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An outlier redesigns chemistry - BDlive

An outlier redesigns chemistry - BDlive | All About Science | Scoop.it
An outlier redesigns chemistry BDlive Nyokong's work as the research chair of medicinal chemistry and nanotechnology centres on designing cancer drugs made from a class of intensely coloured compounds called phthalocyanines, which are related to...
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Israel's latest Nobel laureate in chemistry on understanding how enzymes work - JNS.org

Israel's latest Nobel laureate in chemistry on understanding how enzymes work - JNS.org | All About Science | Scoop.it
Israel's latest Nobel laureate in chemistry on understanding how enzymes work JNS.org It could be that Israelis have a practical way of thinking and strong strategies for solving difficult problems, says Arieh Warshel, who earlier this month was...
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Will the sky fall as Dr says no to strong 'bond' - Chemistry World

Will the sky fall as Dr says no to strong 'bond' - Chemistry World | All About Science | Scoop.it
Chemistry World Will the sky fall as Dr says no to strong 'bond' Chemistry World 'If solvent competition can be relied upon to cancel out dispersion forces, then this might make modelling chemical processes easier because we can fall back on...
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Larry's Look | National Chemistry Week - WCNC

Larry's Look | National Chemistry Week - WCNC | All About Science | Scoop.it
Larry's Look | National Chemistry Week WCNC It's an annual community based program that's sponsored by the American Chemical Society, bringing professionals and communities together to explore and understand the important role that chemistry plays...
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Woods Hole Research Center - Building the Global Rivers Observatory

Woods Hole Research Center - Building the Global Rivers Observatory | All About Science | Scoop.it

To a large degree, river water chemistry is a function of processes occurring in the river’s watershed. As a result, changes on land also lead to changes in river chemistry. Much as human health can be evaluated by analyzing blood chemistry, so too can watershed health be assessed by monitoring river water chemistry. Because river inputs to the ocean also impact ocean processes, changes on land are also altering the marine environment.

 

Scientists from the Woods Hole Research Center and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution have joined with numerous collaborators around the world to investigate river chemistry and land-ocean linkages in Earth’s most significant river systems. Now active in 12 watersheds around the world – with the goal of expanding to several more - the Global Rivers Observatory is measuring concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other naturally occurring compounds in the rivers near their mouths where they empty into the ocean. Samples are also being collected from key tributaries upstream in the watersheds to investigate how chemical signatures vary regionally or in areas with differing land cover or land use.

 

Click headline to read more and watch videos--


Via Chuck Sherwood, Senior Associate, TeleDimensions, Inc
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'Quadruple helix' DNA discovered in human cells

'Quadruple helix' DNA discovered in human cells | All About Science | Scoop.it
In 1953, Cambridge researchers Watson and Crick published an article describing the interweaving "double helix" DNA structure -- the chemical code for all life.

 

Now, in the year of that scientific landmark's 60th Anniversary, Cambridge researchers have published a paper proving that four-stranded 'quadruple helix' DNA structures -- known as G-quadruplexes -- also exist within the human genome. They form in regions of DNA that are rich in the building block guanine, usually abbreviated to 'G'.

 

The findings mark the culmination of over 10 years investigation by scientists to show these complex structures in vivo -- in living human cells -- working from the hypothetical, through computational modelling to synthetic lab experiments and finally the identification in human cancer cells using fluorescent biomarkers.

 

The research, published January 20 in Nature Chemistry and funded by Cancer Research UK, goes on to show clear links between concentrations of four-stranded quadruplexes and the process of DNA replication, which is pivotal to cell division and production.

 

By targeting quadruplexes with synthetic molecules that trap and contain these DNA structures -- preventing cells from replicating their DNA and consequently blocking cell division -- scientists believe it may be possible to halt the runaway cell proliferation at the root of cancer.

 

"We are seeing links between trapping the quadruplexes with molecules and the ability to stop cells dividing, which is hugely exciting," said Professor Shankar Balasubramanian from the University of Cambridge's Department of Chemistry and Cambridge Research Institute, whose group produced the research.


