Almanac Pests
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Almanac Pests
Plant pests of current importance (potential or existing risk for the European region)
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HSVd; National Clonal Germplasm Repository (Corvallis, Oregon)

HSVd; National Clonal Germplasm Repository (Corvallis, Oregon) | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

NCGR Humulus Catalogs

16 Aug 2010 – Hop Stunt Viroid is spreading in the Pacific Northwest, and only HSVd tested accessions are available for distribution unless special arrangements are made with the curator at NCGR-Corvallis.

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Standing Committee on Plant Health, report OCT 2011

Slovenia informed the Committee of their national emergency measures for Hop stunt viroid (HSV). Observation of first symptoms dates back to 2007.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION
HEALTH AND CONSUMERS DIRECTORATE-GENERAL Brussels, SANCO G (2011) 1418728

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Characterization of Heterodera zeae populations from Portugal

Correia FJS, Abrantes IM de O (2005). Characterization of Heterodera zeae populations from Portugal. Journal of Nematology 37, 328-335.

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"Identification of Cyst Nematodes of Agronomic and Regulatory Concern w" by Allen L. Szalanski, Dezhi D. Sui et al.

The first internally transcribed spacer region (ITS1) from cyst nematode species (Heteroderidae) was compared by nuc.leotide sequencing and PCR-RFLP.

Published in Journal of Nematology (1997) 29 (3) :255-267

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Corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae)

Corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it
Invasive Species: any species of insects, animals, plants and pathogens, including its seeds, eggs, spores, or other biological material capable of propagating that species, that is not native to that ecosystem; and whose introduction does or is likely...
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Nematode Pests of Crops in India - cyst nematodes

M. R. Khan, Department connected with Agricultural Entomology, India:

Cyst nematodes are harmful organisms; cereal cyst nematode may be the causal affected individual of any severe ailment popularly often known as molya sickness regarding wheat and also barley...


Corn cyst nematode is not mentioned as a hramful organism in India.

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Nemaplex Search Engine - Heterodera zeae

Database search (Ferris, 1999): Search for documents in Nemaplex that contain specific words or combinations of words.

Heterodera zeae: Nemaplex Search Engine gives results on: classification, distribution, feeding, hosts, life cycle, damage and references.


Nickle, W.R. (ed). 1991. Manual of Agricultural Nematology, Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Luc, M., R.A. Sikora and J. Bridge. 1990. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture, CAB International Institute of Parasitology

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Q&A with the leaders of Bayer CropScience - Farm Industry News

Farm Industry News, Moore M. (2012): Bayer CropScience has a very strong trait pipeline with some unique and important traits, including traits for multiple herbicide tolerances, insect resistance and a promising technology for soybean cyst nematode control.

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EPPO's work on emerging pests

EPPO's work on emerging pests | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) hosted a network of experts from the European and Mediterranean region. The technical work is organized in the EPPO Panels of experts, who are nominated by their National Plant Protection Organizations.


The Panel on Phytosanitary Measures met in Paris in the EPPO headquarters on 2011-04-05/08. The main task of this Panel is to evaluate risks presented by specific pests and design phytosanitary measures to avoid their introduction and spread. The Panel reviewed the EPPO Alert List whose purpose is to warn countries about possible new risks, and in certain cases to propose candidates for pest risk analysis (PRA) and eventually regulation. The Panel suggested emerging pests that could be added to the Alert List, e.g. Apriona species (A. japonica, A. germari, and A. cinerea),  Glyphodes pyloalis, Hosta Virus X, maize redness, Trichodorus cedarus, Heterodera zeae.


After rewieving conclusions of other panels and literature search the EPPO Secretariat has established, that the risk of introduction of Trichodorus cedarus and Diaphania indica into the region is not significant, while for the other suggestions risk assessment is still ongoing. Under this topic the most interesting results of literature search on the specified hramful organisms are collected.

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Crop Protection Compendium

CAB Direct:  Selected sections for: Heterodera zeae (corn cyst nematode)
Identity, Taxonomic Tree, Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature, Description, Distribution, Distribution Table, Hosts/Species Affected, Host Plants and Other Plants Affected, Growth Stages, Symptoms, List of Symptoms/Signs, Biology and Ecology, Plant Trade, Natural enemies, Impact, Detection and Inspection, Prevention and Control, References, Images.


CAB Direct contains over 9 million bibliographic and full text applied life science articles hand picked by our team of experts and updated weekly.

