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Almanac Pests
Plant pests of current importance (potential or existing risk for the European region)
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Tuin & Landschap | Anoplophora chinensis demarcated areas

Tuin & Landschap | Anoplophora chinensis demarcated areas | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

After finding of Anoplophora chinensis in the Netherlands, the official service  demarcated areas and implemented eradication measures in: Boskoop, Westland, Maasland, Krimpen, Hoofddorp and Delft. Young tree producing companies that are located in the demarcated areas, where East Asian longhorn beetle was found, demand compensation. Eradication measures in demarcated areas are defined by Commission decision 2012/138/EC. Only in Boskoop area, 160 registered companies are affected by phytosanitary measures. The Dutch official service has found 65 high risk locations like wood packing companies in these areas and inspected host plants at several houndreds of sites in last year with the aim to early detect newly infested trees and eradicate the introduced insect species.


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Golden nematode still has North Fork potato farms under quarantine

Golden nematode still has North Fork potato farms under quarantine | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

The golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) is a microscopic cyst-producing worm that mainly infects potatoes and tomatoes. The USDA considers the nematode “potentially more dangerous than any of the insects and diseases affecting the potato industry.

Despite the original article states that this nematode is the main pest in Europe, it is actually regulated quarantine pest in European Union. The potato cyst nematode control directive regulates survey, testing and measures in production, processing and trade to prevent the spread of potato cyst nematodes.

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A Viroid Resembling Hop Stunt Viroid in Grapevines from Europe, the United States and Japan

A viroid (GV) was isolated from grapevines recently introduced into Japan from France, West Germany, Austria, Hungary and U.S.A., as well as from those cultivated in Japan. It was detected in 28 out of 32 (88%) grapevines tested. The isolates of GV had similar host ranges and induced symptoms in cucumber plants identical to those induced by hop stunt viroid (HSV).

The result indicates that GV is a grapevine isolate of HSV and suggests that grapevines were the source of hop stunt disease in Japan.

Sano et al. (1986) A Viroid Resembling Hop Stunt Viroid in Grapevines from Europe, the United States and Japan.- J Gen Virol August 1986 vol. 67 no. 8 1673-1678

doi: 10.1099/0022-1317-67-8-1673

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EPPO Panel on PRA Development meeting

EPPO Panel on PRA Development meeting | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

Via @EPPOnews: EPPO Panel on PRA Development meeting is taking place this week from the 24th to 26th of January 2012 in Paris (FR). The EPPO Secretariat is hosting national experts from Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Russian Federation, Spain and the UK. An expert from European Food Safety Agency is attending the Panel as an observer.

The objective of the meeting is to test the draft scheme for Express Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) on 4 case study species:

- Aproceros leucopoda (forest pest, EPPO Alert list status)
- Neoleucinodes elegantalis (tomato pest, a candidate for EPPO Alert list status)
- Heterodera zeae (nematode on maize, a candidate for EPPO Alert list status)
- Acidovorax citrulli (bacterium on cucurbits, EPPO Alert list status).


The results of literature searches on these 4 plant pests are going to be published under this topic.

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EPPO's work on emerging pests

EPPO's work on emerging pests | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) hosted a network of experts from the European and Mediterranean region. The technical work is organized in the EPPO Panels of experts, who are nominated by their National Plant Protection Organizations.


The Panel on Phytosanitary Measures met in Paris in the EPPO headquarters on 2011-04-05/08. The main task of this Panel is to evaluate risks presented by specific pests and design phytosanitary measures to avoid their introduction and spread. The Panel reviewed the EPPO Alert List whose purpose is to warn countries about possible new risks, and in certain cases to propose candidates for pest risk analysis (PRA) and eventually regulation. The Panel suggested emerging pests that could be added to the Alert List, e.g. Apriona species (A. japonica, A. germari, and A. cinerea),  Glyphodes pyloalis, Hosta Virus X, maize redness, Trichodorus cedarus, Heterodera zeae.


After rewieving conclusions of other panels and literature search the EPPO Secretariat has established, that the risk of introduction of Trichodorus cedarus and Diaphania indica into the region is not significant, while for the other suggestions risk assessment is still ongoing. Under this topic the most interesting results of literature search on the specified hramful organisms are collected.

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EFSA: Plant health risk assessment

EFSA: Plant health risk assessment | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

EFSA is the EU risk assessment body for food and feed safety, including risk assessment of organisms hramful to plants with regard to their introduction into European Union and their spread within EU and its Member States.

 

On 19th of March, 2012 the third meeting of EFSA’s Scientific Network for Risk Assessment in Plant Health met in Parma to discuss pertinent issues in pest risk assessment on a national and European level. The aim of the network, since 2010 a new platform for cooperation between EFSA and national plant health authorities, is to exchange views on improving data collection and harmonising pest risk assessment across the European Union. The participants discussed possible areas for cooperation, including sharing on-going pest risk assessment activities, identifying emerging risks and other priorities in the area of plant health.

