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In its annual report of 2014 activities, the European Fisheries Control Agency outlines how it assisted Member States and the European Commission to prepare for the monitoring of the landing obligation. This included rolling out new data network systems, adding modules for training fisheries’ inspectors and finding synergies with Member states for joint monitoring efforts.
Overall, EFCA’s inspections rose by a significant 20% compared to the previous year, reaching approximately 12.600 inspections in 2014. The Agency also played an active role at an international level. It provided capacity building operations in non-EU countries in support of sustainable fisheries partnerships agreements, it contributed to the evaluation of non-EU governments to fight IUU activities and assisted EU delegations in the Regional Fisheries Management Organisations. During 2014, the EFCA trained 850 fisheries inspectors.
In a recent seminar on the landing obligation, the Agency committed to continue its cooperation with Member states to facilitate compliance and a level playing field. It is ready to extend its cooperation where this is required.
EFCA Administrative Board adopts its annual report for 2014
and endorses the results of the seminar on the Landing Obligation
"The EFCA contributed to assist the smooth implement of the new features of the reformed Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and particularly worked hard with the Member States to prepare the monitoring of the landing obligation by brokering cooperation, promoting interoperability and building common capacities," said Pascal Savouret, Executive Director.
ALL JOINT DEPLOYMENT PLANS
Days of activity
Ratio of infringements per inspection
The Administrative Board endorsed the results of the seminar on the monitoring of the landing obligation which took place yesterday. The seminar endorsed that the EFCA will continue cooperating with the Member States regional fora on request to facilitate compliance, harmonisation and a level playing field, to strengthen and extend the cooperation to more species when appropriate and to facilitate inter-regional cooperation.
Egypt’s plan to expand the Suez Canal threatens the sea’s fragile biodiversity.
The Mediterranean Sea is among the world’s great environmental jewels. The sea is highly saline, almost entirely enclosed by land and contains immense biodiversity. Scientists have long worried that its health is imperiled. Swelling coastal populations and ship traffic have brought overfishing and pollution. Climate change threatens to roil the waters still further.
One threat that is now gaining particular attention: the arrival of invasive species. One of the Mediterranean’s few outlets is the 146-year-old Suez Canal, which links it to the Red Sea and the ocean beyond. This creates a vital shipping route between Europe and Asia. But scientists fear that an expansion of the canal could bring more invasive species to the Mediterranean’s fragile waters.
Last year, Egypt announced plans to quickly build 45 more miles of waterway — a parallel canal, in part — so that ships can pass through more quickly than they do now. With the existing canal, they often must wait because the channel is narrow — about 1,000 feet wide at its slimmest point.
Because of the Suez and its expansion, the Mediterranean Sea’s problem with invasive species is becoming “worse than anywhere else on earth,” said Bella Galil, a senior scientist with Israel’s National Institute of Oceanography.
Among the unpopular arrivals are venomous jellyfish, which have unnerved tourists and sometimes obstructed water intakes belonging to electric-power or desalination plants, in addition to harming the natural ecology. Another worrisome invader is the puffer fish, sometimes known as the silver-cheeked toadfish, which releases a neurotoxin that can harm other fish and humans who consume it.
The existing Suez Canal has already served as a conduit. Invasive species are particularly concentrated in the eastern part of the Mediterranean, in the vicinity of the Suez Canal. The canal is already seen as “as one of the most significant pathways of marine invasions globally,” and it has ushered more than 350 nonnative species — including the puffer fish — into the Mediterranean, according to a letter sent in December from Julia Marton-Lefèvre, then director general of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, to Karmenu Vella, the European commissioner in charge of the environment, maritime affairs and fisheries.
Dr. Galil said, “Marine invasions are forever,” because it is impossible to remove an invasive species from the sea after it has arrived. The sea and its complex food web, she added, are “teetering.”
Some invasive species hitch rides in the ballast water of ships, an issue that the International Maritime Organization is trying to address through new rules regarding the treatment of ballast water to remove stowaways. Others cling to ship hulls, but many creatures simply swim through the Suez Canal itself.
“The expansion of the Suez Canal (enlarging, deepening) will make the environment within the canal more stable and thus will be easier to new species to cross it and invade potentially the Mediterranean,” Michel Bariche, an expert on Mediterranean marine issues at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, said in an email.
Once they arrive, successful invasive species often outcompete natives, he said, because they tend to be more efficient at basic functions like obtaining food or reproducing.