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FlexMonkey: Advection Swarm Chemistry with ActionScript Workers & Feathers UI

Here's an extension to my recent implementation of Hiroki Sayama's Swarm Chemistry: I've plugged in a fluid dynamics solver (a worker used in my Reaction Diffusion Advection experiment) so that particles (swarm members) radiate heat and add to the CFD density field which then feeds back velocities to the swarm chemistry model.


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Thiaplakortones A–D: Antimalarial Thiazine Alkaloids from the Australian Marine Sponge Plakortis lita

Thiaplakortones A–D: Antimalarial Thiazine Alkaloids from the Australian Marine Sponge Plakortis lita | All About Science | Scoop.it

A high-throughput screening campaign using a prefractionated natural product library and an in vitro antimalarial assay identified active fractions derived from the Australian marine sponge Plakortis lita. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the CH2Cl2/CH3OH extract from P. lita resulted in the purification of four novel thiazine-derived alkaloids, thiaplakortones A–D (1–4). The chemical structures of 1–4 were determined following analysis of 1D/2D NMR and MS data. Comparison of the chiro-optical data for 3 and 4 with literature values of related N-methyltryptophan natural products was used to determine the absolute configuration for both thiaplakortones C and D as 11S. Compounds 1–4 displayed significant growth inhibition against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 values <651 nM) and only moderate cytotoxicity against HEK293 cells (IC50 values >3.9 μM). Thiaplakortone A (1) was the most active natural product, with IC50 values of 51 and 6.6 nM against 3D7 and Dd2 lines, respectively.

 

Rohan A. Davis, Sandra Duffy, Sabine Fletcher, Vicky M. Avery, and Ronald J. Quinn*Eskitis Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia

J. Org. Chem., Article ASAP

DOI: 10.1021/jo400988y

Publication Date (Web): September 13, 2013

 

 


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First pictures of hydrogen bonds unveiled | Chemistry World

First pictures of hydrogen bonds unveiled | Chemistry World | All About Science | Scoop.it
Observation of intermolecular interactions in quinolines could help to settle the nature of this kind of bonding

 

Peering at molecular structures is what chemists do. Technology that can improve the way that they see this world can have a huge impact on the field. In one such leap, researchers in China report the first visualisation of a hydrogen bond using atomic force microscopy (AFM).


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Wearables will soon analyze your body chemistry to make you healthier

Wearables will soon analyze your body chemistry to make you healthier | All About Science | Scoop.it

A lot of the focus in wearable computing has been on delivering products that help everyday users monitor some of the more basic activity traits, such as steps taken and heart rate. While these are certainly useful metrics for health monitoring, they do not paint the full picture.

 

Computational biologists instead study the chemical changes that occur in people’s bodies with the help of optical sensors, non-invasive devices that use the red-to-near-infrared spectral region to assess the chemical changes that occur in the user’s blood vessels, among other places.

 

By leveraging this cutting-edge technology and wearable computing, we are equipped to understand the changes that occur in a person’s body at a whole new level. The implications of this change span from improved training of athletes to better management of chronic diseases and healthcare.

 

 Some interesting recent cases in research that show the potential for disruption include:

 

Researchers at the National Technical University of Athens have helped individuals self-manage diabetes by stimulating the function of an artificial pancreas with fully embedded wearable systems. A paper in the Journal of Biomechanics shows promising results for wearables in athletic training. Scientists mapped out the physiology of athletes’ ski-jumps in order to determine the biological constraints of each individual’s approach. By comparing data across 22 different skiiers, the scientists were able to determine that the wearable system was a very promising tool for training that captured information beyond the capacity of a traditional camera.Researchers at Texas A&M University are investigating the use of optical sensors to interact with dermally-implanted microparticle sensors. This technology could enable cost cutting and continuous blood chemistry monitoring.Optical sensors used to monitor both athletic performance and overall health by researchers at the Dublin Institute of Technology. The sophisticated sensors interpret user’s sweat particles in order to deduce what is going on at a biological level. One of the sensors measured pH levels of sweat particles in order to deduce dehydration while athletes were running. This is a huge stride for activity tracking because it represents real time monitoring of athletic performance and biological signals
Via nrip
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Sue Gould's curator insight, October 11, 2013 1:43 AM

Wearable computers are here.  