 

The meeting brought together plant health experts from EU Member States and Norway, observers from Turkey, Croatia, Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and representatives of the European Commission DG SANCO, European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation and EFSA staff. It gave EFSA an opportunity to give an overview of its activities, including an update on current risk assessment work, cooperation with Member States' institutions, outsourcing, research priorities  and Horizon 2020.

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Mango longhorn beetle (Batocera rubus) - basic data

Mango longhorn beetle (Batocera rubus) - basic data | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

IDENTITY
Name: Batocera rubus (Linnaeus, 1758)
EPPO Code: BATCRB
Synonyms: Batocera albofasciata De Geer, 1775; Batocera albomaculatus Retzius
Taxonomic position: Animalia: Coleopera: Cerambycidae
Common names: rubber root borer; lateral-banded mango longhorn; mango longhorn beetle (en), asiatischer Kautschukbaumbohrer (de), panterboktor (nl)

Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature: none

EPPO status: none


HOSTS

Batocera rubus is known to attack broadleaf trees and woody plants. In Europe it was interecepted on bonsay trees. Batocera rubus is a large wood borer that has been recorded on rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis in Thailand, particularly on trees damaged by other causes such as fire and lightning. Larvae (6-8 cm) also feed on freshly felled timber (FAO-Forest Health & Biosecurity Working Papers, 2007). The other recorded major hosts: bread fruit trees Artocarpus altilis, A. heterophyllus, fig Ficus carica, mango Mangifera indica (PQR).


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

In its native area in Asia B. rubus is seldom a serious pest. It is present in:


America: no data
Asia: Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Phillipines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
Africa: no data
Europe: intercepted in France (2011, Nanterre on a single bonsai plant-Ficus microcarpa), incursion in Italy (2012)



FAO-Forest Health & Biosecurity Working Papers, OVERVIEW OF FOREST PESTS, Thailand, 2007

EPPO (2011) PQR - EPPO database on quarantine pests (available online). http://www.eppo.int

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Plant Disease - First report of Hop stunt viroid infecting hop in Europe

Plant Disease - First report of Hop stunt viroid infecting hop in Europe | Almanac Pests | Scoop.it

Diseased stunted hop plants occure along the row (S. Radisek, 2011)


Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) infection has been observed in several hop fields (Humulus lupulus) with the varieties Celeia, Bobek and Aurora, in Slovenia in last years, but it has been only recently confirmed by two laboratories.

The symptoms included stunting, leaf curl, small cone formation and dry root rot. In the first year of finding the disease, the incidence varied from 1-30% and increased rapidly (by up to 10%) each subsequent year, predominantly along plant rows.

Using molecular methods labs finnaly identified HSVd, which belongs to the Hostuviroid genus, Pospiviroidae family and has been previously reported in hops in Japan, South Korea, North America and China.

This is the first report of the detection of HSVd on hops in Europe. Strict phytosanitary measures have been taken to prevent further spread and to eradicate HSVd infections.

Radisek et al. (2012) First report of Hop stunt viroid infecting hop in Slovenia.- Plant Disease 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-11-0640-PDN

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Corn Cyst Nematode (Heterodera zeae) - basic data

IDENTITY
Name: Heterodera zeae Koshy, Swarup & Sethi
EPPO Code: HETDZE
Synonyms: none
Taxonomic position: Animalia: Nematoda: Tylenchida: Heteroderidae
Common names: corn cyst nematode (en), nématode à kystes du maïs (fr), nematóide de cisto de milho (pt)

Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature: none

EPPO status: Alert list candidate 2012


HOSTS

H. zeae is known to attack maize Zea mays. Minor hosts are other species of Poaceae (Gramineae): barley (Hordeum vulgare), teosinte (Zea mexicana), millet (Setaria indica), oat (Avena sativa), rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), sugar cane (Saccharum sp.), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and several weed species.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

H. zeae is widespread in subtropical and tropical Asia. It is quarantine pest for Brazil and Jordan. H. zeae is present in:


America: USA (restricted distribution: Maryland first record in 1981, Virginia first record in 1993, both have official measures in place)
Asia: India (reported in 1991: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Harayana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, ) Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand
Africa: Egypt (Nile valley)
Europe: Portugal (Correia & Abrantes, 2002)


Correia FJS, Abrantes IM de O (2002). Morphobiometrical and biochemical characterisation of Heterodera zeae Portuguese populations. Nematology 4, 243-244.

EPPO (2011) PQR - EPPO database on quarantine pests (available online). http://www.eppo.int

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