Backers of the canal expansion cite strong economic opportunities. José Herrera, the parliamentary secretary for competitiveness and economic growth for the island nation of Malta, said that he expected the Suez expansion to benefit the Mediterranean region. “Having more traffic per se does not necessarily mean adverse effects,” he said. Malta, which lies along the major shipping lane through the sea between Europe and Asia, has been working to expand as a hub for shipping and logistics.
“Economic growth should always be promoted, but in sustainable ways,” Mr. Herrera said.
Dr. Galil said that the Suez project could learn from a similar expansion that is underway for the Panama Canal, which was built more than a century ago. The Panama Canal, she said, included an environmental impact assessment process that scientists participated in, and measures are in place to help prevent alien species from crossing between the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans.
“From a bio-invasion point of view, the Panama Canal is well run,” she said, noting that locks help prevent water transfers between the two oceans.
A study ( http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ddi.12260/pdf ) last fall in the journal Diversity and Distributions, however, has raised some concerns about increased opportunities for invasive species following the Panama Canal expansion.
But plans for the Suez continue unabated. Egypt is proceeding quickly with the expansion and has said, ambitiously, that it hopes to be done later this year.
The European Union is in touch with the Egyptian government about its plans, and watching closely. The environment, maritime affairs and fisheries arm of the European Commission is aware of the invasive species concerns, and has information suggesting that an environmental impact assessment is being carried out, according to Enrico Brivio, a spokesman.
Solutions to the invasive species problem could include the establishment of a barrier of salty water, in combination with locks, that would discourage some species from swimming through to the Mediterranean.
The invasive species issues come atop other, mounting problems affecting the Mediterranean, such as overfishing and climate change. Because the Mediterranean is enclosed almost entirely by land, climate change especially could be tough on native species.
“It means that species that might change their distribution and move farther north have an upper boundary,” said Catherine Longo, a project scientist with the Marine Science Institute at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Correction: March 4, 2015
An earlier version of this article misstated the nature of Egypt’s plans to build a new waterway. The plans are for 45 additional miles of waterway, not a waterway 45 miles long. By KATE GALBRAITH - www.nytimes.com PHOTO: Marcial Guillen/European Pressphoto Agency
In 2014 the Nor-Fishing Foundation established the Nor-Fishing Foundation Travel Award, which enables one person from the developing world to visit Aqua Nor or Nor-Fishing, an important national and international meeting place to get updated on innovation and technology in the fisheries industry.
The Travel Award covers the cost of air travel from the winner’s home to Trondheim, where the selected candidate will spend a week as a guest of the Nor-Fishing Foundation, including hotel accommodation and some spending money. The winner will also be invited to the main events during the exhibition where he can make contact with a wide network of experts.
The successful candidate should be involved in aquaculture in some way, either as a fish farmer, educator, senior public official, or similar. The winner will be expected to write reports about the experience and to promote Aqua Nor in a general way after returning to the home country.
The deadline for the application is 1 June 2015 and the winner will be announced by the end of June 2015.
Aqua Nor will take place in Trondheim, Norway, 18-21 August 2015.
Applications can be sent by air mail to:
The Nor-Fishing Foundation
or by e-mail: email@example.com
For further information, please contact:
Mr. Erik Hempel, Director of Communications, Tel.: +47 9084 1124, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Food security will remain a significant issue for the Arab countries due to supply uncertainty and a growing population.
The Arab countries have to import more than half of their food commodities under conditions and the rising level of food prices for their imports. Such a rise in prices, especially in the poorer countries have pushed prices of food commodities, including seafood products, preventing the largest sections of the populations in several Arab countries to face extreme difficulties in feeding themselves.
While several Arab countries, particularly the Arabian Gulf countries, have the financial resources to purchase food commodities in spite of the falling price of oil, their main export commodity, it is nevertheless facing the issue of how to feed its rapidly growing population while also maintaining the prevailing living standards. While most Arab countries depend on imports to supplement their food supplies, they will have to increase their import bills thus ending an era of cheap food. The Arab countries are a highly import-oriented economy as they face a shortage of water resources for their agriculture, declining capture fisheries resources as well as rising costs of imports of raw materials. Besides, there is a large demand from a young, growing population.
