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Διεθνής Ενημέρωση, νέα και ειδήσεις για θέματα που αφορούν την Αλιεία και τις Υδατοκαλλιέργειες.
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TAIWAN: Government aims to hold fisheries talks by end of the month

TAIWAN: Government aims to hold fisheries talks by end of the month | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The government is hoping to hold fisheries talks with the Philippines late this month in an effort to address fishing disputes in their overlapping waters, an official said yesterday.


The government is also planning to assign a higher-level official to head its negotiating team and is seeking to follow the model of its recent fisheries pact with Japan, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ Department of East Asian and Pacific Affairs Director-General Benjamin Ho (何登煌) said.


Relations between Taiwan and the Philippines had been strained since May 9, when Philippine Coast Guard personnel attacked a Taiwanese fishing boat in the overlapping exclusive economic zones of the two countries, resulting in the death of a 65-year-old Taiwanese fisherman, Hung Shih-cheng (洪石成).


Ho’s remarks followed the easing of bilateral relations after the government on Aug. 8 lifted a series of sanctions that had been imposed against the Philippines over its handling of the shooting.


Taiwan and the Philippines have agreed to hold their next fisheries meeting in Taipei soon, Ho said.


Both sides held a preparatory meeting on June 14, during which they reached an initial consensus on several issues, including no use of force or violence during patrols of the overlapping economic zones in fishing grounds and the establishment of a mechanism to inform each other in the event of fisheries incidents.


Ho said the government hopes to strengthen the legal effects of the bilateral consensus by signing a joint statement or communique during the next round of talks.


He said Fisheries Agency Director-General James Sha (沙志一) may be appointed to lead the talks with the Philippines’ Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Director Asis Perez.


If the Japanese model is followed, Taiwan’s agreement with the Philippines will designate an area in the overlapping exclusive economic zones of the two countries where fishermen from both nations will be allowed to operate freely, Ho said.


In addition, a bilateral fishing commission may be established to deal regularly with follow-up issues, he said.


The June 14 meeting in Manila was held between a Taiwanese delegation led by Fisheries Agency Deputy Director-General Tsay Tzu-yaw (蔡日曜) and Philippine officials led by Perez, the ministry said.



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WORLDWIDE: Independent Adjudicator Issues Preliminary Decision in Russia Sea of Okhotsk Pollock Fishery Remand

WORLDWIDE: Independent Adjudicator Issues Preliminary Decision in Russia Sea of Okhotsk Pollock Fishery Remand | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Independent Adjudicator (IA) Michael Lodge, in a preliminary decision sent to the parties today and published on the Marine Stewardship Council website, will allow the conformance assessment body (CAB), Intertek Moody Marine (IMM), to submit its revised scoring rationale to peer review and comment, to address an objection filed by At-Sea Processors (APA) on the ground of procedural irregularity. 


Once the procedural issue has been resolved, the IA said he will consider the other scoring issues raised by the objector related to Principle 1 and Principle 2 indicators.


The full text of the decision by the Independent Adjudicator, as well as documents related to the assessment, can be accessed online at Russia Sea of Okhotsk Information.


Next Steps

The preliminary decision by the IA includes a timeline for the sequence of steps going forward:


- Peer review phase to be completed by August 23, 2013;


- Revise scoring rationale and CAB to address peer review comments by August 30, 2013;


- Objector review and comment by September 6, 2013;


- Finalize scoring of PI 1.2.3 by September 13, 2013; and,


- IA issues a decision within five working days after the submission of final scores on P1, 1.2.3.


APA Objection Background

The At-Sea Processors Association (APA) filed an objection that challenged the assessment team’s conclusion the fishery meets the MSC’s global standard for sustainability.   An objection hearing with the IA presiding was held in London on May 31, and on June 19, the IA remanded the final report and determination (FCR).  IMM subsequently responded and comments to the CAB’s response were submitted by APA.


The issues under remand are in two areas:



Whether a change in score for Principle 1, scoring indicator 1.2.3 that was made between the release of the Public Comment Draft Report (PCDR) and Final Certification Report (FCR) was a procedural breach of MSC’s Certification Requirements, making a material difference to the assessment.  The scoring indicator regards “Information and Monitoring” and whether relevant information is collected to support the harvest strategy.  Three other procedural objections filed were dismissed by the IA.


Scores for Principle 1, performance indicator 1.2.2., Harvest Control Rules, and 1.2.3; and,


Scores for performance indicators P1 2.2.1, 2.2.2, 2.2.3, which relate to by-catch species outcome, management strategy and monitoring; and, 2.3.1, 2.3.2, 2.3.3, which relate to ETP outcome, management and information. 


Objections Procedure Background

The MSC certification program contains an objections procedure as a final optional step in an assessment to provide an orderly, structured, transparent and independent process for review of the certifier’s recommendation if stakeholders challenge the outcome. 


An Independent Adjudicator looks specifically at whether any errors were made by the certifier that would materially affect the outcome in reaching a decision about certification.  The objections procedure does not re-assess a fishery.  The findings are determined by the Independent Adjudicator on the basis of materials submitted and in some cases as in this one, an oral hearing.


The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) has no direct role in the objections process or outcome.


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PERU: Copeinca Q2 profit dives on late start to season, low quota

Peru’s second largest fishmeal producer Copeinca saw its operating profit dive in the second quarter of the year, caused by a late start to the first anchovy fishing season of the year, combined with a 34% lower quota than last year.


However, the fishing season reaped good results and “biomass and oceanographic conditions are back to normal”, said Copeinca, confirming its previous comments that the anchovy stock appears to have recovered.


Copeinca, which is in the process of being taken over by Pacific Andes’ China Fishery Group, said earnings before interests, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) fell 70% in the second quarter of the year, from $24.5 million a year ago, to $7.2m this year.


Revenues were down 73%, or more than $50m, to $18.6m.


For the first half of the year, EBITDA fell 80% from $58.7m, to $11.7m, while revenues fell by $113.5m to $54.6m.


EBITDA margin for the first half was down to 21.5%, compared to 34.9% a year ago.


“Such [a] significant decrease is mainly explained by the late start of the season as well as by the small quota from the second fishing season last year,” said Copeinca.


The lower volumes, in turn, pushed prices up. Average revenue per metric ton was $2,035 in the quarter — up 50% from $1,317/metric ton in the second quarter of 2012.


Peru caught nearly all of its anchovy quota for the season, with total catch reaching 1,982,240t, or 96.7% of the quota. The company said it processed 15% of the total Peruvian quota, including 4% from third parties.


In addition to anchovy the group caught 7,386t of mackerel and jack mackerel for human consumption in the first quarter of the year, generating revenues of $4m, and accounting for 14% of the Peruvian quota.


Undercurrent News

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NORWAY: New aquaculture revolution?

NORWAY: New aquaculture revolution? | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

A lot needs to happen to threaten the hegemony of the net-based production concept in salmon farming, a new report from Nofima shows. In the long term, more efficient land-based aquaculture can come close. The scientists also see that land-based aquaculture in countries with low production costs may be somewhat of a threat.


On commission from the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs, the scientists have evaluated whether new operational concepts within aquaculture can threaten Norway’s position as an aquaculture nation.


The following systems have been evaluated: recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) both in Norway and in countries with low production costs, offshore sea cages and closed-containment sea-based systems in both exposed and sheltered locations.


“We see that land-based or closed-containment sea-based systems, often using recirculating technology, are being built in Denmark, North America, Scotland and China. Land-based and closed-containment sea-based systems will involve much higher investment costs, but some of this disadvantage is expected to be offset by lower operating costs. However, there is a long way to go before closed-containment constructions will be as economical as today’s net-based solutions,” says Scientist Audun Iversen.


