australia before rolling out in the U.S. The game requires players to explore the real world to find Pokémon, collect items at Pokéstops and conquer gyms, and a lot of work has gone into the game's mapping.

 

John Hanke, the CEO and founder of Niantic, is a Google veteran. He was one of the founders of Keyhole, the company Google bought to start Google Earth, and had a hand in Google Maps before forming Niantic. The company spun off from Google's parent company Alphabet in 2015.

 

For Hanke, accurate mapping was integral to Pokémon Go. "A lot of us worked on Google Maps and Google Earth for many, many years, so we want the mapping to be good," he told Mashable. All those Pokémon Go obsessives out there owe some serious thanks to a whole other set of gamers.

 

Ingress, the augmented-reality multiplayer game, was launched in beta by Niantic in 2011. Its users are responsible for helping create the data pool that determines where Pokéstops and gyms appear in Pokémon Go.

 

In the early days of Ingress, Niantic formed a beginning pool of portal locations for the game based on historical markers, as well as a data set of public artwork mined from geo-tagged photos on Google. "We basically defined the kinds of places that we wanted to be part of the game," Hanke said. "Things that were public artwork, that were historical sites, that were buildings with some unique architectural history or characteristic, or a unique local businesses."


Via YEC Geo
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YEC Geo's curator insight, July 19, 2:44 PM
Why  am I not surprised?
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First completely scalable quantum simulation of a molecule

First completely scalable quantum simulation of a molecule | Amazing Science | Scoop.it
A team of researchers made up of representatives from Google, Lawrence Berkeley National Labs, Tufts University, UC Santa Barbara, University College London and Harvard University reports that they have successfully created a scalable quantum simulation of a molecule for the first time ever. In a paper uploaded to the open access journal Physical Review X, the team describes the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) approach they used to create and solve one of the first real-world quantum computer applications.

As research continues with the development of a true quantum computer, some in the field have turned their attention to selecting certain types of problems that such computers could solve, as opposed to what are now being called classical computers. One such problem is solving the molecular electronic structure problem, which as Google Quantum Software Engineer Ryan Babbush notes in a blog post involves searching for the lowest electron energy configuration of a given molecule. What this means in practice is using a machine to compute the energies of molecules—doing so for some, such as methane, is relatively easy and can be done very quickly on a classical computer, but others, such as propane, can take days. This makes it an ideal test case for a quantum computer.

Via Mariaschnee
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