FAO reports that the combined total fish production of the 22 states from all sources in 2012 reached 3.9 million tonnes of which 1.1 million tonnes (28.2 %) from marine and freshwater aquaculture. The combined total imports of seafood commodities in 2011 reached 961,000 tonnes valued at US$2.32 billion while the combined exports were 721,000 tonnes valued at US $1.69 billion resulting in a substantially negative trade balance in quantity by 240,000 tonnes and in value by $630,000. Moreover, most of the Arab exports are Moroccan canned products to outside the Arab region and most of the imports are from outside the region. Inter- regional trade is rather limited. The per capita of seafood consumption is around 10 kg/annum while the international average is 19.2 kg/annum.
Although fisheries and aquaculture do not contribute significantly to the overall economies of most Arab states, but it provides significant employment, food security and livelihood to many scattered fishing communities in coastal areas. The negative impact of climate change on fisheries resources is already evident in the declining catches from capture fisheries. The artisanal and small scale fisheries sector which land over 85 percent of fish will be severely affected by climate change in their coastal areas especially that they inhabit about 18,000 km of 34,000 km the total length of the coastal zones in the Arab region.
The Arab countries demand seafood productsto supplement other food commodities for a fast growing population. The UN Population Division estimates that in 2015 the population of the Arab countries will reach 385 million people and is projected to rise to 604 million people by 2050.
The Arab region’s populations are increasing and capture fisheries resources are decreasing. Aquaculture production is on the rise to narrow the gap between supply and demand. The rising demand for fish and fishery products prompted countries to look for additional sources to increase supplies. There are some opportunities available to the Arab countries as challenges they will have to meet in order that they could develop improved ways to enhance the utilization of their fish landingsto increase supplies to help ease the food security situation and lower imports. Fish utilization includes by products from processing produces and other areas where losses can be transformed into gains. Discarding creates pollution hazardous to the environment. In general, waste and discards constitute between 30-60 % of the whole fish weight depending on species and contain 15-20 % protein. Preservation of by-catch, better utilization from fisheries processing can turn post-harvest and post-processing activities from losses to gains. With food security concerns the Arab countries with improved management and utilization of their catches and landings increase supplies and generate income as a bonus from post-harvest activities and decrease hazards of pollution to the environment.
Relationship of fisheries to food security
Fisheries and aquaculture make an important contribution to the animal protein supplies of many communities in both the industrialized and developing worlds. In 2012 world fish supplies are at around 19.2 kg per capita with a slight upward trend due to the rapidly increasing contribution from aquaculture.
The role of fish in enhancing food security lies in the importance of fish in supplementing the minimum diet of populations at large, and in particular, of sectors having low purchasing power. In addition, fish has a role to play in food security even if fish workers themselves cannot afford to eat them, as long as the fishery provides them with income sufficient to buy affordable food commodities. In most of the Arab countries especially those with high population growth rate, high per capita food consumption from local production supplemented by imports, may only be able to continue this trend as long as the importers (governments or private sectors) are able to allocate foreign currencies to continue to meet the cost of fish imports.
Fishing and fisheries contributes more than any other animal production activity to the protein intake in most of the developing regions of the world including most of the Arab countries. Fish and fishery products are important for the food security and the alleviation of poverty of many coastal populations in some sections of the populations. But, by all accounts, many wild marine and freshwater resources are on the decline and this is a source of growing economic and social problems. Fisheries, including aquaculture, provide a vital source of food, employment, recreation, trade and economic wellbeing for people throughout the world, both for present and future generations. In the Arab countries fisheries, especially in rural remote areas, are an important economic sector and aquaculture is becoming of importance, both contributing, albeit at different levels, to national development through employment, trade and food security.
