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Did Humans Invent Music?

Did Humans Invent Music? | Amazing Science |
Did Neanderthals sing? Is there a "music gene"? Two scientists debate whether our capacity to make and enjoy songs comes from biological evolution or from the advent of civilization.


Music is everywhere, but it remains an evolutionary enigma. In recent years, archaeologists have dug up prehistoric instruments, neuroscientists have uncovered brain areas that are involved in improvisation, and geneticists have identified genes that might help in the learning of music. Yet basic questions persist: Is music a deep biological adaptation in its own right, or is it a cultural invention based mostly on our other capacities for language, learning, and emotion? And if music is an adaptation, did it really evolve to promote mating success as Darwin thought, or other for benefits such as group cooperation or mother-infant bonding?

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20,000+ FREE Online Science and Technology Lectures from Top Universities

20,000+ FREE Online Science and Technology Lectures from Top Universities | Amazing Science |



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‘Dark twin’ galaxy discovered that contains 99.9% dark matter

‘Dark twin’ galaxy discovered that contains 99.9% dark matter | Amazing Science |

Welcome to the dark side of the universe. In a direct contrast with the beautifully bright Milky Way galaxy, a "dark twin" called Dragonfly 44 has been discovered 300 million light-years away in the Coma constellation, according to a new study.


But don’t cue “Star Wars’ ” Imperial March theme music or Darth Vader breathing just yet (even if the closeup image looks like a slightly creepy emoji). Although it’s massive and mysterious, Dragonfly 44 is really just misunderstood.


Dragonfly 44 went unnoticed until last year because, when regarding the darkness of space, this galaxy resembles a virtually indistinguishable blob. But by looking at it with some of the world’s most powerful telescopes, including the Dragonfly telescope array designed and built by study authors Pieter van Dokkum and Roberto Abraham, researchers realized something else. It is named for the telescope that found it.


Dragonfly 44 is an incredibly large but diffuse and dim galaxy. Encircling its core is a halo made up of clusters of stars, much like what we see in the Milky Way. But this galaxy is only 0.1% stars. The Milky Way has more than a hundred times that. The researchers knew that something had to be holding those few stars in place.


“We knew as soon as we discovered the galaxy that it would be so tenuous if it was just made up of stars and no dark matter, that it would quickly disrupt and disappear,” said van Dokkum, lead study author and Yale University astronomer.


A huge amount of gravity was working to hold those stars in place, and once researchers used star velocity to measure how much mass the galaxy contained, they realized that the other 99.9% is dark matter.


To put this in perspective, Dragonfly 44 is comparable in size to the Milky Way, which is 100,000 light-years wide. Mostly it is just unseen because it is cloaked in darkness.


“It’s very exciting because we thought we had sort of figured out what the relationship is between galaxies and dark matter,” van Dokkum said. “This discovery turns that on its head. Now, you can have a hundred times fewer stars in the galaxy with the same amount of dark matter as the Milky Way. That was entirely unexpected, and that means that there is something missing in our description of galaxy formations, and there are physics that we don’t yet understand in that process.”


This newly observed galaxy could hold the secrets to understanding dark matter, the hypothesized ingredient that makes up 90% of the universe. Given the fact that we know next to nothing about it, this find could open the door to our discovery and understanding of the mysterious building block.

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Electrons at the speed limit

Electrons at the speed limit | Amazing Science |

Electronic components have become faster and faster over the years, thus making powerful computers and other technologies possible. Researchers at ETH Zurich have now investigated how fast electrons can ultimately be controlled with electric fields. Their insights are of importance for the petahertz electronics of the future.


Speed may not be witchcraft, but it is the basis for technologies that often seem like magic. Modern computers, for instance, are as powerful as they are because tiny switches inside them steer electric currents in fractions of a billionth of a second. The incredible data flows of the internet, on the other hand, are only possible because extremely fast electro-optic modulators can send information through fibre-optic cables in the shape of very short light pulses. Today's electronic circuits already routinely work at frequencies of several gigahertz (a billion oscillations per second) up to terahertz (a thousand billion oscillations). The next generation of electronics will therefore, sooner or later have to reach the realm of petahertz, which is a thousand times faster still. If and how electrons can be controlled that fast, however, is still largely unknown. In a groundbreaking experiment, a team led by ETH professor Ursula Keller has now investigated how electrons react to petahertz fields.


In their experiment, Keller and her collaborators exposed a tiny piece of diamond with a thickness of only 50 nanometres to an infrared laser pulse lasting a few femtoseconds (i.e., a millionth of a billionth of a second). The electric field of that laser light, having a frequency of about half a petahertz, oscillated back and forth five times in that short time and thus excited the electrons. Generally, the effect of electric fields on electrons in transparent materials can be measured indirectly by sending light through the material and then observing how strongly the material absorbs it. Whereas such measurements are easy for constant electric fields, the extremely rapidly oscillating fields of a laser beam pose a difficult challenge to the researchers. In principle, the light used for measuring the absorption should only be switched on for a fraction of the oscillation period of the electric field. That, in turn, means that a probe pulse may only last less than a femtosecond. Moreover, the oscillation phase of the electric field of the laser pulse has to be known exactly when the probe pulse is switched on.


Keller's team performed the groundwork for the solution of these problems already in the late 1990's. "At the time we were the first to show how the oscillatory phase of a femtosecond laser pulse can be precisely stabilized", Keller explains, "which, in turn, is a prerequisite for producing attosecond laser pulses". That technique has since been refined and today allows the researchers to realize light pulses in the extreme ultraviolet, with wavelengths around 30 nanometres, that only last a fraction of a femtosecond and are also synchronized with the oscillatory phase of an infrared pulse. In their recent experiments the researchers at ETH used such a harnessed team of laser pulses to excite the electrons in the diamond with the electric field of the infrared pulse and, at the same time, to measure the resulting absorption changes with the ultraviolet attosecond pulse. They observed, indeed, that the absorption varied characteristically following the rhythm of the oscillating electric field of the infrared pulse. 