Production cost


The average production cost of the current net-based aquaculture is NOK 24 per kilo of salmon produced. The production costs for the other concepts are far more uncertain. Consequently, the scientists have developed an analytical model, which enables them to take much of the uncertainty into consideration.

“In the figure above, we see that there are much higher costs in the closed-containment or semi closed-containment concepts. The costs are at least NOK 5-10 higher than today’s net-based concept.”


Major policy changes, such as stricter environmental requirements, may change this picture. The scientists also envisage that the technological paradigm shifts, that will give considerable changes in the cost level, can have an impact on the probability of the success of the various technologies.


Combination models


The scientists believe that we will see examples of combination models, where more of the salmon’s weight (e.g. up to 1 kg) occurs in land or sea-based closed-containment systems.


This has advantages both for the environment of the fish and that of the surrounding area, as well as limiting the investments significantly in relation to having the entire growth phase in land or sea-based closed-containment systems.


“Norway’s natural advantage will possibly become less important with new production concepts, but other advantages are also important for Norway’s competitive position and are also hard to copy,” says Iversen.


“Norway’s salmon farming industry benefits from proximity to the important European fresh fish market, strong knowledge environments, a leading supplier industry, good infrastructure and good resource management. This broad competence around salmon farming is also a major competitive advantage. And that’s difficult to copy, if not as difficult as copying the nature.”


The report is written by scientists Audun Iversen, Otto Andreassen, Øystein Hermansen, Thomas A. Larsen and Bendik Fyhn Terjesen.


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PHILIPPINES: Seafood producer turns around and reports profit

PHILIPPINES: Seafood producer turns around and reports profit | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Good global pricing and a healthy fish supply has helped Filipino seafood producer Alliance Select Foods International swing back into profitability.

The company reported to the Philippine Stock Exchange that it had generated a net profit of $984,025 in the second quarter of 2013, a turnaround from the loss of $450,938 in the same period last year, reports BusinessInquirer.


This shored up the company’s attributable six-month bottomline to $420,991 compared to a net loss of $515,998 a year ago.


Revenues in the second quarter rose by 29 per cent to $25.2 million which the company attributed to an across-the-board increase in contribution from all of its local and foreign subsidiaries.


Sales for the first six months of the year also grew by about 27 per cent, reaching $44.9 million from a year ago as its canned tuna division benefited from improved fish prices and deliveries.


With ongoing investments in backward integration into fishing, the company said it was on track in sourcing part of its own fish supply, ensuring supply and price stability.


The second quarter is usually a weak season for smoked salmon but Alliance said it had bucked this worldwide industry phenomenon, noting that all of its salmon subsidiaries were able to boost their revenues over the same period last year.


“With peak sales and profit season expected in the latter part of the year, we project the division to continue contributing a robust share to the company’s sales and profit growth. Better procurement policies and marketing strategies meant that gross profit margin increased at rates higher than growth in sales,” the company reported.



TheFishSite News Desk


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COSTA RICA: Shrimp Trawling Now Banned in Costa Rica

COSTA RICA: Shrimp Trawling Now Banned in Costa Rica | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Due to the serious harm that trawling causes to the marine environment and sea bed, Costa Rica has banned all shrimp trawling in the country.

The ruling, written by Justice Paul Rueda, declared admissible a lawsuit filed by six environmental organizations against various articles of the country’s Fisheries and Aquaculture Law, reports TicoTimes.


"Based on extensive scientific studies, it is clear for the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court that this fishing technique causes serious harm to the marine environment, due to the amount of marine life that is incidentally captured and then discarded, and also the negative effects on benthic (ocean floor) domains," the ruling stated.


According to Randall Arauz, president of the Marine Turtle Restoration Project (PRETOMA), shrimp trawling licenses have few restrictions, allowing boats to target other species as long as they declare them as bycatch.


“In Costa Rica a license to trawl is a license to kill,” he told the newspaper. “Industrial shrimp trawlers can target snappers, call them bycatch and not leave anything for local fishermen.”


The Sala IV ruling urges the Costa Rican Fisheries Institute (INCOPESCA) "to halt the granting of new fishing licenses and to refrain from renewing expired permits for shrimp trawling boats."


Active licenses will remain valid until they expire, but must not be extended.

Justices also clarified that permits may be reinstated in the future if authorities require the use of Bycatch Reduction Devices (BRD), and if it can be demonstrated that a new technology can effectively reduce bycatch.


According to PRETOMA, some 80 per cent of the total catch in trawling nets is later discarded. Costa Rica’s shrimp fleet discards some 4,000-6,000 metric tons of bycatch each year. In addition, trawlers snag some 15,000 sea turtles annually, PRETOMA reported.


US officials last year lifted a three-year ban on imports of Costa Rican shrimp issued in 2009 when US inspectors found that INCOPESCA was not effectively sanctioning shrimp trawlers that did not use turtle excluder devices (TEDs) on their nets. US law requires any boat exporting shrimp to US markets to use TEDs to prevent sea-turtle bycatch.


TheFishSite News Desk


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MAGAZINE: AQUA Acuicultura + Pesca - Julio / Agosto 2013

Japón vuelve a la normalidad

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ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: Οδηγίες προς ψαροντουφεκάδες, από το Λιμενικό

ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: Οδηγίες προς ψαροντουφεκάδες, από το Λιμενικό | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Οδηγίες προς τους ψαροντουφεκάδες δίνει το Λιμενικό, ώστε να κάνουν το χόμπι τους με ασφάλεια και να μην χάνονται ανθρώπινες ζωές.

Οι οδηγίες είναι προϊόν της πείρας των στελεχών του Σώματος και της στατιστικής ανάλυσης των ατυχημάτων και των περιστατικών έρευνας και διάσωσης:  

1. Κατά τη διενέργεια υποβρύχιας ερασιτεχνικής αλιείας, πρέπει να τηρούνται οι παρακάτω βασικοί κανόνες ασφαλείας: 

α) Οι ασχολούμενοι με την αναφερόμενη δραστηριότητα πρέπει να φέρουν την προβλεπόμενη σημαδούρα και σημαία, η οποία υποδηλώνει την ύπαρξη υποβρύχιου αλιέα στην εγγύς θαλάσσια περιοχή. Ο σημαντήρας πρέπει να είναι ορατός με κανονικές συνθήκες από απόσταση τριακοσίων (300) τουλάχιστον μέτρων.

β) Εφόσον η υποβρύχια ερασιτεχνική αλιεία γίνεται με τη συνοδεία πλωτού μέσου, η σημαία του σημαντήρα πρέπει να τοποθετείται σε εμφανές σημείο πάνω στο πλωτό μέσο.

γ) Η διενέργεια αλιείας με ψαροντούφεκο επιτρέπεται σε ακτίνα το πολύ πενήντα (50) μέτρων από το σημαντήρα ή το πλωτό μέσο.

δ) Δεν επιτρέπεται η δραστηριότητα αυτή σε απόσταση μικρότερη των διακοσίων (200) μέτρων από:


(i) Τις θαλάσσιες περιοχές όπου συνήθως φθάνουν κολυμπώντας οι λουόμενοι.

(ii) Τα λιμενικά έργα, τις ναυτιλιακές σημάνεις, σκάφη ή άλλα πλωτά μέσα αλιείας, καθώς και τα δίχτυα με εμφανή σήμανση.