Opportunities to boost fish supply to support food security
The Arab region fish processing waste and losses range between 10 to 12% of landings per year, higher in the shrimp fishery. Improving food security efforts require making better use of by-products from processing fisheries by reducing waste and losses and increasing the percentage of seafood products used for direct human consumption. Converting low-value resources into products for direct human-consumption contributes more to food security and income generation than to fish meal. Several fishing techniques are now employed to reduce and/or retrieve bycatch and process it on board/on shore and /or exporting undesired species where these have a market and with improvements in utilization more fish supplies could become available on the market.There are several sources for the fisheries sector to contribute to the supply of seafood commodities beside catching fish from capture fisheries or raising fish from aquaculture. Some of these sources include:
1. Reduction of post-harvest losses:
It is estimated that 64 percent of the World’s fish harvest is still caught in the wild, and the harvesting has reached, and in many areas exceeded, sustainable rates. This, in part, is because the means of exploitation has become so efficient. Fishing fleets use sonar, radar, aircraft and satellites to track shoals. Winches and motors, hand drift nets typically containing more than 18 tonnes of fish. This enables trawlers to increase not only catches but also the by-catch species that are inadvertently netted but are unwanted and consequently, discarded. Therefore, improving food security efforts requires making better use of fish produced by reducing post-harvest losses and increasing the percentage of fish used for direct human consumption. It is estimated that post-harvest losses caused by spoilage amount between 5-10 percent per year of total Arab landings. Converting low-value resources, into products for direct human consumption, rather than reducing them to fishmeal, would also contribute to greater food security. Post-Harvest losses are mainly caused by: - Inappropriate use of preservation methods,
- Distribution and marketing system cannot cope during glut periods,
- Physical loss from discarding of bycatch,
- Absence or shortage of cold storage facilities,
- About 25% of catch is processed into fish meal or oil.
Solutions to reduce post-harvest losses include:
- Wiser use of resources by reducing spoilage and discards,
- Converting low-value resources into products for human consumption,
- Improved fish handling on-board and on-land, processing, preservation and transportation,
- With more fish scarcity, discards and bycatch may become more commercially desirable.
2.Better utilization of by-catch:
The increasing demand for fish and fishery products prompt countries to consider ways to further utilize available resources capable of contributing to human food supplies. The fuller utilization of fishery resources, especially with regard to the utilization of products now being discarded as reject catches or as wasted by-products, is receiving increased attention worldwide. It is estimated that in some fisheries, especially shrimp fisheries in the Arabian Gulf area, has been estimated to be over 50 percent of the total catch. Options for by-catch utilization include the reduction of untargeted species by using exclusion devices (BRD) to allow fish to mature and be harvested as food fish and the recovery of by-catch and its handling on board or on shore.
5. Range of seafood products suitable for direct human consumption:
There is a range of products that may receive additional processing into other seafood products with additives for direct human consumption as well as generating extra income. These may be made from law-value fishes or from leftovers of processing such as: - Trimmings, fins, heads, sides; tails, intestines, swim bladder, ribs, livers, gall bladder, backbones, some popular bony fishes, etc. from which fish sticks, fish snacks, fish sausages, fish nuggets, fish fingers, patties, melts, paste, strips, burgers, loaves, hot dogs, cold cuts, cakes, salads, etc. can be made.
- Some of these products may be prepared as required by the local markets either breaded, marinated, buttered, seasoned, spiced, sauced, etc. and
- Any of the above products which may not be marketable locally may find markets abroad after packaging in attractive consumer pack coupled with an effective marketing strategy.
- Utilization of waste from tuna, small and large pelagic species, sharks and seashells.
Several countries in the NENA region catch several species of tuna, sardines; mackerel and anchovies. Canning plants normally utilize the main product and discard the offal as waste. The resulting left-overs may also be used to make other productsfor human consumption, for export and local markets or for fish meal.
- Waste from shrimp range from 50-70 % of whole shrimp. Valuable waste is produced from peeling and heading which can be used to generate extra income;
- Shrimp meal is used in aquaculture and in poultry feed to produce deep colored egg yolks which is important for sustainability;
- Chitin/chitosan, available in the shrimp heads, skeleton and shells, may be used in poultry feed to increase weight by 12 %;
- As a chemical, it inhibit fungal infestation of plants, in recycling water and for several medical uses; and
- It is non-allergic, harmless and has great potential in external and internal surgery applications.
7. Range of products from waste and losses not suitable for human consumption
- Fish skins, scales, undesired small bony fishes; waste from crustacean; waste from canneries of small and large pelagic species; jelly fish, shark parts, seashells and other offal;
- Undesired products for direct human consumption may be converted into various other products which generate extra income for fishermen, farmers, processers and traders; and
- These products include pet and livestock feed, industrial and pharmaceutical products that could be manufactured from bycatch, by-products and waste.