(Allows a user to log on to the site using a username and password)

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Corn Cyst Nematode (Heterodera zeae) - basic data

IDENTITY
Name: Heterodera zeae Koshy, Swarup & Sethi
EPPO Code: HETDZE
Synonyms: none
Taxonomic position: Animalia: Nematoda: Tylenchida: Heteroderidae
Common names: corn cyst nematode (en), nématode à kystes du maïs (fr), nematóide de cisto de milho (pt)

Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature: none

EPPO status: Alert list candidate 2012


HOSTS

H. zeae is known to attack maize Zea mays. Minor hosts are other species of Poaceae (Gramineae): barley (Hordeum vulgare), teosinte (Zea mexicana), millet (Setaria indica), oat (Avena sativa), rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), sugar cane (Saccharum sp.), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and several weed species.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

H. zeae is widespread in subtropical and tropical Asia. It is quarantine pest for Brazil and Jordan. H. zeae is present in:


America: USA (restricted distribution: Maryland first record in 1981, Virginia first record in 1993, both have official measures in place)
Asia: India (reported in 1991: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Harayana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, ) Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand
Africa: Egypt (Nile valley)
Europe: Portugal (Correia & Abrantes, 2002)


Correia FJS, Abrantes IM de O (2002). Morphobiometrical and biochemical characterisation of Heterodera zeae Portuguese populations. Nematology 4, 243-244.

EPPO (2011) PQR - EPPO database on quarantine pests (available online). http://www.eppo.int

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Maize diseases and approaches to their management in India

Maize diseases and approaches to their management in India | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

Payak & Sharma (1985). Maize diseases and approaches to their management in India. Tropical Pest Management: Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 302-310.


DOI:10.1080/09670878509371006

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Corn Cyst Nematode, Heterodera zeae, identity

Heterodera zeae was first described from India by Koshy et al. where it is widely distributed. It has also been reported from Pakistan, the Nile Valley, Egypt, and Maryland in the USA In Maryland, it is found primarily in heavy silty-clay soils and population densities are usually sparse with 1-10 cysts/250 cu. cm soil. Although the corn cyst nematode could be indigenous to all of these areas, its apparently narrow distribution in the western hemisphere suggests recent introduction

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Controlling Soybean Cyst Nematode

Can soybean cyst nematode managment facts apply to corn cyst nematode, too?


ARextension: The Soybean Cyst Nematode. It is a major player in production, and there have been millions of dollars lost to this nematode. The Soybean Cyst Nematode has a very narrow host range. Soybean and a few weeds are about all that will allow this nematode to complete its life cycle. So it's a problem because we grow almost four million acres of soybeans. We've created an environment where this nematode is successful.

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Wormula

Tahasicuofi's channel: "Watch out for Wormula, a plant sucking scoundrel the world over. You can't see it, you can't hear it, but it's there... slithering through the soil smaller than your eye can catch--thousands of wormulas: sneaking into roots, snacking on their sap."

The following nematode root parasites and their hosts are briefly presented:

Sting Nematode: Belonolaimus sp. (sorghum, soybeans, also vegetable crops)

Root Knot Nematode: Meloidogyne javanica (nearly all cultivated plants)

Needle Nematode: Longidorus africanus (polyphagous)

Lesion Nematode: Pratylenchus penetrans

Soybean Cyst Nematode: Heterodera glycines (soyabean)

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Corn Nematodes | Maumee Valley Agriculture and Natural Resources

Corn Nematodes | Maumee Valley Agriculture and Natural Resources | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

What is an impact in the current areas of distribution?


LaBarge G., Fulton County, USA: First we need to recognize “corn nematodes” are different from soybean cyst nematode in a big way. SCN is a single species while “corn nematodes” are actually a list of 28 species with 10-12 species considered important.

Iowa State has a good Certified Crop Advisor Module on corn nematodes on-line. Quick facts on corn nematodes and results of the Illinois State Survey can be found trough Ohio State University pages.

The purpose of the corn nematode survey was to help understand the potential for corn yield loss due to nematodes in Illinois (Niblack, 2010). 


Most every field in Iowa has some corn nematodes, but not necessarily at damaging levels. Two corn nematode species, the sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) and the needle nematode (Longidorus), only occur in soils with greater than 70 percent sand. Many instances of damage by corn nematodes are small reductions in yield and such yield loss may be difficult to detect. There is a corn cyst nematode that is somewhat akin to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), which thoroughly infests Iowa and the Midwest. But currently, the corn cyst nematode isn’t really a concern or eminent threat to corn production in the Midwest (Tylka, 2012). 

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New corn seed treatment will fight nematodes - WJBC News

What management options exist?


WJBC News, Muehling C. (2012): New corn seed treatment will fight nematodes. Researchers have known about nematodes in corn fields for 50 or 60 years. Most of them are native to prairie soils. Work was done to learn more through the 1980′s primarily in Midwestern states. The only options are through seed treatments and genetics, and currently there is no genetic resistance to the nematodes found in Illinois.

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