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Scientists succeed at growing human norovirus in the lab

Scientists succeed at growing human norovirus in the lab | Amazing Science |

Human noroviruses – the leading viral cause of acute diarrhea around the world – have been difficult to study because scientists had not found a way to grow them in the lab. Now, more than 40 years after Dr. Albert Kapikian identified human noroviruses as a cause of severe diarrhea, scientists at Baylor College of Medicine have, for the first time, succeeded at growing noroviruses in laboratory cultures of human intestinal epithelial cells.


This work, published today in Science, represents a major step forward in the study of human gastroenteritis viruses because it establishes a system in which a number of norovirus strains can be grown, which will allow researchers to explore and develop procedures to prevent and treat infection and to better understand norovirus biology.


“People have been trying to grow norovirus in the lab for a very long time. We tried for the last 20 years. Despite all the attempts and the success of growing other viruses, it remained a mystery why noroviruses were so hard to work with,” said senior author Dr. Mary Estes, Cullen endowed professor of human and molecular virology and microbiology at Baylor and emeritus founding director of the Texas Medical Center Digestive Diseases Center.


Noroviruses, also known as the cruise ship viruses, do not grow in laboratory cultures that traditionally support the growth of other viruses, such as transformed cells that are derived from cancerous tissues. In addition, noroviruses are species specific – human noroviruses only infect and cause disease in humans, and mouse noroviruses only do so in mice. Human noroviruses do not grow in mice or other small animal models typically used for research.


“My idea was that we had not succeeded at growing noroviruses because we didn’t have the right cell type,” said Estes. “We first showed that in patients with chronic norovirus infections, the virus could be detected in intestinal cells called enterocytes, but normal human enterocyte cells rapidly died when put into culture. A breakthrough came when we learned that Dr. Hans Clevers’ team in the Netherlands had developed a method to make a new type of human intestinal epithelial cell culture system including enterocytes. These novel, multi-cellular human cultures, called enteroids, are made from adult intestinal stem cells from patient tissues. We anticipated that putting the virus in these non-transformed human cell cultures would let the virus grow.”


“I have been working with Dr. Estes for five years trying to cultivate this virus,” said co-first author Dr. Khalil Ettayebi, senior staff scientist in Estes’s lab. “We tried many approaches but obtained only negative results until we started using the new human stem cell-derived enteroid cultures in the laboratory.”

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New Segmented Animal Virus Found

New Segmented Animal Virus Found | Amazing Science |

Although great strides have been made in cataloging viral diversity, the evolutionary mechanisms that have generated this extraordinary variety of genomic organizations are still poorly understood. This is due in part to the extensive genetic divergence that exists between most viruses with different organizations (typically present in distinct families), thus preventing meaningful sequence-based evolutionary comparisons. Occasionally, though, more recent transitions are uncovered, and analysis of these events provides insight into the macroevolution of RNA viruses.


Qin and his team reported in 2014 just such a connection between segmented and unsegmented RNA viruses by describing a segmented virus (Jingmen tick virus [JMTV]) with sequence homology to the Flaviviridae, a large family of vertebrate and invertebrate viruses (including a number of important human pathogens, e.g., Zika, yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and hepatitis C viruses) with unsegmented, positive-sense RNA genomes.


Now, a team of scientists expand upon this finding by describing a genetically distinct, segmented virus isolated from mosquitoes that also exhibits homology to viruses in the family Flaviviridae and that appears to be multicomponent (also termed multiparticle or multipartite), with each genome segment separately packaged into virions. Although multicomponent genomes are relatively common among RNA viruses that infect plants and fungi, this method of genome organization has not previously been seen in animal viruses.


This new virus has tentatively been designated Guaico Culex virus (GCXV), on the basis of the first collection location (near the Guaico community in Trinidad) and the genus of the mosquito that appears to serve as its primary host. Through phylogenetic analysis, the researchers demonstrate that GCXV and JMTV both belong to a highly diverse clade of segmented (and likely multicomponent) viruses, which has recently been termed the Jingmenvirus group. The scientists also report the detection of a variant of JMTV in a red colobus monkey in Uganda, thus expanding the host range of Jingmenviruses to include primates and highlighting the potential relevance of these viruses to animal and human health.

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Scientists just discovered a new type of eye movement we do every day

Scientists just discovered a new type of eye movement we do every day | Amazing Science |

Researchers have identified a new, distinct eye movement that we all perform on a daily basis, but never actually notice. This new movement, which is hidden by our constant blinking, helps to help stabilize the images we perceive by 'resetting' our eyes after they move around to view an object.


"We were really surprised to discover this new type of eye movement and it was not what we had anticipated from the experiment," says one of the team, Mohammad Khazali from the University of Tübingen in Germany.  "We had expected to find that another, already well-known type of eye movement is synchronised to blinking."


Khazali and his team weren’t actually looking for a new eye movement. Instead, they were trying to see if an involuntary movement called torsional optokinetic nystagmus (tOKN) happens when we blink.


tOKN occurs when a person is looking at a rotating object, causing the eye to jump directions quickly to make sense of the motion. Imagine you're looking a globe rotating on its stand. As it moves, your eyes follow a spot on the globe, then snap back to the opposite side to keep track - that's tOKN.


To figure out if this happens while we blink, the team gathered 11 subjects, connected tiny wires to their corneas, and tracked how their eyes twisted when they followed a pattern of dots.