(iii) Τα αγκυροβολημένα πλοία,

ε) Σε θαλάσσιες ζώνες διέλευσης σκαφών, καθώς και εισόδους - εξόδους λιμανιών ή αγκυροβολίων.

2. Στα άτομα που αλιεύουν με ψαροντούφεκο, συστήνεται να τηρούν τα παρακάτω:

α) Να βουτούν ανά δύο (02) τουλάχιστον άτομα, αποφεύγοντας τις μεμονομένες καταδύσεις.

β) Να υπάρχει διαρκής οπτική επαφή και επιτήρηση μεταξύ των υποβρύχιων αλιέων.

γ) Να αποφεύγεται η διενέργεια υποβρύχιας αλιείας όταν οι καιρικές συνθήκες δεν είναι καλές , σε περιοχές με κακή υποθαλάσσια ορατότητα, καθώς και όταν η φυσική κατάσταση του υποβρύχιου αλιέα δεν είναι ικανοποιητική για την άσκηση αυτής της δραστηριότητας.

δ) Να διακόπτεται η υποβρύχια αλιεία με την πρώτη αίσθηση αδιαθεσίας και το άτομο να βγαίνει αμέσως από τη θάλασσα.

ε) Η παρακολούθηση κάποιας εκπαίδευσης που αφορά τις τεχνικές ελεύθερης κατάδυσης.


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NORWAY: Increased marketing efforts can lead to better times

NORWAY: Increased marketing efforts can lead to better times | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The large scale Russian cod fishery and onboard freezing of the 1990s was the start of China becoming a major producer in the market for cod fillet. Norwegian exports of frozen cod fillet products to the EU have collapsed from 50,000 metric tons to 12,000 metric tons and the number of companies specializing in fillet from 35 to 10.


“A higher degree of market orientation can lead to better times for the fillet industry,” says Scientist Finn-Arne Egeness at the food research institute Nofima.


He refers to the fact that Norwegian exporters’ answer to the double frozen hand-filleted cod fillet produced in China has been an increased concentration on fresh fillet products of cod.


“This has been a reasonable strategy because fresh products have been paid higher than frozen products. But Nofima’s analyses also point to the fact that frozen Norwegian fillet products achieve higher prices than Chinese products. This shows that the market differentiates between fillet products produced from fresh and frozen raw materials,” says Egeness.


High fresh quality

He refers to conversations with British buyers that indicate that possibly the most important reason that Norwegian fillet products achieve higher prices than Chinese double frozen products is that Norwegian producers have access to fresh raw material.


“This difference in quality can be strengthened further by Norwegian producers choosing an even better raw material in the production of frozen products,” says Egeness. Currently, the best raw material is primarily used for fresh products.

Egeness has written a report as part of the project “Production in China: Factors that influence the market for white fish” (financed by the Norwegian Seafood Research Fund (FHF), Norwegian Fishermen’s Sales Organisation, the Norwegian Seafood Council and Nordea.)


Find Norwegian advantages

The main conclusion of his report is that China’s most important advantage is a unique access to low-cost labour and good infrastructure that enables it to supply frozen cod fillets to the EU at a lower price and more accurate specifications than the competitors.


“Since Norwegian companies can’t compete on price, they need to identify other product characteristics that ensure a sufficient share of the market chooses Norwegian-produced fillet products ahead of Chinese products.”


Egeness refers to earlier research from Nofima which shows that fillet products labelled “line-caught” attract a price premium of 22 percent in British supermarket chains, while the national attribute “Iceland” has given a price premium of 5 percent.


“None of the frozen white fish products we observed on the British market were labelled with Norwegian origin. Consequently, Norwegian companies should investigate whether Norway as an origin can form the basis for a higher price. Only the supermarket chain Marks & Spencer advertised that the frozen fish fillet products were produced from fresh fish,” says Egeness.


“Maybe such communication in more supermarket chains can create greater demand for Norwegian products produced from fresh raw materials. Single frozen raw material is one of the most important buying criteria at the industrial level. We also need to exploit this at the consumer level.”


Concentrate on proximity

“Norway’s location near both the fishing grounds and the consumption markets provides opportunities for improved following up of customers and more rapid delivery of goods. This can be practical in connection with sales campaigns when large supermarket chains can require rapid supply of new goods in the event that demand exceeds expectations. This can provide added value and create the basis for the willingness to pay higher prices,” says Egeness.


“The locality of Norwegian companies also gives shorter time between the purchase of raw materials and the sale of the finished products. This involves a lower level of capital being employed and less uncertainty than in the Chinese fillet industry, where nearly six months can pass from the purchase of the raw material until one receives payment for the fillet products that are produced.”


From zero to 60,000

The production of frozen cod fillets in Norway fell dramatically after 1997, when the cod changed from being a national raw material to an international trading commodity that could be traded globally.


Modern freezing and thawing technology, combined with cheaper transportation costs, meant that cod could be sold regardless of where and when it was caught. This contributed to China’s production of frozen fillet products of cod growing from zero to 60,000 metric tons in less than a decade.


However, the disadvantage for the Chinese companies is the large distances, long response time and the fact that raw material that has been frozen twice reduces the willingness to pay among many European buyers.


This is where Nofima Scientist Finn-Arne Egeness believes that Norwegian industry can utilize proximity, freshness and single frozen, national labelling, line-caught and other quality characteristics on the fish packaging in market segments that emphasize characteristics other than simply price.


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MAGAZINE: Sustainable Aquaculture Digital - August 2013

MAGAZINE: Sustainable Aquaculture Digital - August 2013 | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

This special digital report from TheFishSite focuses on the biennial fisheries and aquaculture show AquaNor.

Liv Holmefjord, the Norwegian Director of Fisheries and AquaNor organiser, speaks exclusively about sustainability in the Norwegian aquaculture sector.

Industry leaders in aquaculture health and education explain why sustainability is intrinsically linked to the future of aquaculture.





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EUROPEAN UNION: New method to analyse chemical contaminants in marine waters

EUROPEAN UNION: New method to analyse chemical contaminants in marine waters | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The JRC presented its new multi-compound method developed for the analysis of polar organic chemical contaminants in marine water samples in a recently published article in the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry journal.


Polar – i.e. the molecules' electric charges are unequally distributed – organic contaminants from urban or industrial wastewater discharges, agricultural and industrial activities, human settlements, tourism, resource use and infrastructural development are discharged by rivers, cities or ships into the oceans. These contaminants can change the chemical composition of the ocean's waters, have adverse toxicological effects on aquatic organisms and provoke loss of habitat and biodiversity.


Laboratory and field studies have shown that certain combinations of chemicals can, upon contact with aquatic life, result in observable detrimental effects even if, individually, these chemicals are present at levels below which any adverse effects can be detected (mixture toxicity).


To develop its new multi-compound analytical method, the JRC analysed marine water samples from the open Adriatic Sea taken 16 km offshore from Venice in Italy. Trace analyses in the sub nanogram per litre (ng/L) range performed with the latest generation instrument for these type of measurements led to very high precision results (around 100 times higher than old generation instruments).


Most of the chemicals detected were found for the first time in the surface waters of the northern Adriatic Sea and were mainly pesticides, pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), sucralose and perfluorinated surfactants. Higher concentrations were detected during summer months due to tourism activities.


Implementing the European Water and Marine Strategy Framework Directives

The European Water Framework Directive requires that Member States implement measures to reduce pollution from priority substances, including polar organic contaminants, and that they monitor these in inland and coastal surface waters. However, data on the occurrence of polar organic contaminants as well as the knowledge of the fate, pollution effects and thresholds of toxic chemical mixtures in the marine environment are relatively scarce.


