Alvin
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Lost in the Sky, Found in the Sea

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This article detailed Alvin's adventure of finding the lost B28FI Thermonuclear bomb that had fell from the sky into the Mediterranean Sea after the B-52 Stratofortress, carrying four of these bombs, exploded over the southeastern coast of Spain in 1966. On March 15, Alvin found the bomb 2,550 feet below the surface in the murky darkness. After it was found, ALvin and another submersible "Aluminaut" took turns trying to attach lifting lines to the parachute to raise it to the surface. In fear it would slide further down the 70-degree slope where it laid, an attempt was made to lift it. With only a single nylon line attached to the parachute and bomb, after an hour of reeling in the line, the bomb was 50 ft below the surface. However, a LCM-8 ["Mike Boat"] broke from its mooring post and hurtled across the deck and in the chaos the lifting line snapped and the bomb plummeted back into the depths. On April 2, nine days after the line had snapped, the bomb was relocated, 120 yards from its original position, in  2,800 feet of water. This time, however, CURV (Cable-controlled Undersea Recovery Vehicle) was used to attach the grappling lines. On April 7, the bomb was successfully lifted to the surface of the USS Albany (CG-10).

*The viewing of this bomb was the first and last display of a nuclear bomb.*

"Seven lives had been lost, a sailor seriously injured, and two aircraft destroyed, but after 80 days the sea had surrendered her prize."

 

--I plan to use this article in support of one of my sub-topics about one of Alvin's more famous feats of finding the Air Force's lost H-bomb.--

 

Pierson, David S. "Lost In The Sky Founds In The Sea." Naval History 23.3 (2009): 50. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.

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NOAA Ocean Explorer: Technology: Submersibles: Alvin

NOAA Ocean Explorer: Technology: Submersibles: Alvin | Alvin | Scoop.it
Haley Olsen's insight:

This article presents general information about Alvin including, his physical specs, technological specs. It summarizes his history and the dives he has been on. It also touches on his organization and other features explaining how many dives he makes per year, what he does during those dives, and how he is deployed.

 

--I will use this article throughout my entire paper because it is general information about Alvin. I will use the summarizations of his history to support my subtopics on the adventures Alvin has had.--

 

NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. “Alvin.” U.S. Department of Commerce, April 16, 2013. Web. 4 Nov 2013

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Exploring The Global Mid-Ocean Ridge : Oceanus Magazine -

Exploring The Global Mid-Ocean Ridge : Oceanus Magazine - | Alvin | Scoop.it
There is a natural tendency in scientific investigations for increased specialization. Most important advances are made by narrowing focus and building on the broad foundation of earlier, more general research.
Haley Olsen's insight:

This article explores Project FAMOUS, the late 1900's attempt to explore the mid ocean ridge using deep-sea submersibles. Alvin is presented as an invaluable tool during the project and how his contributions revealed ground breaking information. The use of Alvin and France's bathyscape 'Archimede' and submersible 'Cyana' proved the worth of submersibles as scientific tools. As a result of Alvin's success during Project FAMOUS, he went on to make more revolutionary discoveries like his dive to the Galapagos Rift. 

 

--I will use this article as my main source for my subtopic paragraph on "Alvin's contributions to Project FAMOUS".--

 

Macdonald, Ken C. "Exploring the Global Mid-Ocean Ridge." Oceanus Magazine. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1 Mar. 1998. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.

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History of Alvin : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

History of Alvin : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Alvin | Scoop.it
The dream of building a manned deep ocean research submersible first started to move toward reality on February 29, 1956.
Haley Olsen's insight:

"The History of Alvin" is a very long article that details, year by year, the history of Alvin and the famous and historical dives he has been on, the unfortuntae events that befell him, and where he has been in the last few years. Some of his more notable years were in 1966 when he found an H-bomb the air force had lost, 1968 when his cradle support cables failed and sank to the bottom of the ocean in 5,000 feet of water and 1969 when he was recovered, 1974 and Project FAMOUS, and 1977 when he vistied the Galapagos Rift and discovered hydrothermal vents. It overviews the maintenance and repairs on Alvin throughout the years and his journies in assisting other submersibles. And in 2011-2012, the two-year period in which Alvin was completely disassembled and upgraded with new improvements was summarized. 

 

--Key points in this long article will be used throughout my paper to enhance and augment my current subtopics. There is so much information in this article that it will be very useful throughout my whole paper and also the information I learned, I think, will help me in my final presentation.--

 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Insitution. “History of Alvin.”  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, March 1, 2012. Web. 4 Nov 2013

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Dive, Dive, Dive

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Haley Olsen's insight:

This article goes into detail about the new technologies countries around the world are investigating. New submersibles are being developed with better technology, longer battery, better windows, and more spacious. Japan with their Shinkai 6500, for example, Russia's MIR I and II, and COMRA's (China) ambitious goals to outdo all other countries, are some of the countries competing to come up with the new and improved “Alvin”. The article also previews the American engineer's Graham Hawkes, plan to design a complete new concept for deep-sea submersibles with his Deep Flight II.