They assumed that tOKN would frequently reset the eye’s movements back to their original spot, to avoid straining the eye muscles. But instead, they found that these 'resets' during blinking were imperfect, deviating roughly 3 to 8 degrees, depending on the subject.


Another clue that they were observing something different from tOKN was that even with the repeated resetting, the subjects’ eyes would continue to twist until the muscles were at their max. At this point, during a blink, the team observed the eye completely resetting back to its untwisted state. The movement caused the eye to stabilise, much like a video camera does to keep a level picture.


"The eye's sharpest vision is enabled by a spot on the light-sensitive sheet of the retina called the fovea and this needs to stay balanced to ensure objects of interest can be scrutinised in an optimum way," says Khazali. They’ve called this new movement blink-associated resetting movement (BARM), and have even discovered that it happens when a person isn’t even looking at a rotating object, unlike the tOKN resets.

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Lucy died 3.18 million years ago by falling from a tree

Lucy died 3.18 million years ago by falling from a tree | Amazing Science |

She’s the most famous of our distant ancestral kin and, while it’s way too late to send flowers, we now know how Lucy died some 3.18 million years ago. The most famous Australopithecus afarensis appears to have died due to injuries sustained in a fall, according to new research. But it’s not quite case closed: The proposed scenario that led to her death is fanning the flames of an old debate about how the early members of our family tree lived.


When her remains were unearthed in Ethiopia’s Afar region in 1974, Lucy kicked off a new era in the understanding of human evolution. At the time she was the oldest hominin fossil ever found. And instead of the odd jawbone, tooth or partial skull typically found by paleoanthropologists, much of Lucy’s skeleton was recovered — including enough to see she had traits handy for tree-climbing as well as for walking upright. More than 40 years on, paleoanthropologists still argue over whether she and other members of A. afarensis spent most of their time above ground or on it, walking fully upright.


The new findings, published today in Nature, don’t settle the debate. But they do add an intriguing new piece of evidence to the discussion. According to the researchers, the plausible explanation for the severe injuries Lucy suffered shortly before death is that she fell out of a tree.

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Researchers develop method to speed up detection of infectious diseases and cancer

Researchers develop method to speed up detection of infectious diseases and cancer | Amazing Science |

A team of UCLA researchers has found a way to speed and simplify the detection of proteins in blood and plasma opening up the potential for diagnosing the early presence of infectious diseases or cancer during a doctor's office visit. The new test takes about 10 minutes as opposed to two to four hours for current state-of-the-art tests.


The new approach overcame several key challenges in detecting proteins that are biomarkers of disease. First, these proteins are often at low abundance in body fluids and accurately identifying them requires amplification processes. The current approach uses enzymes to amplify the signal from proteins. However, enzymes can break down if they are not stored at proper temperatures. Also, to avoid a false positive, excess enzymes need to be washed away. This increases the complexity and cost of the test.


The study, which included researchers from the Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, the California NanoSystems Institute, and the David Geffen School of Medicine, was published online in the journal ACS Nano.

The researchers included lead author Donghyuk Kim, a UCLA post-doctoral researcher in bioengineering and Dino Di Carlo, professor of bioengineering. They collaborated with Aydogan Ozcan, Chancellor's Professor of Electrical Engineering and Bioengineering and Omai Garner, assistant professor of pathology and medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.


The UCLA team devised an approach to amplify a protein signal without any enzymes, thus eliminating the need for a complex system to wash away excess enzymes, and that would work only in the presence of the target protein. This new approach made use of a molecular chain reaction that was strongly triggered only in the presence of a target protein.


The molecular chain reaction is driven by a cycle of DNA binding events. The process begins with a DNA key divided into two parts. If the target protein is present, the two parts bind together to form a DNA complex. The formation of the DNA complex generates DNA signaling molecules, which in turn generates the same DNA complex, leading to more signaling molecules, thus propagating repeated cycles.


"By cutting the DNA 'key' into two parts, we found that each part could not catalyze or 'open' the reaction separately, but only when a protein acted as glue—essentially bridging the parts together, does the DNA key became functional again," said Kim, a member of Di Carlo's laboratory.

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Continents Split Up at the Same Speed Finger Nails Grow. And That’s Fast.

Continents Split Up at the Same Speed Finger Nails Grow. And That’s Fast. | Amazing Science |

Continents cruise in the slow lane. Moving just millimeters at a time, it took the ancient supercontinent Pangea hundreds of millions of years to break apart into today’s landmasses. But a study published Tuesday shows that the journey wasn’t always a leisurely drive. When under extreme strain, the tectonic plates hit the throttle and accelerated to speeds 20 times faster than they were traveling before.


“It’s the equivalent of moving around as a pedestrian to moving around in a very fast BMW,” said Dietmar Muller, a geophysicist at the University of Sydney and an author of the paper, which appeared in Nature. “While the continental crust was still being stretched, all of a sudden there was this amazing acceleration, and we didn’t know why.”


After analyzing seismic data from across the world and building a model, Dr. Muller and his team discovered that plates move in two distinct phases: a slow phase and a fast one. During the slow phase, the continental crusts, which can be more than 20 miles thick, are stretched out little by little while remaining connected. But then suddenly, one or both of the continents step on the gas pedal.


“A critical point is reached when the connection between the two continents becomes so weak it can no longer resist the forces trying to pull it apart,” Dr. Müller said. “This acceleration is directly related to the thinning of the crust.”


Using a computer simulation they illustrated the points in geologic history when pairs of land masses shifted speeds as they drifted apart. This is most dramatically seen between North America and Africa during Pangea’s initial rift some 240 million years ago.