Fish Scales are about 4-10 % of fish. It is a major component of fish processing waste and often discarded with other fish waste. Scales also has some potential uses:
- Scales may be used for heavy metal removal and and as coagulant for the recovery of protein pigments from waste water;
- Preparing high value products including protein bars, cereal bars, protein drinks, smoothies, and joint health and pharmaceutical products;
- Food supplement to improve low bone mineral density in malnutrition and joint diseases;
Fish scales are used as raw material in collagen-based products such as skin moisturizers, anti-aging creams, wrinkle removers, hand creams, cleaning gels, Botox knock-offs and are safe to humans. Fish scales are used in cosmetics, decorations, jewelry making and ornamentation.
- After consuming the meat, skins are saved, cleaned with detergents and turned into various products;
- These include boots, mittens, bags, parkas, shoes, purses; hats, belts, garments in several colors for human use;
- Authentic, genuine fish leather are recycled from skins of fish such as carp, perch, seabass, tilapia and salmon;
- Major brands such as Prada, Gucci, Ferragamo, Dior; Nike and Puma use fish leather; and
- They are also suitable for bookbinding, jewelry making and several other uses.
9. Utilization of by-products as fish meal, fish silage for pet , poultry and livestock feed Small boney fish caught in trawls and other trash fish and offal from processing that are not suitable for human consumption could find other uses :
- Main utilization of such waste should be milled into manufacturing fish meal mainly for aquaculture;
- Arab region markets for pet foods such as cats, dogs, birds, and aquatic pets etc. is growing and will help generate extra income; and
- Production of livestock and poultry is increasing. Some countries utilize dried fish for animal feed due to its high protein content.
10. Pet and livestock feed & fish meal and Oil from fish by-products
In terms of added-value from fish waste, the least attractive means of by-product utilization is as a fertilizer.
- Some Arab countries try to develop an arable agricultural industry;
- Second to irrigation, important fertilizers are the main cost constraint;
- Large quantities of sun-dried fish are used as soil conditioners which is a good outlet for bycatch to sun dry unmarketable fish for fertilizers;
- Fish fertilizers provide an excellent source of nutrition for plants and the soil; and Fish fertilizers also help improve microorganisms in the soil and help increase crop growth and microbial activity.
- Arab countries has a rapidly growing population which could reach 604 million people by 2050;
- In addition to supplies of seafood, better utilization of bycatch, by-products and waste from post-harvest activities increases market supplies and generate extra income for fishermen, fish farmers, processers and traders;
- Less bycatch means less time for sorting through target catch and the targeted catch would keep better quality and price;
- In order to increase supplies, a comprehensive approach required for proper handling, processing and marketing techniques and product(s) development;
- Better utilization of resulting by-products contributes to extra food supplies for human consumption and income as well as for other useful industrial uses; and
- Public and private initiatives are needed for improvements in utilizing bycatch and waste mainly in the small-scale sector as well as the planned aquaculture projects planned by several Arab countries.
The above set of measures may be taken, in part or in whole, by Arab fisheries companies and responsible institutions and the private sector which are responsible for producing more fish domestically, in order to reach better and more sustainable growth in fish production. These measures may be to not only increase fish and fishery products on the markets as a means of reducing or controlling the rise in prices but also may help reduce imports thus preserving hard currencies especially for Arab countries that are pressed for foreign exchange.
As part of its efforts to interact closely with the global fisheries and seafood industry, FAO will participate in the up-coming North Atlantic Seafood Forum (NASF) in Bergen, Norway 3- 5 March. Headed by Arni Mathiesen - Assistant Director General for Fisheries and Aquaculture, FAO will be present with several high-level representatives. Mr. Mathiesen will deliver an NASF opening address March 4th addressing “Outlook for world seafood trade to 2030”.
Says Assistant Director General Mathiesen: “2015 is an exciting year for us at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Not only does FAO itself celebrate 70 years, but we also mark the twentieth anniversary of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. We are proud to mark this important milestone for sustainable fisheries here with you at the 10th NASF this year”.
The Code, laying forth principles and standards for national and international efforts to ensure sustainable exploitation of aquatic living resources, was unanimously adopted at the FAO Conference on 31 October 1995 by all FAO Member countries.
We believe that the debate and unanimous decision were quite progressive for the time. Even twenty years later, the principles of the Code are robust and form the basis for more recent international agreements, including instru ments in the fight against IUU fishing, and the guidelines on small-scale fisheries guidelines adopted last year. The Code is also important for eco-labelling issues, for which FAO has developed a number of guidelines for certification.
