A survey of 238 golf courses in 10 states of the western United States found root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in 60% of the putting greens sampled. Sequence and phylogenetic molecular analyses were used to identify specimens from 110 golf courses. The most common species, Meloidogyne naasi, was found in 58 golf courses distributed from Southern California to Washington in the coastal or cooler areas of those states. In the warmer regions of the Southwest, M. marylandi was recovered from 38 golf courses and M. graminis from 11 golf courses. Two golf courses in Washington were infested with M. minor, which is the first record of this nematode in the Western Hemisphere. Columbia root-knot nematode, M. chitwoodi, was found in a single golf course in California.
McClure MA, Nischwitz C, Skantar AM, Schmitt ME, Subbotin SA (2012) Root-Knot Nematodes in Golf Course Greens of the Western United States.- Plant Disease Volume 96, Number 5 Pages 635-647 http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-11-0808