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Short transient rapamycin treatment increases lifespan in mice by over 50%

Short transient rapamycin treatment increases lifespan in mice by over 50% | Amazing Science |

Old age is the single greatest risk factor for many diseases including heart disease, arthritis, cancer and dementia. By delaying the biological aging process, it may be possible to reduce the impact of age-related diseases, which could have great benefits for society and the quality of life of individuals. A drug called rapamycin, which is currently used to prevent organ rejection in transplant recipients, is a leading candidate for targeting aging. Rapamycin increases lifespan in several types of animals and delays the onset of many age-related conditions in mice.


Nearly all of the aging-related studies in mice have used the same dose of rapamycin given throughout the lives of the animals. Lifelong treatment with rapamycin wouldn’t be practical in humans and is likely to result in undesirable side effects. For example, the high doses of rapamycin used in transplant patients cause side effects including poor wound healing, elevated blood cholesterol levels, and mouth ulcers. Before rapamycin can be used to promote healthy aging in humans, researchers must better understand at what point in life the drug is most effective, and what dose to use to provide the biggest benefit while limiting the side effects.


Now, Bitto et al. show that treating mice with rapamycin for a short period during middle age increases the life expectancy of the mice by up to 60%. In the experiments, mice were given two different doses of rapamycin for only three months starting at 20 months old (equivalent to about 60-65 years old in humans). After receiving the lower dose, both male and female mice lived about 50% longer than untreated mice, and showed improvements in their muscle strength and motor coordination. When given the higher dose, male mice showed an even greater increase in life expectancy, but the female mice did not. These female mice had an increased risk of developing rare and aggressive forms of blood cancer, but were protected from other types of cancer.


Both drug treatments also caused substantial changes in the gut bacteria of the male and female mice, which could be related to effects of rapamycin on metabolism, immunity and health. More studies are needed to uncover precisely how such short-term treatments can yield long-term changes in the body, and how such changes are related to lifespan and healthy aging.

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Cancer surpasses heart disease as the leading cause of death in California

Cancer surpasses heart disease as the leading cause of death in California | Amazing Science |

ncer has surpassed heart disease as the leading cause of death in California and 21 other states, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. That total is in stark contrast to the situation at the start of this century, when only two states — Alaska and Minnesota — lost more people to cancer than heart disease. And it’s a huge departure from the situation in the 1950s, when the number of heart disease deaths was 2½ times bigger than the number of cancer fatalities.

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One-atom-thick graphene balloons can withstand enormous pressures

One-atom-thick graphene balloons can withstand enormous pressures | Amazing Science |

Small balloons made from one-atom-thick material graphene can withstand enormous pressures, much higher than those at the bottom of the deepest ocean, scientists at the University of Manchester report.


This is due to graphene's incredible strength - 200 times stronger than steel. The graphene balloons routinely form when placing graphene on flat substrates and are usually considered a nuisance and therefore ignored. The Manchester researchers, led by Professor Irina Grigorieva, took a closer look at the nano-bubbles and revealed their fascinating properties.


These bubbles could be created intentionally to make tiny pressure machines capable of withstanding enormous pressures. This could be a significant step towards rapidly detecting how molecules react under extreme pressure.


Writing in Nature Communications, the scientists found that the shape and dimensions of the nano-bubbles provide straightforward information about both graphene's elastic strength and its interaction with the underlying substrate.


The researchers found such balloons can also be created with other two-dimensional crystals such as single layers of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) or boron nitride.


They were able to directly measure the pressure exerted by graphene on a material trapped inside the balloons, or vice versa.


To do this, the team indented bubbles made by graphene, monolayer MoS2 and monolayer boron nitride using a tip of an atomic force microscope and measured the force that was necessary to make a dent of a certain size.


These measurements revealed that graphene enclosing bubbles of a micron size creates pressures as high as 200 megapascals, or 2,000 atmospheres. Even higher pressures are expected for smaller bubbles.

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Fossilized rivers suggest warm, wet ancient Mars

Fossilized rivers suggest warm, wet ancient Mars | Amazing Science |

Extensive systems of fossilized riverbeds have been discovered on an ancient region of the Martian surface, supporting the idea that the now cold and dry Red Planet had a warm and wet climate about 4 billion years ago, according to UCL-led research.


The study, published in Geology and funded by the Science & Technology Facilities Council and the UK Space Agency, identified over 17,000km of former river channels on a northern plain called Arabia Terra, providing further evidence of water once flowing on Mars.

"Climate models of early Mars predict rain in Arabia Terra and until now there was little geological evidence on the surface to support this theory. This led some to believe that Mars was never warm and wet but was a largely frozen planet, covered in ice-sheets and glaciers. We've now found evidence of extensive river systems in the area which supports the idea that Mars was warm and wet, providing a more favourable environment for life than a cold, dry planet," explained lead author, Joel Davis (UCL Earth Sciences).

Since the 1970s, scientists have identified valleys and channels on Mars which they think were carved out and eroded by rain and surface runoff, just like on Earth. Similar structures had not been seen on Arabia Terra until the team analysed high resolution imagery from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft.

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The Trouble with Hubble H0 (or not?)

The Trouble with Hubble H0 (or not?) | Amazing Science |
Theres trouble brewing in the field of cosmology, as astrophysicists attempt to understand the latest measurements of the Hubble constant.


Reporting in April 2016, I wrote about a team of astrophysicists – led by Nobel-winning astrophysicist Adam Riess – claiming a 2.4% determination of the expansion rate of our local universe. The paper claimed a significant difference in the value of H0, as compared with the Planck Collaboration value. Now, Riess and his team, Bernal and Verde, have pushed another effort describing the ‘trouble’ with H0.


Standard cosmology – the Lambda-CDM model – is robust, and with a few exceptions passed every test thrown at it. Most parameters have been constrained at a level that has error bars of ~ 1% or lower. A major observational effort has been led by astrophysicists to map the expansion history of the universe, and this is what today’s story is about.