The new multi-compound method will help implement the Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy Framework Directive and should be completed by biological tissue analysis of fish and shellfish, and trend analysis in open marine waters to ensure that there are no upward trends for persistent pollutants in the environment.



Related links: Analysis of polar organic contaminants in surface water of the northern Adriatic Sea by solid-phase extraction followed by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography–QTRAP® MS using a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap instrument (


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MAGAZINE: Revista Industria Conservera - Mayo/Junio 2013 - Nº 102


Información del centro






Crta. Colegio Universitario, 16


36310 VIGO (Pontevedra) ESPAÑA


Apdo. 258 - C.P. 36200


Tel. +34 986 469 301 - Fax. +34 986 469 269


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ΚΟΣΜΟΣ: 60 τρισ. δολάρια θα κοστίσει η διαρροή μεθανίου στην Αρκτική

ΚΟΣΜΟΣ: 60 τρισ. δολάρια θα κοστίσει η διαρροή μεθανίου στην Αρκτική | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Παγκόσμια οικονομική βόμβα. Κάντε κάτι τώρα», λένε οι επιστήμονες.


Τον κώδωνα του κινδύνου κρούουν οι επιστήμονες, σχετικά με την μεγάλη διαρροή υποθαλάσσιου μεθανίου στην Αρκτική.

Οι επιστήμονες της έρευνας που έγινε από το ολλανδικό Πανεπιστήμιο Erasmus, λένε πως αποτελεί παγκόσμια ωρολογιακή οικονομική βόμβα, καθώς η αρνητική επίπτωση που έχει στο περιβάλλον μπορεί να κοστίσει έως και 60 τρισ. δολάρια, περίπου δηλαδή όσο είναι το συνολικό ποσό της παγκόσμιας οικονομίας!

Οι επιπτώσεις θα γίνουν αρχικά πιο αισθητές στις αναπτυσσόμενες χώρες, σύμφωνα με την έρευνα που δημοσιεύεται στο περιοδικό Nature.

Οι επιστήμονες ανησυχούν επίσης και για την αύξηση της θερμοκρασίας που προκαλείται από την εκροή μεθανίου. Μεγάλες ποσότητες μεθανίου έχουν συγκεντρωθεί στην επιφάνεια της Αρκτικής, όμως αυτό που προκαλεί τρόμο στους ειδικούς είναι η εξίσου μεγάλη ποσότητα που έχει συγκεντρωθεί κάτω από την παγωμένη θάλασσα.

Προηγούμενες έρευνες έχουν δείξει πως το λιώσιμο των πάγων στην θάλασσα της ανατολικής Σιβηρίας επιτρέπουν στο νερό να θερμανθεί και αφήνουν το μεθάνιο να διαρρέει. Σε αυτά τα νερά οι επιστήμονες έχουν εντοπίσει «λόφους» μεθανίου με τη διάμετρό τους να εκτείνεται ένα χιλιόμετρο.

Το μεθάνιο, ένα από τα ισχυρότερα «αέρια του θερμοκηπίου», διαρρέει από το βυθό των παγωμένων Αρκτικών θαλασσών με πολύ ταχύτερο ρυθμό, από ό,τι αναμενόταν, κάτι που εγείρει αυξημένες ανησυχίες για περαιτέρω ταχεία άνοδο της θερμοκρασίας και ξαφνική πια επιδείνωση της κλιματικής αλλαγής στον πλανήτη μας.

Οι προηγούμενες μελέτες είχαν εστιαστεί κυρίως στην έκλυση μεθανίου από τους επιφανειακούς αρκτικούς πάγους, αλλά η νέα μελέτη επισημαίνει ότι η απελευθέρωση του αερίου από τους παγωμένους βυθούς είναι πολύ χειρότερη. Μέχρι τώρα ο βυθός είχε θεωρηθεί αδιαπέραστο φράγμα που παγιδεύει αποτελεσματικά το μεθάνιο από κάτω του, αλλά τα νέα στοιχεία δείχνουν ότι οι πάγοι του αρκτικού βυθού σταδιακά αποσταθεροποιούνται λόγω της ανόδου της θερμοκρασίας και γίνονται πλέον πορώδεις σε ορισμένα σημεία, επιτρέποντας στο αέριο να διαρρέει προς την επιφάνεια του νερού.
Το μεθάνιο έχει παγιδευτεί εδώ και πολύ καιρό στην παγωμένη Αρκτική και τώρα, εξαιτίας της υπερθέρμανσης της Γης, αρχίζει να αναδύεται στην επιφάνεια των θαλασσών του Βορρά και να απελευθερώνεται στην ατμόσφαιρα. Η εξέλιξη αυτή απειλεί να αντισταθμίσει τα όποια οφέλη από την μείωση των εκπομπών του διοξειδίου του άνθρακα και να αχρηστεύσει τις διεθνείς προσπάθειες για συγκράτηση της κλιματικής αλλαγής.

Σε αυτή τη μελέτη οι επιστήμονες προσπάθησαν να εκτιμήσουν πόσο κοστίζει η επιβάρυνση του περιβάλλοντος από τις εκπομπές μεθανίου. Όπως τόνισαν, εδώ και μια δεκαετία έχουν απελευθερωθεί πάνω από 50 γιγατόνοι μεθανίου. Αυτό σημαίνει πως οι κυβερνήσεις πρέπει να δράσουν άμεσα, καθώς ο πλανήτης απειλείται από άνοδο της θαλάσσιας στάθμης, πλημμύρες ζημιές στη γεωργία και την ανθρώπινη υγεία. Όλα αυτά, σύμφωνα με τους ερευνητές, αποτελούν παγκόσμια οικονομική βόμβα, καθώς για να ξεπεραστούν τα προβλήματα θα χρειαστούν μέχρι και 60 τρισεκατομμύρια δολάρια.

«Αυτό είναι μια οικονομική βόμβα, κάτι που ακόμα δεν έχει γίνει αντιληπτό σε παγκόσμιο επίπεδο», ανέφερε ο καθηγητής Gail Whiteman του Πανεπιστημίου Erasmus στην Ολλανδία, ένα από τους συντάκτες της έκθεσης.

Επίσης τόνισε πως είναι «εξαιρετικά σημαντικό για τους παγκόσμιους ηγέτες να συζητήσουν πραγματικά για τις επιπτώσεις της απελευθέρωσης μεθανίου και για το τι θα μπορούσαμε να κάνουμε».



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ARGENTINA: Over USD 700,000 invested to develop inland aquaculture

ARGENTINA: Over USD 700,000 invested to develop inland aquaculture | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

With an investment exceeding ARS 40 million (USD 718,500), the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (Minagri) aims to support the development of small and medium scale aquaculture farms in the northeast.


The Government plans to encourage the expansion and diversification of aquaculture production in the Argentinean northeastern area (NEA), through "improved and expanded” public goods and services.


To this end, a project will be implemented focusing on:


- Improving the research infrastructure of the species with commercial potential;


- Training and technical assistance for the promotion of good farm practices;


- Promotion of the strengthening of value chains, through direct support related to the adoption of technology by producers and other actors of the aquaculture activity.

In Argentina there are about 2,000 farmers in the northeastern provinces (Chaco, Corrientes, Formosa and Misiones) producing subtropical species.

The sector is mainly engaged in breeding pacu and to a lesser extent rainbow trout, stated the Ministry.


Some preliminary studies indicate that in the country there is a small capitalization in this sector, with few financing sources, and that marketing is done through informal non-consolidated channels.