Dan Baxter's curator insight, October 12, 2013 11:20 AM

The next step for quantified and teleheath sensors

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The chemistry of color: Energy researcher develops dye-based solar cells

The chemistry of color: Energy researcher develops dye-based solar cells | All About Science | Scoop.it

W-Madison researchers working at the intersection of basic and applied science focus on key factors like cost, environmental impacts ... and sometimes, color. Take, for example, assistant chemistry Professor Trisha Andrew: researchers in her lab are developing next-generation solar cells using chromophores or, in lay terms, dyes.

"It turns out that the same fundamental properties that give dye molecules their color also allow them to conduct electricity and generate power," says Andrew, whose research earned her a spot on the 2012 Forbes "30 Under 30 in Energy" list. "I want to take car paints and make them into solar cells.


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BYU shows the magical side of chemistry - Daily Herald

BYU shows the magical side of chemistry - Daily Herald | All About Science | Scoop.it
BYU shows the magical side of chemistry Daily Herald Guests at BYU's annual Chemistry Magic Show on Tuesday were treated to an exciting display of chemical reactions and controlled explosions one would usually imagine carried out in a wizard's...
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Arsenic DNA, chemistry and the problem of differing standards of proof in ... - Scientific American (blog)

Arsenic DNA, chemistry and the problem of differing standards of proof in ... - Scientific American (blog) | All About Science | Scoop.it
Arsenic DNA, chemistry and the problem of differing standards of proof in ...
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Poor sleep tied to Alzheimer's-like brain changes

Older adults who don't sleep well have more of the brain plaques that are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, a new study suggests.

 

The finding doesn't prove that not getting enough shut-eye causes the build-up of beta-amyloid plaques and leads to dementia rather than the other way around.

 

 


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Steve Kingsley's curator insight, October 22, 2013 9:34 PM

Poor sleep can lead to cognitive decline - one reason is that it doesn't allow all of the metabolic byproducts, produced during the day, "wash out" of the brain.

Scott Baker's curator insight, October 23, 2013 12:15 PM

I can't sleep more than 5 hours/night - nothing works, not even sleeping pills.  I am 55.  Does this mean I am headed for Alzheimer's?  :(

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Carbon-containing exoplanet slightly bigger than Earth discovered around a sun-like star

Carbon-containing exoplanet slightly bigger than Earth discovered around a sun-like star | All About Science | Scoop.it

Orbiting a star that is visible to the naked eye, astronomers have discovered a planet twice the size of our own made largely out of diamond. The rocky planet, called '55 Cancri e', orbits a sun-like star in the constellation of Cancer and is moving so fast that a year there lasts a mere 18 hours. Cancri e is about 40 light years, or 230 trillion miles away from Earth.

 

Discovered by a U.S.-Franco research team, its radius is twice that of Earth's but it is much more dense with a mass eight times greater. It is also incredibly hot, with temperatures on its surface reaching 3,900 degrees Fahrenheit (1,648 Celsius).

 

"The surface of this planet is likely covered in graphite and diamond rather than water and granite," said Nikku Madhusudhan, the Yale researcher whose findings are due to be published in the journal Astrophysical Journal Letters.

 

The study - with Olivier Mousis at the Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie in Toulose, France - estimates that at least a third of the planet's mass, the equivalent of about three Earth masses, could be diamond. Diamond planets have been spotted before but this is the first time one has been seen orbiting a sun-like star and studied in such detail.

 

"This is our first glimpse of a rocky world with a fundamentally different chemistry from Earth," Madhusudhan said, adding that the discovery of the carbon-rich planet meant distant rocky planets could no longer be assumed to have chemical constituents, interiors, atmospheres, or biologies similar to Earth. David Spergel, an astronomer at Princeton University, said it was relatively simple to work out the basic structure and history of a star once you know its mass and age.