Astrophysicists measure the expansion history of the current (or local) universe (H0) through observations of Type 1a Supernovae, gravitational lensing of quasars and similar probes. We measure the expansion history of the early universe through the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations(H of an earlier epoch), through projects like PLANCK and theSouth Pole Telescope.


But there is an interesting caveat: Expansion history is intricately linked to how we measure or understand distance scales between objects in the epoch we are analyzing. Our inhomogeneous universe is expanding, and distance scales change in a non linear fashion between the times of the CMB and now.


Over the last few years, PLANCK has given us tremendous insight into three major parameters with great statistical significance:

  1. Geometry of the universeSpatially flat, well, almost.
  2. H0 – 67.8 +- 0.9 km/s/Mpc – depends on how we interpret the properties of the current or local universe.
  3. A number called rs (in scientific jargon known as the sound horizon at drag epoch) – a derived parameter that relies on the density and the nature of different species in the early universe.


Both H0 and rs are absolutely essential in building the distance ladder in the universe, from early to current times. As mentioned before, PLANCK does these measurements using the CMB. The imprints of the first matter fluctuations embedded in the CMB – the radiation from the earliest epochs – give us an insight into the expansion history of the past. Using this information, astrophysical modeling lets us extrapolate that to the current expansion rate of the universe. In simple terms, from H at the redshift of CMB (~ 1100) we extrapolate H at present times i.e. H0. The problem is, PLANCK’s value of the extrapolated H0 doesn’t match local measurements.

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NASA probe Juno makes closest approach yet to Jupiter

NASA probe Juno makes closest approach yet to Jupiter | Amazing Science |

NASA's Juno space probe has made its closest approach yet to Jupiter during the main phase of its planned mission to the gas giant, the US space agency's officials said.


Traveling at 208,000 kilometers per hour, Juno swung within approximately 4,200 kilometers of the solar system's largest planet at 8:44pm last night (AEST), the closest any spacecraft has passed.


It was the first time Juno's eight scientific instruments and its camera were switched on, marking the science mission's start, officials said in a statement on NASA's website.

"This is our first opportunity to really take a close-up look at the king of our solar system and begin to figure out how he works," said Scott Bolton, Juno's principal investigator from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio.


Juno first swept close to Jupiter when it entered orbit around the planet early last month after a nearly five-year voyage to help study the solar system's origins. It also sent back its first images of the planet last month as well.


However, all the probe's instruments were turned off not to interfere with its positioning as it entered the 53.5-day orbit.


Juno will now be probing Jupiter's many layers to measure their composition, magnetic field and other properties. Scientists hope to learn the source of the planet's fierce winds and whether Jupiter is made entirely of gas or has a solid core. They also expect to learn more about the planet's Great Red Spot, a huge storm that has raged for thousands of years.


Jupiter at a glance...
  • Fifth planet from the Sun
  • Largest planet in the solar system with a diameter of 142,984 kilometres
  • Takes 11.86 Earth years to orbit the Sun
  • Average of 778 million kilometres distance from the Sun
  • A day lasts 10 hours.
  • Orbited by at least 67 moons


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The Anthropocene epoch: scientists declare dawn of human-influenced age

The Anthropocene epoch: scientists declare dawn of human-influenced age | Amazing Science |

Humanity’s impact on the Earth is now so profound that a new geological epoch – the Anthropocene – needs to be declared, according to an official expert group who presented the recommendation to the International Geological Congress in Cape Town on Monday.


The new epoch should begin about 1950, the experts said, and was likely to be defined by the radioactive elements dispersed across the planet by nuclear bomb tests, although an array of other signals, including plastic pollution, soot from power stations, concrete, and even the bones left by the global proliferation of the domestic chicken were now under consideration.


The current epoch, the Holocene, is the 12,000 years of stable climate since the last ice age during which all human civilisation developed. But the striking acceleration since the mid-20th century of carbon dioxide emissions and sea level rise, the global mass extinction of species, and the transformation of land by deforestation and development mark the end of that slice of geological time, the experts argue.


The Earth is so profoundly changed that the Holocene must give way to the Anthropocene. “The significance of the Anthropocene is that it sets a different trajectory for the Earth system, of which we of course are part,” said Prof Jan Zalasiewicz, a geologist at the University of Leicester and chair of the Working Group on the Anthropocene (WGA), which started work in 2009.


“If our recommendation is accepted, the Anthropocene will have started just a little before I was born,” he said. “We have lived most of our lives in something called the Anthropocene and are just realising the scale and permanence of the change.”


Prof Colin Waters, principal geologist at the British Geological Survey and WGA secretary, said: “Being able to pinpoint an interval of time is saying something about how we have had an incredible impact on the environment of our planet. The concept of the Anthropocene manages to pull all these ideas of environmental change together.”

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Climate Change Could Put Krill at Big Risk

Climate Change Could Put Krill at Big Risk | Amazing Science |

They may be small, but krill — tiny, shrimp-like creatures — play a big role in the Antarctic food chain. As climate change warms the Southern Ocean and alters sea ice patterns, though, the area of Antarctic water suitable for krill to hatch and grow could drop precipitously, a new study finds.


Most Antarctic krill are found in an area from the Weddell Sea to the waters around the Antarctic Peninsula, the finger of land that juts up toward South America. They serve as an important source of food for various species of whales, seals and penguins. While those animals find other food sources during lean years, it is unclear if those alternate sources are sustainable long-term.


Over the past 40 years, populations of adult Antarctic krill have declined by 70 to 80 percent in those areas, though researchers debate whether that drop is due to the effects of climate change, a rebound in whale populations after the end of commercial whaling or some combination of those pressures.