Moreover, the Code is also the basis for the Blue Growth Initiative. FAO is actively promoting Blue Growth as a coherent approach for the sustainable, integrated and socio-economically sensitive management of oceans and wetlands, focusing on capture fisheries, aquaculture, ecosystem services, trade and social protection of coastal communities.
Today, informed consumers are increasingly aware of and vocal about the need to safeguard our natural resources for future generations. Therefore, the Code of Conduct and the Blue Growth initiative are more important than ever to ensure consumers as well as industry stakeholders that their choices are sustainable.
We believe that industry is an important partner for FAO in working together to ensure that sustainable approaches meet an increased demand for fish and fish products for a growing population. As illustrated in the 2014 State of World Fisheries And Aquaculture (SOFIA), figures show that world capita fish consumption increased from an average of 9.9 kg in the 1960s, to 19.2 kg in 2012. And our most recent estimates indicate that this reached 20 kg per capita in 2014. As also reported in SOFIA, fish provide more than 2.9 billion people with about 20 percent of their animal protein, and 4.3 billion people with about 15 percent of such proteins.
Meanwhile, the aggregate FAO Fish price index increased markedly from early 2002, reaching a record high in October 2013. And after some weakening since then, prices are rising once again.
The latest SOFIA also reports that aquaculture continues to grow, albeit at a slowing rate. According to FAO figures, aquaculture attained another all-time high in 2012, with 90. 4 million tonnes (valued at $137.7 billion USD).
We believe that there are more opportunities than ever before for the fisheries sector to play a key role in ensuring food security for a world population expected to reach 9 billion by 2050. FAO’s mandate focuses on food security – the ability to produce enough safe fish for food at affordable prices for world populations.
To meet these objectives, partnerships with industry are crucial. And as informed consumers make purchasing decisions that increasingly pose the difficult questions about sustainability and global impact when purchasing locally, partnerships between FAO, governments, partner institutions, and industry are even more relevant today than they were in the past.
We look forward to close engagement with industry over these days at NASF, and in the years ahead, as we work in partnership to ensure the adoption of the principles of the Code of Conduct as the basis for the Blue Growth Initiative, while simultaneously producing enough safe and nutritious food fish to meet the needs of our growing population.
FAO representatives will participate in numerous discussions during the two days of the conference.
For more information, please contact Jose Estors-Carballo, for communication issues, please contact Kimberly Sullivan
Οι εξελίξεις στην κυριότερες αγορές για την τσιπούρα και το λαβράκι
Σημάδια υποχώρησης δείχνει η παραγωγή του κλάδου ιχθυοκαλλιεργειών στην Τουρκία το τρέχον έτος, καθώς πλέον η γείτων επικεντρώνεται στην επίτευξη κερδών. Άλλωστε έχει καταφέρει να υπερκεράσει την Ελλάδα σε ό,τι αφορά το λαβράκι, έχοντας εξελιχθεί πλέον στον μεγαλύτερο παραγωγό στον κόσμο, ενώ διεκδικεί την πρωτιά και στην παραγωγή τσιπούρας. Την ίδια ώρα οι ελληνικές εταιρείες παλεύουν ακόμη να αντιμετωπίσουν τα τεράστια χρέη τους σε συνεργασία με τους πιστωτές τους, έτσι ώστε να μην οδηγηθούν στην πτώχευση.
Σύμφωνα με την τελευταία έκθεση του FAO Globefish (πρόκειται για το παράρτημα του Οργανισμού Γεωργίας και Τροφίμων του ΟΗΕ που ασχολείται με την αλιεία) οι παράγοντες που προκάλεσαν τη ραγδαία ανάπτυξη των τουρκικών ιχθυοκαλλιεργειών είναι οι ακόλουθοι:
-Οι μεγάλες επενδύσεις και οι κρατικές επιδοτήσεις επέτρεψαν στα τουρκικά προϊόντα να πωλούνται σε χαμηλές τιμές στις διεθνείς αγορές και να γίνουν εξαιρετικά ανταγωνιστικά, ειδικά σε σύγκριση με τα αντίστοιχα ελληνικά προϊόντα. Αυτό έγινε ακόμη πιο εμφανές στις αναδυόμενες αγορές.