"The NEA's aquaculture subsector faces inefficiencies in the supply of inputs and services, volatility in the offer and quality problems, which has restricted its commercial growth," the Minagri pointed out.


Several official boosted initiatives, including those related to training the NEA Aquaculture Cluster, aim to promote the development of aquaculture in this region of the country.

By Analia Murias,

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PERU: Producer’s shrimp profit booms on 29% price hike

PERU: Producer’s shrimp profit booms on 29% price hike | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Peruvian fruits, vegetable and shrimp producer Camposol saw profit at its shrimp division soar 93% in the second quarter of the year, boosted by a 29% hike in prices.


The company — which says it is Peru’s second largest shrimp producer, with 635 hectares of shrimp farms — said its average weighted price per kilo for shrimp increased to $11.03 in the second quarter of the year, compared with $7.73 a year ago.


For the first half of the year, prices were up 28%, from $8.08 to $11.2 per kilo.

This helped lift both profit and sales at Camposol’s shrimp operations, even though volumes were down significantly from last year. The company sold 1,046 metric tons in the first half of the year down 27.5% from 1,412t in the same time last year.


The net average price per kilo was up 36.6% over the period, to $10.67, it said.

Camposol did not give an explanation for the drop in its shrimp volumes, but said the price increase was due to early mortality syndrome in Asia. This directly impacts the US, Camposol’s largest market, it said.


Camposol is controlled by the Dyer Coriat family, which owned the fishmeal producer Copeinca, now in the process of being sold to China Fishery Group.


China Fishery also owns an 11.3% stake in Camposol, which it acquired from Ivan Orlic, whose holding Ocean Harvest also sold a 9.33% stake in Copeinca to China Fishery.


In June, Camposol hired Credit Suisse to “explore strategic alternatives” to improve distribution and marketing operations in the US. In August, it emerged Camposol would set up its first North American office in Pompano Beach, Florida.


For the quarter, the company said its shrimp operations made a gross profit of $2.25m, up 93% year-on-year, on revenues of $7.8m, up 18%. Gross profit for the first half was up 35% to $3.17m, on revenues that rose 8.6% to $11.7m.


Shrimp is Camposol’s newest activity. The company is originally an exporter of fruits and vegetables, with asparagus and avocado its two biggest crops, followed by peppers and mangoes. Overall, the company saw its gross profit rise by 12% to $12.2m, on revenues up 17% to $46.8m in the first half of the year.


Undercurrent News

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CHILE: Chilean farmed salmon prices set for short-lived dip

CHILE: Chilean farmed salmon prices set for short-lived dip | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Pricing on Atlantic salmon from Chile is beginning to taper off and, considering the high production costs in Chile, stakeholders in the US are hoping that they come back up again.


Prices have decreased for the past two weeks, a source in the industry told Undercurrent News on Tuesday.


Since August first, Urner Barry shows prices down $0.30. Two to three pound fish sold to Miami from Chile were priced at $4.60 as of Tuesday.


This price will “naturally go down,” said the vice president of a large Chilean salmon importer.

But it will not plummet by any means, especially considering that Chileans have ample opportunities outside the US to send their fish to now, even compared to last year, when the trend towards new markets was already taking hold, the executive, wishing to be quoted unnamed, told Undercurrent.


“I don’t think you’re going to see a $4 fish in the fresh market,” he said.


The most he thinks prices would drop is $0.25, considering the cost of production. Production costs have rocketed this year due to New control measures for sea lice, salmon rickettsial syndrome (SRS) and sanitary introduced by the regulatory body Sernapesca, which require Chilean salmon farmers to invest in sea lice baths and other preventative disease treatments, Valeria Mutis, an analyst with Rabobank, told Undercurrent on Friday.


Although pinning the production cost is difficult in an industry where disease prevalence and treatment success varies widely, multiple industry sources pin the production cost at around $4 per kilo, whole fish equivalent (WFE).


“This $4 cost (of production) makes it pretty hard for them to accept prices any lower than where they are now,”  the first source said.


In his opinion, prices should actually be higher to properly compensate farmers.

“Over $5 is a good price for the industry – a little more, a little less,” he said.


“It’ll be healthy for everyone…That prices allows everyone to be able to make money, to be able to plan and live in peace.”


This month, there is a little more fish available, which will inevitably drive prices down, but he predicts that if US buyers want to keep access to fish, the price will come back up again.


A source with a North American company that sources directly from Chile said currently, farmers in Chile need US buyers to pay $4 to $4.25, FOB Miami, for containers to break even.


A more appropriate price would be 10% higher than it is now, and the source predicts prices, after dropping off a bit, will rebound again in the next couple weeks.


“Nobody can afford to lose money,” the source said.


Demand is a little quiet in the US currently, but that is part of the typical seasonal eb and flow.


“Demand is usually a little off now, and it picks up the last week of August and first week of September, when people go back into their working modes,” he said. “Demand and supply are okay right now.”


Higher costs not going away

It is possible that Chilean pricing is reaching a new normal, considering farmers need to be in the current range in order to make a profit.


“We need sustained higher prices for the industry to be viable,” another source in the industry said, adding that costs aren’t likely to come down.


The new costs of raising fish, which include baths to rid salmon of sea lice, medication to prevent SRS and other sanitary measures such as early harvesting of fish that are in unhealthy conditions, are all part of doing business in Chile from now on, he said.


“These are structural costs – they’re not a temporary increase; they’re here to stay. The cost increase is part of this ‘2.0 salmon farming in Chile’,” the source said.


That said, this year may be worse for diseases than usual, and costs might come down in some areas of farms in the future, said Igal Neiman, corporate marketing & planning director at the Chilean salmon farmer Camanchaca.


“There are places that are perfect, without any problem, and there are places that are worse,” Neiman told Undercurrent, and region 12 is doing much better than regions 10 and 11, said Rabobank analyst Valeria Mutis.


According to a Rabobank report dated July 2013 and included in a previous Undercurrent story, gross figures show the industry was losing about $0.55 per kilo in the fourth quarter of the year, slightly more than the quarter before, according to Rabobank.


The industry was also losing money in the third quarter and barely eeking out a profit in the second. This most likely was largely the result of low prices last year.


Jeanine Stewart, Undercurrent News

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UNITED STATES: Alaska Fish Factor - Pink Salmon Catch Stronger than Expected

UNITED STATES: Alaska Fish Factor - Pink Salmon Catch Stronger than Expected | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Alaska salmon catches are poised to blow past the pre-season forecast of 179 million fish due to a plug of pinks that is coming in stronger than expected.

“We are going to be short on sockeyes by five million or so, and we’re probably not going to make the chum salmon numbers either. So we’ll have to go over with pinks, but at the rate things are going that is entirely possible,” said Geron Bruce, deputy director of Fish and Game's Commercial Fisheries division.


As of Friday the total pink salmon catch had surged to nearly 114 million (the forecast was for 118 million pinks, 73% higher than last year) – and catches were still coming on strong.


Three regions provide the bulk of Alaska’s pink pack: Southeast, Prince William Sound and Kodiak. At Southeast, where 15 million humpies were taken in a single week, the catch had reached 43 million and it’s likely to exceed the 54 million forecast.


“The next two weeks are typically the peak, so if catches stay at that level, that’s another 30 million pink salmon,” Bruce said.


At Prince William Sound, the pink returns were so strong fishermen were put on trip limits due to a lack of tender capacity. Still, they took 10 million pinks in a matter of days and the total PWS catch was approaching 57 fish (the forecast was just over 38 million).