Because of its key role in the regional food chain, scientists are concerned about the impacts that future climate change may have on the krill population and the larger Antarctic ecosystem.


In the new study published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, Andrea Piñones and Alexey Fedorov examined how expected changes in ocean temperatures and sea ice coverage might affect krill during their earliest life stages when they are most vulnerable to environmental conditions.


Krill has a complex, regimented life cycle that requires a delicate balance of conditions. Female krill lay their eggs in the upper ocean during summer; those eggs then sink to where the water is in the right temperature range for them to hatch. Once they hatch, the krill larvae swim back to the surface waters where they must find food, in the form of phytoplankton, within 10 days or they will die.


The larvae must then eat enough food during the late summer and fall to fatten up before winter. To survive that winter, they also need sea ice to form by a certain time, as they use it for shelter, as well as feeding on the algae that dwells in the nooks and crannies of the ice.


“Even if there is a lot of a sea ice, if the sea ice is not there at the time that they need, they don’t survive,” said Piñones, who has dual appointments at the Center for Advanced Studies in Arid Zones and the High Latitude Marine Ecosystem Dynamic Center in Chile.


Piñones and Fedorov, who works at Yale University, took a krill growth model and plugged in expected ocean temperature rise from climate models, projections of how sea ice area and the timing of its growth and melt might change, and possible changes in phytoplankton to see how those changes impacted the krill during its early life stages.

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Physicists finds way to make electrons heavier and lighter at will

Physicists finds way to make electrons heavier and lighter at will | Amazing Science |

An international team of researchers – including a team from Trinity College Dublin (TCD) – has discovered what it is calling a breakthrough in fundamental physics that allows it to turn the mass of an object on or off at will.


The reasoning behind the physics of this latest breakthrough is still mystifying the researchers, led by Prof Stefano Sanvito, a principal investigator at TCD’s AMBER centre and the CRANN Institute.


After some experimentation with an exotic mineral, the team was astonished to find that, with help from an external stimulus, the object’s electron mass could be switched on or off like a light switch.


Marking the first discovery of an object whose mass can be switched on or off, it’s hoped that this will mark the starting point for new work in high-energy physics.


According to the team’s research paper, published in Nature Communications earlier this month, they had wanted to examine what happened to the current passing through the exotic material zirconium pentatelluride (ZrTe5) when exposed to a very high magnetic field.


ZrTe5 is quite unique in the sense that, in the absence of a magnetic field, the current flows easily through the mineral because the electrons responsible for the current have no mass. Yet when a magnetic field of 60 Tesla is applied – more than 1m-times more intense than our own planet’s magnetic field – the current drastically reduces, resulting in ZrTe5 acquiring mass because of ‘fattening’ electrons.


That is about as far as the team have gotten with its research into the strange phenomenon, but Sanvito has said that “like any fundamental discovery in physics, the importance is in its discovery”.


“We have demonstrated for the first time one way in which mass can be generated in a material,” he continued. “In principle, the external stimulus that enabled this, the magnetic field, could be replaced with some other stimulus and perhaps applied long-term in the development of more sophisticated sensors or actuators.”

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'Strong signal' stirs interest in hunt for alien life

'Strong signal' stirs interest in hunt for alien life | Amazing Science |
A "strong signal" detected by a radio telescope in Russia that is scanning the heavens for signs of extraterrestrial life has stirred interest among the scientific community.


"No one is claiming that this is the work of an extraterrestrial civilization, but it is certainly worth further study," said Paul Gilster, author of the Centauri Dreams website which covers peer-reviewed research on deep space exploration.


The signal in question comes from the direction of HD164595, a star about 95 light-years from Earth. The star is known to have at least one planet, and may have more. The observation is being made public now, but was actually detected last year by the RATAN-600 radio telescope in Zelenchukskaya, Russia, he said.


Experts say it is far too early to know what the signal means or where, precisely, it came from. "But the signal is provocative enough that the RATAN-600 researchers are calling for permanent monitoring of this target," wrote Gilster.


The discovery is expected to feature in discussions at the 67th International Astronautical Congress in Guadalajara, Mexico, on September 27. "Working out the strength of the signal, the researchers say that if it came from an isotropic beacon, it would be of a power possible only for a Kardashev Type II civilization," Gilster wrote, referring to a scale-system that indicates a civilization far more advanced than our own.


"If it were a narrow beam signal focused on our Solar System, it would be of a power available to a Kardashev Type I civilization," indicating one closer to Earth's capabilities. Gilster, who broke the story on August 27, said he had seen a presentation on the matter from Italian astronomer Claudio Maccone. "Permanent monitoring of this target is needed," said the presentation.


Nick Suntzeff, a Texas A&M University astronomer told the online magazine Ars Technica that the 11 gigahertz signal was observed in part of the radio spectrum used by the military. "If this were a real astronomical source, it would be rather strange," Suntzeff was quoted as saying.


"God knows who or what broadcasts at 11Ghz, and it would not be out of the question that some sort of bursting communication is done between ground stations and satellites," Suntzeff said. "I would follow it if I were the astronomers, but I would also not hype the fact that it may be at SETI signal given the significant chance it could be something military."

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New nanomaterial combines attributes of both batteries and supercapacitors

New nanomaterial combines attributes of both batteries and supercapacitors | Amazing Science |


A powerful new material developed by Northwestern University chemist William Dichtel and his research team could one day speed up the charging process of electric cars and help increase their driving range.


An electric car currently relies on a complex interplay of both batteries and supercapacitors to provide the energy it needs to go places, but that could change. “Our material combines the best of both worlds -- the ability to store large amounts of electrical energy or charge, like a battery, and the ability to charge and discharge rapidly, like a supercapacitor,” said Dichtel, a pioneer in the young research field of covalent organic frameworks (COFs).