 

"Planets are much more complex. This 'diamond-rich super-Earth' is likely just one example of the rich sets of discoveries that await us as we begin to explore planets around nearby stars."


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(EN) - Environmental Chemistry Glossary | nau.edu

(EN) - Environmental Chemistry Glossary | nau.edu | All About Science | Scoop.it

"This course is designed to develop a working level knowledge of: (1) chemistry fundamentals; and (2) the basic principles and concepts of environmental chemistry. The participant will also acquire a familiaritylevel knowledge of: (1) geochemistry; (2) atmospheric chemistry; (3) environmental microbiology; and, (4) water treatment. Prerequisite for this course is one year of college level chemistry. Based upon the bookEnvironmental Chemistry, by Professor Stanley Manahan, this course has been tailored to the needs of Environmental Restoration and Environmental Management career professionals by including case studies and applications from actual restoration sites. Satisfactorily completing this course will earn a total of 3 credits, in 3 modular segments, from Northern Arizona University and may be used toward degree programs in chemistry, waste management science or environmental engineering."


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"Transition from Inorganic to Organic Life was Based on Information, Not Chemistry"

"Transition from Inorganic to Organic Life was Based on Information, Not Chemistry" | All About Science | Scoop.it
In December of 2012, a radical new approach to the question of life's origin was proposed by two Arizona State University scientists that attempts to dramatically redefine the problem.

Via Andrea Graziano, Alessio Erioli
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Implanted biofuel cell converts bug's chemistry into electricity

Implanted biofuel cell converts bug's chemistry into electricity | All About Science | Scoop.it
Cleveland OH (SPX) Jan 10, 2012 - An insect's internal chemicals can be converted to electricity, potentially providing power for sensors, recording devices or to control the bug, a group of researchers at Case Western Reserve Unive...

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Meroterpenoids with Diverse Ring Systems from the Sponge-Associated Fungus Alternaria sp. JJY-32

Meroterpenoids with Diverse Ring Systems from the Sponge-Associated Fungus Alternaria sp. JJY-32 | All About Science | Scoop.it

Fifteen meroterpenoids (1–15) with diverse ring systems including an unprecedented oxaspiro[5.5]nonane-fused cyclohexenone (1), hydrogenated benzofurans (2–5), hydrogenated chromans (6, 7), hydrogenated cyclopenta[b]chromans (8–11), and four monocyclic structures (12–15) were isolated from the sponge-associated fungus Alternariasp. JJY-32. The structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, and assisted by chemical derivatizations. On the basis of supplementation experiments with specific enzyme inhibitors and putative precursors, a shikimate–isoprenoid hybrid biosynthetic pathway is proposed. The NF-κB inhibitory activities of 1–15 were tested, and all of them, except 6 and7 (IC50 > 100 μM), showed activities with IC50 values ranging from 39 to 85 μM in RAW264.7 cells.

 

Guojian Zhang †, Guangwei Wu †, Tianjiao Zhu †,Tibor Kurtán ‡, Attila Mándi ‡, Jieying Jiao †, Jing Li †, Xin Qi †, Qianqun Gu †, and Dehai Li

 

J. Nat. Prod., Article ASAP

DOI: 10.1021/np4005757


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Industrial natural product chemistry for drug discovery and development

Industrial natural product chemistry for drug discovery and development | All About Science | Scoop.it

In addition to their prominent role in basic biological and chemical research, natural products are a rich source of commercial products for the pharmaceutical and other industries. Industrial natural product chemistry is of fundamental importance for successful product development, as the vast majority (ca. 80%) of commercial drugs derived from natural products require synthetic efforts, either to enable economical access to bulk material, and/or to optimize drug properties through structural modifications. This review aims to illustrate issues on the pathway from lead to product, and how they have been successfully addressed by modern natural product chemistry. It is focused on natural products of current relevance that are, or are intended to be, used as pharmaceuticals.

 

Armin Bauer*a and   Mark Brö Nat. Prod. Rep., 2014, Advance Article


DOI: 10.1039/C3NP70058E


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