Kodiak’s pink catch had topped 9 million out of a 17 million pink forecast with steady catches coming in. Even the Alaskas Peninsula was yielding larger catches than usual, topping 5 million pink salmon so far.


At a dock price of roughly 45 cents a pound, pinks will really boost the value of Alaska’s total salmon fishery this summer.


“When you’re talking about the volumes in these fisheries, that really drives up the value rapidly,” Bruce said.


For the past couple of years, some salmon runs have peaked and waned early, as with Bristol Bay reds this summer. Bruce cautioned there is a chance that pinks could be following a similar trend.

“But if the catches continue to remain high over the next week, we could end up close to 200 million pinks,“ he said.


If so, that will break the record pink salmon catch of 161 million taken in 2005.

Halibut hate - Dominos’ Pizza is getting heat from Alaskans for a new national television ad called “Powered by Pizza.” The ill-advised campaign claims pizza is “the food of big ideas” – and in doing so, the ad demeans halibut.


The narration says: “At Domino’s we take our job seriously because we know Americans order pizza when they are building, creating and innovating. Without pizza, school projects and music albums might go unfinished…startups unstarted…No one is coming up with a world-changing idea over halibut. No way.”


At the same time, an on-screen actor takes a mouthful of halibut with a plastic fork, and then spits it with a look of disgust on his face!


Alaskans quickly let Domino’s know of their displeasure. Senator Mark Begich entered the fray telling Domino’s they obviously have never sampled one of Alaska’s iconic fish, and urging them to stop being “a halibut hater.”


Jeanne Devon of The Mudflats blog fame contacted Domino’s and got a quick response from Tim McIntyre, VP of Communications.


“In no way did we intend to disparage the hard working men and women in the fishing industry… It was simply meant to be a bit of humor,” he said, adding that Domino’s was “sincerely sorry for any offense the ad caused.”


But…. the fish offensive ad is still running nationwide! Well. Domino’s is obviously oblivious to the fact that the adage “fish is brain food” is not just an old wives tale. Several studies in Europe and the US have proven, among other things, that pregnant women who eat fish promote brain development in their babies. And elderly people who eat fish at least once a week are less likely to develop dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. Now, that’s brain power!


A “Team Fish” campaign is gaining steam and urging Alaskans to contact Domino’s with Twitter – using the hash tag “Powered by Halibut” or via Domino’s Facebook page. So far the response to the ad has reportedly been intense – and it is likely to remain so until Domino’s Pizza pulls the attack ad that treats halibut as an inedible food choice.



Fish watch - There will be even fewer sockeye salmon to meet strong market demand this summer. By now, British Columbia’s Fraser River reds are usually filling orders as the Alaska catch tails off – but dismal returns mean it is likely there won’t even be a Fraser fishery. The lack of reds will push up prices even higher. … Alaska longliners have taken 61% of the nearly 22 million pound halibut catch limit. For sablefish, the catch tally was at 68% of the 28 million pound quota. … Southeast Alaska’s Dungeness crab fishery ended August 8, a week earlier than usual. That catch should top 2 million pounds and the dungy fishery will reopen October 1…. The year’s first king crab fishery is underway at Norton Sound where 35 small boat crabbers have a half million pound quota. The golden king crab fishery way out along the Aleutian Islands starts August 15 – that harvest will top 6 million pounds. … Pollock boats are back out on the water in the Bering Sea; trawlers also are targeting cod, and pot cod opens September 1. In the Gulf, pollock reopens on August 25, mostly around Kodiak. Cod opens for all gears in the Gulf (except jig) on September 1.



TheFishSite News Desk


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ECUADOR: Government Assists Mackerel Fishery Project

ECUADOR: Government Assists Mackerel Fishery Project | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and Fisheries (MAGAP), through the National Fisheries Institute (INP), has signed an agreement with the fishing company Pendras SA over cooperation and technical assistance in the research of mackerel.

The agreement is for a research campaigns in the Gulf of Guayaquil which uses acoustic methods to study the population size and distribution of small pelagic fish, with an emphasis on the mackerel fishery, captured by sardine purse seiners.


The purpose is to evaluate the potential of this fishery and its relationship to the environment so that the authorities can make better future decisions over the fishing gear used and management measures to be taken into account to ensure a sustainable fishery.


TheFishSite News Desk


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EVENT: 13-15 September 2013, Wroclaw, Poland - Zoological and Botanical Fair and Exhibition ZOO BOTANICA 2013

EVENT: 13-15 September 2013, Wroclaw, Poland - Zoological and Botanical Fair and Exhibition ZOO BOTANICA 2013 | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The 12th edition of Zoological and Botanical Fair and Exhibition ZOO BOTANICA 2013 will be held from the 13th until the 15th September 2013 in the Centennial Hall in Wroclaw, Poland.

Zoo-Botanica is the most important event of zoological-botanical branch in Poland. The dynamically developing fair and exhibition with 10 years of tradition is the unique meeting place providing the professionals and hobbyists with the opportunity to exchange experience, present newest trends and products as well as direct contact with customers.

The 11th edition of ZOO BOTANICA last year gathered almost 200 exhibitors, among them leading Polish companies, and over 18 thousand visitors. 


The 12th Zoological-Botanical Fair and Exhibition is a great possibility to  establish fruitful business contacts and to get acquainted with the rich offer of leading Polish and international companies.

Bearing in mind the dynamic development of zoological-botanical market, we aim to offer you the possibility to broaden your professional knowledge. Alike past years, together with experienced professionals, we have prepared for you a diversified educational offer of lectures and seminars targeted to professionals, including the veterinary panel. You are also given the chance to get to know innovative products and solutions, available on the market, presented in the Novelty Area.

MOREOVER we have prepared numerous attractions and contests, including:

- Dog and Cat Festival: shows of pedigree dogs and cats, agility, fashion and grooming shows


- Open Shrimp Championships


- Aquaristic Exhibition with Nationwide Competition for the Most Interesting Aquarium and Tanganyika Lake Exhibition


- Terraristic Exhibition with Nationwide Competition for the Most Interesting Terrarium


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UNITED STATES: NOAA Approves Scott Request for Commercial Fisheries Failure Declaration

UNITED STATES: NOAA Approves Scott Request for Commercial Fisheries Failure Declaration | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Some great news for those people who've been struggling to make a living harvesting oysters.


The National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA, has finally approved Governor Rick Scott's request for a commercial fisheries failure declaration.


Scott made the request in September of 2012, after the oysters all but disappeared from Apalachicola Bay.


Last week the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission laid the blame for the oyster crisis on the US Army Corps of Engineers.


Wildlife officials say Atlanta is taking too much fresh water out of the tri-river system, causing the oysters to die from too much salt in the bay water.


Scott say congress now needs to provide finding to help the industry recovery.



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ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: Ψάρια υπό εξαφάνιση στη Δυτική Κρήτη

ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: Ψάρια υπό εξαφάνιση στη Δυτική Κρήτη | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |
Οι ψαράδες έχουν απευθυνθεί στους επιστήμονες του Ινστιτούτου Θαλάσσιας Βιολογίας προκειμένου το κορυφαίο Ιδρυμα να διερευνήσει το φαινόμενο αυτό.


Είδος προς εξαφάνιση είναι τα ψάρια στη Δυτική Κρήτη φέτος το καλοκαίρι! Αλιείς μιλούν για πρωτοφανή εξαφάνιση όλων των γνωστών ψαριών της εποχής σε όλον τον θαλάσσιο χώρο από τη Γραμπούσα μέχρι και την Παλαιόχωρα.