Dichtel and his research team have combined a COF -- a strong, stiff polymer with an abundance of tiny pores suitable for storing energy -- with a very conductive material to create the first modified redox-active COF that closes the gap with other older porous carbon-based electrodes.


“COFs are beautiful structures with a lot of promise, but their conductivity is limited,” Dichtel said. “That’s the problem we are addressing here. By modifying them -- by adding the attribute they lack -- we can start to use COFs in a practical way.”


And modified COFs are commercially attractive: COFs are made of inexpensive, readily available materials, while carbon-based materials are expensive to process and mass-produce.


Dichtel, the Robert L. Letsinger Professor of Chemistry at the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, is presenting his team’s findings in a paper published by the journal ACS Central Science.

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Astronomers say we could be just 10 years away from finding alien life

Astronomers say we could be just 10 years away from finding alien life | Amazing Science |
Astronomers have discovered three Earth-sized exoplanets, all orbiting the same star (TRAPPIST-1) just 40 light-years from us.


The scientists determined that all three planets are potentially habitable based on their size and temperature. Now, the same team has discovered that the two innermost planets are rocky and have compact atmospheres, making them less like the hostile planet of Jupiter and more like the rocky planets of Earth, Venus, and Mars. This makes the prospect of life lurking in these faraway worlds even stronger. The researchers published their results today in Nature.


The findings were made just two days after the team announced that it had found the planetary system. Systems like this are promising places to detect alien life, Michaël Gillon, lead author of the paper presenting the discovery, said in an ESO press release .


The host star is an ultra-cool dwarf star — a type of cool, red star. Most of the time these stars are too small and faint to be detected by optical telescopes, and this star is no exception.

"Why are we trying to detect Earth-like planets around the smallest and coolest stars in the solar neighborhood? The reason is simple: systems around these tiny stars are the only places where we can detect life on an Earth-sized exoplanet with our current technology,” Gillon said.


Because of their closeness to the star, the two innermost planets are likely tidally locked, with one side always facing the star and the other always facing away. Although the sides facing the star would be too hot to host any lifeforms and the sides facing away would be too cold and dark, the planets might contain "sweet spots." If the planets have atmospheres or even possibly oceans, heat from the star might be more evenly distributed, creating regions that just might be suitable for life.


To further investigate the promising planets, the researchers pointed NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope at TRAPPIST-1 just in time to catch a double transit, which is when two planets pass in front of the same star at almost the same time. "We thought, maybe we could see if people at Hubble would give us time to do this observation, so we wrote the proposal in less than 24 hours, sent it out, and it was reviewed immediately," Julien de Wit, a postdoc in MIT's Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, said in an MIT press release. "Now for the first time we have spectroscopic observations of a double transit, which allows us to get insight on the atmosphere of both planets at the same time."


The dips in starlight that occurred when the planets crossed in front of the star indicated that the planets have compact atmospheres, which are more suitable to life. "We can say that these planets are rocky. Now the question is, what kind of atmosphere do they have?" de Wit said. "The plausible scenarios include something like Venus, where the atmosphere is dominated by carbon dioxide, or an Earth-like atmosphere with heavy clouds, or even something like Mars with a depleted atmosphere.


The next step is to try to disentangle all these possible scenarios that exist for these terrestrial planets."

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Goldilocks zone alone not sufficient for search of habitable planets

Goldilocks zone alone not sufficient for search of habitable planets | Amazing Science |

For decades, it has been thought that the key factor in determining whether a planet can support life was its distance from its sun. In our solar system, for instance, Venus is too close to the sun and Mars is too far, but Earth is just right. That distance is what scientists refer to as the "habitable zone," or the "Goldilocks zone."

It also was thought that planets were able to self-regulate their internal temperature via mantle convection—the underground shifting of rocks caused by internal heating and cooling. A planet might start out too cold or too hot, but it would eventually settle into the right temperature.

A new study, appearing in the journal Science Advances, suggests that simply being in the habitable zone isn't sufficient to support life. A planet also must start with an internal temperature that is just right.

"If you assemble all kinds of scientific data on how Earth has evolved in the past few billion years and try to make sense out of them, you eventually realize that mantle convection is rather indifferent to the internal temperature," said Jun Korenaga, author of the study and professor of geology and geophysics at Yale. Korenaga presents a general theoretical framework that explains the degree of self-regulation expected for mantle convection and suggests that self-regulation is unlikely for Earth-like planets.

"The lack of the self-regulating mechanism has enormous implications for planetary habitability," Korenaga said. "Studies on planetary formation suggest that planets like Earth form by multiple giant impacts, and the outcome of this highly random process is known to be very diverse."

Such diversity of size and internal temperature would not hamper planetary evolution if there was self-regulating mantle convection, Korenaga said. "What we take for granted on this planet, such as oceans and continents, would not exist if the internal temperature of Earth had not been in a certain range, and this means that the beginning of Earth's history cannot be too hot or too cold."

The NASA Astrobiology Institute supported the research. Korenaga is a co-investigator of the NASA "Alternative Earths" team, which is organized around the principle of understanding how the Earth has maintained a persistent biosphere through most of its history, how the biosphere manifests in "biosignatures" on a planetary scale, and how reconstructing this history can inform the search for life within and beyond the solar system.

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Researchers Discover How Zika Virus Causes Fetal Brain Damage

Researchers Discover How Zika Virus Causes Fetal Brain Damage | Amazing Science |
According to a team of researchers led by Yale University, infection by the Zika virus diverts a key protein necessary for neural cell division in the developing human fetus.