 

"This article will be used for my subtopic paragraph about the plans and ideas other countries have on the future of deep-sea exploration and the replacement for Alvin.--

 

Fildes, Jonathan, New Scientist, 02624079, 9/17/2005, Vol. 187, Issue 2517

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Ships & Technology used during the Titanic Expeditions : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Ships & Technology used during the Titanic Expeditions : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Alvin | Scoop.it
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Haley Olsen's insight:

Ships & Technology used during the Titanic Expedition summarizes Alvin's contribution to discovering the RMS Titanic ship wreck and the other vehicles and technology that was used. It details Alvin's tech specs and capabilities such as; four hours of "bottom time", 12 inch viewports, four video cameras, lights and the ability to carry 1000 lbs of gear. 

 

--I plan to use this article to support my subplot of Alvin's discovery of the RMS Titanic. I will use the specifications outlined to help readers envision Alvin's exact contributions."

 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. “Ships & Technologies used in the Titanic Expeditions.” Woods Hole Georgraphic Institution, March 1, 2012. Web. 4 Nov 2013

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Deeper-Diving Human Occupied Submersible to Replace Alvin : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Deeper-Diving Human Occupied Submersible to Replace Alvin : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Alvin | Scoop.it
Haley Olsen's insight:

This article goes into detail of the new developments Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the NSF have in mind for the submersible that will replace Alvin. Some of the features include, new communication technology, capability of reaching 99% of the seafloor to depths of 6,500 meters (21,230) feet, a faster descent speed, more windows, heavier capacity load, and improved sensors, tools and data collection systems to name a few. 

 

--I will use parts of this article to support my subtopic 'United States' replacement for Alvin'.--

 

            Dawicki, Shelley. “Deeper-Diving Human Occupied Submersible to Replace Alvin.” Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. August 6, 2004. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.

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From Alvin to Robots: Deep Changes in Ocean Science

From Alvin to Robots: Deep Changes in Ocean Science | Alvin | Scoop.it
Ocean technology has come a long ways since the submersible Alvin made its first dive in 1964. Increasingly, scientists rely on robots, rather than manned subs like Alvin, to explore the earth's depths.
Haley Olsen's insight:

The article "Alvin's Replacement: From Alvin to Robots" talks about how the future of deep sea exploration may be in the hands of robots and that human interaction with the deep ocean is becoming unnecessary. It also touches on the "thrill of exploration" and how using robots to explore the depths instead of humans is taking out "the fun of it". Even though using robot operated deep sea exploration vehicles is much more cost-effective and convenient when compared to using its human-occupied cousin, the demand to make the switch is still in question.

 

--I will use key points in this article to support my subtopics of "Us' Alvin Replacement" and "Other Countries Submersible Plans"--

 

Standen, Amy. "From Alvin to Robots: Deep Changes in Ocean Science." QUEST the Science of Sustainability. National Science Foundation, 22 June 2012. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.

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Going Deep

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Haley Olsen's insight:

This article summarizes the missions completed by Alvin. It details his trip to the Galapagos Islands where hydrothermal vents and a whole new ecosystem were discovered. The successful discovery of the RMS Titanic and a hydrogen bomb the Air force accidentally lost in 1966. And the plans to create the Alvin II with improved technology and the ability to go deeper.

 

Wilson, Jim. Popular Mechanics; Nov2004, Vol. 181 Issue 11, p30-32, 2p, 2 Color Photographs

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Oceanographers discover deep sea vents and strange life-forms

Haley Olsen's insight:

This article explains the 1977 journey Alvin took in the Pacific Ocean near the Galapagos Islands when hydrothermal vents were discovered. The dive discovered biological communities near these vents that were getting their nutrients from the dissolved minerals that come out of the vents. High concentrations of "sulfide" were found in the water that was sampled. And the clams and worms that were examined from this area contained a bacteria that uses dissolved sulfide as the basis of their biochemistry. Scientists have continued to try to understand how the organisms in the deep sea find their way to new hot-water vents. 

 

--I will use this article for my subtopic paragraph "Hydrothermal Vents Discovery" and explain Alvin's contribution to the 1977 dive.--

 

Great Scientific Achievements. "Oceanographers Discover Deep-Sea Vents And Strange Life-Forms." Great Scientific Achievements. 946. US: Salem Press, 1999. History Reference Center. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.

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