Είναι χαρακτηριστικό ότι οι γνωστοί σε όλους τους καλοφαγάδες 'σκάροι', το καλοκαιρινό ψάρι που ευδοκιμούσε στα νερά της Κρήτης, μετριούνται πλέον στα δάκτυλα του ενός... χεριού!


Οι ψαράδες έχουν απευθυνθεί στους επιστήμονες του Ινστιτούτου Θαλάσσιας Βιολογίας προκειμένου το κορυφαίο Ιδρυμα να διερευνήσει το φαινόμενο αυτό.




Είμαι 55 χρόνια στη θάλασσα και πρώτη φορά βλέπω τέτοιο πράγμα. Δεν βρίσκουμε ούτε λέπι! Τα καΐκια έχουν αράξει, έχουμε διώξει το προσωπικό, αναρωτιόμαστε όλοι τι γίνεται, είναι τα λόγια του Γιάννη Μαρτσάκη, επαγγελματία αλιέα από τη Δυτική Κρήτη και συγκεκριμένα από τη Χρυσοσκαλίτισσα, διαβάζουμε στα χανιώτικα Νέα. 


Τέτοιες εποχές άλλες χρονιές τα ψαράδικα ήταν καθημερινά στα ανοικτά ψαρεύοντας, ειδικά σκάρους, το ψάρι της εποχής.


Ρίχνεις το δίκτυ και βγάζεις 1 - 2 κιλά ψάρια το πολύ και αυτά των 100 γραμμαρίων το καθένα, μεγάλα πουθενά. Δεν υπάρχει θέμα υπεραλίευσης, ειδικά στον σκάρο. Δεν ξέρουμε πραγματικά τι συμβαίνει. Ξεκινούσαμε από τον Ιούνιο κάθε χρόνο και μέχρι τον Σεπτέμβρη παλεύαμε τον σκάρο. Τώρα δεν βγάζουμε τίποτα, τονίζει ο κ. Μαρτσάκης. Στο ίδιο μήκος κύματος και ένας άλλος επαγγελματίας αλιέας ο κ. Γιώργος Χαιρετάκης. Πραγματικά σαν να έχουν εξαφανιστεί όλα τα ψάρια. Είναι απίστευτο αυτό που έχει γίνει, δεν το πιστεύουν τα μάτια μας. Ακούγονται πολλά για τις αιτίες, αλλά πραγματικά δεν ξέρουμε τι να πούμε. Η ουσία για μας είναι ότι καταστρεφόμαστε, αφού δεν βγάζουμε ούτε το μεροκάματο, λέει.




Είναι τεράστιες οι οικονομικές επιπτώσεις για μας. Περιμέναμε αυτήν την εποχή για να ανασάνουμε, αλλά πλέον τα περισσότερα σκάφη   έχουν σταματήσει τη λειτουργία τους, έχουν διώξει τους εργάτες και είναι δεμένα στα λιμάνια δηλώνει ο κ. Στέφανος Γρηγοράκης, πρόεδρος του Συλλόγου Αλιέων Κισάμου. 


Ο ίδιος δραστηριοποιείται στην περιοχή του Λαφονησίου και όπως χαρακτηριστικά αναφέρει από το 1987 που είμαι στο Λαφονήσι δεν έχει ξαναγίνει να μην πιάνουμε έναν σκάρο. Ο σκάρος έρχεται στις 10 Ιουνίου και τέλη του Σεπτέμβρη φεύγει. Φτάσαμε 10 Αυγούστου και δεν έχουμε πιάσει ούτε 30 κιλά σκάρους όλα τα αλιευτικά μαζί! Και δεν υπάρχουν και άλλα ψάρια όπως σκορπίδια.


Ο κ. Γρηγοράκης εκτιμά πως μόνο οι επιστήμονες μπορούν να εξηγήσουν το φαινόμενο. «Η μια χρονιά από την άλλη έχει πάντα μικροδιαφορές, αλλά δεν είναι δυνατόν σε όλη τη Δυτική Κρήτη, από τη Γραμπούσα μέχρι την Παλαιόχωρα, να μην υπάρχει ούτε ένα ψάρι», τονίζει.


Σκάρος ο Κρητικός


Ο σκάρος συναντάται κυρίως στο νοτιοανατολικό Αιγαίο και πολύ πιο σπάνια στις υπόλοιπες ελληνικές θάλασσες. Ψαρεύεται κυρίως από τον Ιούνιο μέχρι τον Σεπτέμβριο στη Δυτική Κρήτη με δίκτυα και παραγάδια, ενώ είναι από τα λίγα ψάρια που, αν τους αφαιρέσεις τη χολή, μπορούν να φαγωθούν και τα εντόσθιά τους.


Για τα Χανιά αποτελεί αγαπημένο έδεσμα για τους φίλους των ψαριών την καλοκαιρινή περίοδο. 


Αγνωστες οι αιτίες


Μόνο φήμες κυριαρχούν ανάμεσα στους αλιείς αναφορικά με τους λόγους που υπάρχει τόσο μεγάλη μείωση των αλιευμάτων στη Δυτική Κρήτη. Ειδικότερα, σύμφωνα με τις εκτιμήσεις τους: 


Πιθανόν οι θαλάσσιες έρευνες για το φυσικό αέριο να διατάραξαν το μικροκλίμα της περιοχής, χωρίς όμως να υπάρχει κάποια επιβεβαίωση.


Εμφάνιση σοβαρού αριθμού μεγάλων θηλαστικών (φάλαινες, δελφίνια κ.ά.), που πάλι όμως δεν μπορεί να προκαλέσουν τόσο μεγάλη ζημιά.


Υπεραλίευση. Σύμφωνα με τους ψαράδες δεν υπάρχει στην περιοχή τόσο εντατική αλιεία.


Αύξηση του αριθμού των 'Γερμανών'. Είδος ψαριού που τρέφεται στις ίδιες περιοχές με τον σκάρο και μειώνει την τροφή. Σύμφωνα όμως με τους αλιείς μεγάλη μείωση παρουσιάζουν και οι αριθμοί των 'Γερμανών'.

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EUROPEAN UNION: European Commission announces deductions from 2013 fishing quotas

EUROPEAN UNION: European Commission announces deductions from 2013 fishing quotas | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The European Commission has today announced deductions from 2013 fishing quotas for those Member States that declared having exceeded their quotas in 2012. This yearly deduction exercise allows the Commission to immediately address the damage done to the stocks overfished in the previous year and ensure a sustainable use by Member States of common fishery resources.

Maria Damanaki, Commissioner for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, said: "As we now work towards the implementation of the reformed Common Fisheries Policy, our priority is to ensure that the rules are rigorously and fairly enforced for all. I note the reduction in the total amount of overfishing as compared to last year and aim at ensuring a longer term trend in this respect. This will form part of our continued focus on enforcing control provisions, which is crucial to stopping overfishing and achieving the long-term sustainability of our stocks."

Quota deductions are operated on the same stocks that were overfished in the previous year, with further deductions made for consecutive overfishing, overfishing above 5 % or if the stock concerned is subject to a multiannual plan.

However, should a Member State have no quota available to payback its overfishing, the quantities will be deducted from an alternative stock in the same geographical area, taking into account the need to avoid discards in mixed fisheries. Deductions on alternative stocks are decided in consultation with the Member States concerned and will be published in a separate Regulation later this year.




The legal basis for deductions is Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009. It mandates the Commission to operate deductions from future quotas of the Member States that have overfished. Certain multiplying factors apply, as set out in Article 105(2) and (3) of the Regulation with a view to ensure the sustainability of the stocks.