Marco Onorati et al. describe the derivation and characterization, including single-cell RNA-seq, of neocortical and spinal cord neuroepithelial stem (NES) cells to model early human neurodevelopment and Zika virus (ZIKV)-related neuropathogenesis. By analyzing human NES cells, organotypic fetal brain slices, and a ZIKV-infected micrencephalic brain, the team shows that ZIKV infects both neocortical and spinal NES cells as well as their fetal homolog, radial glial cells (RGCs), causing disrupted mitoses, supernumerary centrosomes, structural disorganization, and cell death. ZIKV infection of NES cells and RGCs causes centrosomal depletion and mitochondrial sequestration of phospho-TBK1 during mitosis.


The scientists also found that nucleoside analogs inhibit ZIKV replication in NES cells, protecting them from ZIKV-induced pTBK1 relocalization and cell death. They established a model system of human neural stem cells to reveal cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental defects associated with ZIKV infection and its potential treatment.

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Harvard researchers pinpoint enzyme (RIPK1) that triggers cell demise in ALS

Harvard researchers pinpoint enzyme (RIPK1) that triggers cell demise in ALS | Amazing Science |

Scientists from Harvard Medical School (HMS) have identified a key instigator of nerve cell damage in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, a progressive and incurable neurodegenerative disorder.


Researchers say the findings of their study, published Aug. 5 in the journal Science, may lead to new therapies to halt the progression of the uniformly fatal disease that affects more than 30,000 Americans. One such treatment is already under development for testing in humans after the current study showed it stopped nerve cell damage in mice with ALS.


The onset of ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is marked by the gradual degradation and eventual death of neuronal axons, the slender projections on nerve cells that transmit signals from one cell to the next. The HMS study reveals that the aberrant behavior of an enzyme called RIPK1 (receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 1) damages neuronal axons by disrupting the production of myelin, the soft, gel-like substance that envelopes axons to insulate them from injury.


“Our study not only elucidates the mechanism of axonal injury and death but also identifies a possible protective strategy to counter it by inhibiting the activity of RIPK1,” said the study’s senior investigator, Junying Yuan, the Elizabeth D. Hay Professor of Cell Biology at HMS.


The new findings come on the heels of a series of pivotal discoveries Yuan and colleagues made over the last decade, which revealed RIPK1 as a key regulator of inflammation and cell death. But until now, scientists were unaware of its role in axonal demise and ALS. Experiments conducted in mice and in human ALS cells reveal that when RIPK1 is out of control, it can spark axonal damage by setting off a chemical chain reaction that culminates in stripping the protective myelin off axons and triggering axonal degeneration — the hallmark of ALS.


RIPK1, the researchers found, inflicts damage by directly attacking the body’s myelin production plants — nerve cells known as oligodendrocytes, which secrete the soft substance, rich in fat and protein, that wraps around axons to support their function and shield them from damage. Building on previous work from Yuan’s lab showing that RIPK1’s activity could be blocked by a chemical called necrostatin-1, the research team tested how ALS cells in lab dishes would respond to the same treatment. Indeed, necrostatin-1 tamed the activity of RIPK1 in cells of mice genetically altered to develop ALS.

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Organic Farms Yield 20% Fewer Crops than Conventional Farms and No Healthier Food

Organic Farms Yield 20% Fewer Crops than Conventional Farms and No Healthier Food | Amazing Science |

People buy organic food for many different reasons, most of which are factually incorrect. Quite possibly the biggest myth about organic food is that it is grown without pesticides. That is simply untrue. Others have been led to believe that organic food is healthier and tastier* than conventionally grown food. Those myths have also been busted. Another justification for organic food is that it is more sustainable and environmentally friendly. Those myths, too, already have been exposed, but a new paper inPLoS ONE puts another nail into the coffin.


The authors obtained data from crop yield surveys conducted by the USDA in 2014. To control for the influence of geography, they paired the data so that crop yields could only be compared for farmers who lived in the same state. (For example, organic grape growers in Washington State could only be compared with conventional grape growers who also farmed in Washington.) What did they find?


As suspected, organic farms are not as productive as conventional ones. In fact, the overall average is that organic farming produces 20% fewer crops.

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Gravitational waves will bring the extreme universe into view – Daniel Hoak | Aeon Ideas

The first direct detection of gravitational waves on 14 September 2015 proved that massive objects can ripple the structure of space, verifying a key prediction of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity. The second detection, made on 26 December 2015 and announced this June, firmly established gravitational waves as a new window to the Universe. But even more exciting are the detections yet to come: the thousands of signals that should soon be observed by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo experiments. They will transform our understanding of black holes, neutron stars, supernova explosions, and perhaps even the origin and fate of the cosmos itself.


Changes to the fields of physics and astronomy are already being felt. The two events reported so far have significantly increased the number of known stellar-mass black holes, and have demonstrated that black holes can form tight pairs and merge violently within the lifetime of the Universe; such mergers are the inferred cause of the September 14 and December 26 signals. Drawing on data from those two events, my colleagues in the LIGO and Virgo collaborations have tested general relativity in novel ways, far outside our terrestrial experience. And we have shown that black holes collide more often than expected, which has lead some researchers to speculate that black holes might be abundant enough to qualify as a variety of dark matter.


As with any new observational tool, the most important discoveries from the new detectors will surely be the ones that are unexpected. But we also have a good sense of the amazing things that the gravitational universe will tell us, even in the absence of surprises.


We can be certain that we will detect many more merging pairs of black holes comparable to the two already detected. The current instruments are about three times less sensitive than their full potential. At their ultimate sensitivity, the two LIGO detectors (in Louisiana and Washington state) and the Virgo experiment (near Pisa in Italy) will register dozens to hundreds of black-hole events per year. This large sample will yield a detailed census of black holes, and will allow astronomers to characterize their population all across the Universe, evaluating theories of how they form.


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