-Το ρωσικό εμπάργκο σε σειρά προϊόντων της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης, συμπεριλαμβανομένων και των ελληνικών ψαριών, ευνόησε τις τουρκικές εξαγωγές σε λαβράκι και τσιπούρα προς τη Ρωσία. Η Τουρκία ήταν ήδη ο κύριος προμηθευτής της ρωσικής αγοράς σε ό,τι αφορά τα παραπάνω είδη, αλλά με το εμπάργκο ισχυροποίησε περαιτέρω τη θέση της.
Βάσει της έκθεσης του FAO Globefish η μεγαλύτερη πρόκληση που αντιμετωπίζουν τώρα οι Τούρκοι είναι το κόστος των ιχθυοτροφών. Η αύξηση των διεθνών τιμών στις τροφές που χρησιμοποιούνται στις ιχθυοκαλλιέργειες οδηγούν τους Τούρκους παραγωγούς στη χρήση φθηνότερων υποκατάστατων. Αυτά, όμως, έχουν αρνητική επίδραση στην ανάπτυξη και στο βάρος των ψαριών.
Οι εξελίξεις στις κυριότερες αγορές για την τσιπούρα και το λαβράκι έχουν συνοπτικά ως εξής:
-Η ιταλική αγορά έδειξε σημάδια ανάκαμψης το 2014, κάτι που ευνόησε τις ελληνικές εταιρείες, αφού η Ιταλία αποτελεί έναν από τους κυριότερους προορισμούς των ελληνικών ψαριών ιχθυοκαλλιέργειας. Οι Ιταλοί εισάγουν ψάρια και από την Τουρκία, ενώ υπάρχει και εγχώρια παραγωγή.
-Το μερίδιο των ελληνικών ψαριών στην Ισπανία υποχώρησε από 73% το2012 σε 54% το 2014. Την ίδια ώρα το μερίδιο των τουρκικών αυξήθηκε σε 29% από 18% το 2012. Η ζήτηση αυξήθηκε και στην ισπανική αγορά, η οποία προμηθεύεται ψάρια και από τη Γαλλία.
-Στη Γαλλία το 2014 δόθηκε έμφαση στην εγχώρια παραγωγή με συνέπεια να εξασθενήσουν οι εισαγωγές.
-Οι εξαγωγές ψαριών από την Ελλάδα στο Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο μειώθηκαν δραματικά το 2014, ενώ την ίδια ώρα οι εξαγωγές ψαριών από Τουρκία διπλασιάστηκαν. Διπλασιασμός των εισαγωγών από Τουρκία παρατηρήθηκε και στις ΗΠΑ, ενώ αυξητικές τάσεις προτίμησης προς τα φθηνά τουρκικά ψάρια καταγράφονται και στη Γερμανία.
Της Δήμητρας Μανιφάβα - www.businessnews.gr
A new tool can document sustainable cod and haddock fishing in the North Atlantic. A European Good Practice standard has been created.
The European white fish industry is subject to strict rules for documentation and traceability. Many of the world’s fish stocks are highly threatened and powerful forces are warning consumers not to eat white fish. Even though the cod and haddock stocks in the North Atlantic are still healthy and sustainable, the products have problems when they come onto the market in competition with cheap farmed species from Asia and Africa, and it is far from self-evident which products are sustainable and which are not.
In the three-year WhiteFish project, industry organisations and 15 researchers from all over Europe have developed a new method and standard to document the environmental impact and sustainability of cod and haddock. This is about documenting everything from the individual fishing vessel’s environmental audit, including fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, to the fisheries’ significance to society.
«We have systemised a huge quantity of data about everything that happens relating to harvesting, processing and distribution,» says Scientist Kathryn Donnelly of Nofima.
The fisheries industry is subject to strict rules for documentation and traceability. Using the standard developed in WhiteFish, individual companies can plot information about their operation and calculate their environmental audit and sustainability, which means that individual companies can identify where they could improve in terms of the environment, welfare and economy.
The Batch-based Calculation of Sustainability Impact (BCSI) method is based on a huge quantity of collected data and makes it possible for those in the industry to make ongoing sustainability assessments for their own products.
WhiteFish has been a three-year (2012-2014) EU project, with Senior Scientist Petter Olsen of Nofima as project coordinator. The method that was developed is now being implemented and tested in practice and the associated standard is under consultation with industry organisations and other stakeholders.Project summary and opportunities
Watch video to learn more about the standard and how it can be used: https://vimeo.com/121140565
Contact personPetter Olsen - Senior Scientist
Tlf: +47 77 62 92 31 email@example.com