For full list of deductions from 2013, see here:

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WORLDWIDE: Ending child labour for girls and boys in the fisheries sector

WORLDWIDE: Ending child labour for girls and boys in the fisheries sector | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |
More than 129 million child labourers in the world work in the agriculture sector, which includes fisheries, aquaculture, forestry and livestock. These girls and boys, between the ages of 5 and 17, are performing work that interferes with their education or damages their health or personal development.


Bernd Seiffert, FAO’s focal point for child labour in agriculture, explains what child labour means for girls and boys in the fisheries and aquaculture sector and how it can be eliminated.


What are some of the tasks boys and girls undertake in fisheries that can be labelled ‘child labour’?

According to the ILO, fishing at sea is probably the most dangerous occupation in the world.

The type of work boys and girls do varies from situation to situation but, in general, boys are more often involved in fishing out at sea on fishing vessels.  Some of the dangers are night fishing and diving, where children run the risk of drowning and other injuries.

Girls are more often involved in processing fish, frequently being exposed, for example, to smoke inhalation.

Boys and girls help build fishing boats, and this often exposes them to dust, sawdust, chemicals and loud noises, not to mention the fact that they also use dangerous tools.

What are some of the consequences for boys and girls working as child labourers?

Exposure to hazards on the job can lead to injuries, physical exhaustion and diseases. Child labourers can also experience harassment and violence. All this can result in permanent disabilities or psychological damage. Some health problems or disabilities appear later in life. For example, children who carry heavy loads often develop musculoskeletal problems in adulthood, others exposed to toxic chemicals develop cancer.

Besides the physical and psychological effects, men and women who worked as child labourers have a low probability of finding decent work. Their limited education prevents them from getting decent wage jobs as adults. For example, interviews with young fishermen at Lake Malawi found that several who had started working on boats as young water bailers without finishing primary school education, later wanted to work on the business side of the sector but couldn’t since they weren’t able to read or write.

The consequences of little or no education are dire for boys and girls. We know that girls’ education has a direct impact on nutrition and health outcomes and can over time decrease infant, child and maternal mortality rates. Education can also help to protect against HIV and AIDS.

Are there statistics on child labour in fisheries?

We know that sixty percent of the world’s child labourers work in agriculture as a whole, but a breakdown by subsector is not available, though badly needed so policy makers can take informed decisions.

Why are parents sending their sons and daughters to work in this sector?

There are many reasons, depending on the specific context, but the main one is poverty. Some parents rely on the entire family’s help to meet their basic needs.  

Fisheries and aquaculture are attractive sectors, as they offer a chance to make quick money.

Another reason is cultural attitudes in remote fishing communities. In many communities, there is a low level of awareness of what constitutes child labour as opposed to legally acceptable work. In some cases, the quality of education may not be seen as relevant and useful and in other cases there may be no schools or parents may not be able to afford the cost of schooling.  
What is FAO doing to improve the situation?

FAO and ILO have supported government officials, agricultural and other organizations in Malawi, for example, to develop a rich national framework for action to end child labour in agriculture, which includes fisheries.

The framework for action is a strategy that calls for various ministries and civil society groups to each do their part in eliminating the root causes and to take up preventive measures to end child labour. For example, it calls for improvements in the agricultural sector to reduce the demand for child labour - decent working conditions and wages for workers, the sustainable management of natural resources and more labour-saving technologies. It urges more investments in education, school feeding programmes and other incentives, so parents can send their sons and daughters to school. The strategy also reaches the grassroots level, pressing local communities to take part in child labour monitoring systems and spread the word about the harm caused by young children working in hazardous conditions.

In Cambodia, where a lot of families struggle to obtain enough food and money to send their children to school, FAO and ILO supported the development of a strategy to end child labour in fisheries and training of Fisheries Administration officials.

Essentially, Cambodia is trying to eliminate what’s driving children into hazardous fisheries work and what’s causing fisheries to use inexpensive labour. They decided to include child labour concerns in the 10-year Strategic Planning Framework for Fisheries and the Cambodia Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and other laws and policies.

The Community Fisheries organizations themselves are reinforcing Cambodia’s strategy to eliminate child labour in the sector. In their plans to ensure that small-scale fisherfolk can make a decent living in the future, they call for creating a community fisheries fund that includes the prevention of child labour as one of the criteria for determining who can borrow money.

What needs to be done to end child labour?

Child labour can only end if government officials, development partners, the private sector, fishers’ organizations and fishing communities work together. The issues of poverty, food security and child labour must all be addressed through coherent policies that are socially and environmentally sustainable.

Preventing child labour entails enabling girls and boys to attend school and grow up healthy with good work prospects.

Parents and fishers have to understand the dangers and the potential damage such work can do to children, the sector, the environment and the economy. That way, local communities can work with governments to choose and apply solutions that best respond to their needs.

To this end, FAO and ILO have produced a publication, “Guidance on addressing child labour in fisheries and aquaculture,” explaining how to prevent, protect and withdraw girls and boys from child labour.

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ΕΚΔΟΣΗ: Προοπτικές Υδατοκαλλιέργειας Μακροφυκών στην Ελλάδα

Σωτήρης Ορφανίδης, Ελληνικός Γεωργικός Οργανισμός "Δήμητρα" - Ινστιτούτο Αλιευτικής Έρευνας


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DOCUMENTO: La Acuicultura En España 2013

Publicado el informe LA ACUICULTURA EN ESPAÑA 2013


 - Hoy se ha hecho público el documento que detalla la situación de la acuicultura en España.


 - El informe ha sido elaborado por APROMAR junto con la Asociación Nacional de Productores de Acuicultura Continental (ESACUA) y en colaboración con la Fundación OESA.


 - En esta ocasión el informe cubre todos los tipos de acuicultura, tanto marina como continental, y no sólo de peces sino también de moluscos, crustáceos y algas.  


8 de julio de 2013. Cada año desde 2004, APROMAR ha venido publicando un informe que expone la situación de la acuicultura en España en el marco del desarrollo de esta actividad en Europa y en el mundo. Además de mostrar las estadísticas de producción y comercialización más actuales, los sucesivos documentos han expuesto los avances y retos de la actividad. 


Para le edición de 2013, y con vistas a dar mayor valor al documento, se decidió que el informe abarcara todas las modalidades de acuicultura que se realizan en España, ofreciendo una visión completa del sector. Para ello APROMAR ha elaborado el informe junto con la Asociación Nacional de Productores de Acuicultura Continental (ESACUA) y ha contado con la colaboración de la Fundación Observatorio Español de Acuicultura (OESA).


También han sido consultadas las entidades: Denominación de Origen Protegida Mexillón de Galicia, Organización de Productores Piscicultores (OPP) y Organización Nacional de Productores de Ostra y Almeja (ONPROA). El informe expone la situación de la acuicultura en el mundo y en la Unión Europea para adentrarse a continuación en la acuicultura española.


Del sector acuícola español detalla los tipos de establecimientos de acuicultura, el empleo, el consumo de pienso, las estadísticas de producción y su comercialización. 


Además de repasar el presente y futuro de la acuicultura en España, se incluyen en el documento una serie de hojas técnicas informativas que analizan la visión de la EATiP para la acuicultura europea, la ausencia de Anisakis en el pescado de acuicultura, el sistema de ADS y FEADSA, la alimentación de los peces de acuicultura, la conversión de peces en pescado (FI-FO) y la red Natura 2000 y la acuicultura.


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