The "impossible" discovery, spearheaded by Stanford Professor Kevin Arrigo, is a harbinger of major changes in Arctic ecosystems as the planet warms. A massive phytoplankton bloom has been found underneath the Arctic pack ice in the Chukchi Sea. The under-ice bloom, previously thought impossible, will require a complete rethinking of Arctic ecosystems – and is a potent indicator of global warming's effects on the far north. Unlike most Arctic research teams, ICESCAPE headed deep into the Chukchi Sea ice pack, north of the Bering Strait. The research cruise, consisting of prominent scientists in the fields of oceanography, biology, chemistry and optics, was intended to improve NASA's remote monitoring of the Arctic's changing conditions.