The world's population is expected to grow from today's 6 billion to about 8 billion by 2030. Feeding all of these people and eliminating hunger will require advances in food production and distribution that enhance food supplies without damaging the environment. Agricultural biotechnology is one tool that holds great promise for alleviating hunger and poverty. However recent concerns about genetically modified crops may curtail their widespread use. Transgenic Plants and World Agriculture, a new white paper issued by a working group of seven national science academies, including five from the developing world, examines the potential for genetically modified crops to assist developing countries, and the issues that need to be addressed.