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GERMANY: Scientists analyse the extent of ocean acidification

GERMANY: Scientists analyse the extent of ocean acidification | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Bremerhaven, 22 August 2013. Ocean acidification could change the ecosystems of our seas even by the end of this century. Biologists at the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), have therefore assessed the extent of this ominous change for the first time. In a new study they compiled and analysed all available data on the reaction of marine animals to ocean acidification.

The scientists found that whilst the majority of animal species investigated are affected by ocean acidification, the respective impacts are very specific. The AWI-researchers present their results as an Advance Online Publication on Sunday 25 August 2013 in Nature Climate Change.

The oceans absorb more than a quarter of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere. They form a natural store without which the Earth would now be a good deal warmer. But their storage capacities are limited and the absorption of carbon dioxide is not without consequence. Carbon dioxide dissolves in water, forms carbonic acid and causes the pH value of the oceans to drop – which affects many sea dwellers. In recent years much research has therefore been conducted on how individual species react to the carbon dioxide enrichment and the acidifying water. So far the overall extent of these changes on marine animals has been largely unknown.


In order to gain an initial overview, Dr. Astrid Wittmann and Prof. Hans-Otto Pörtner from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz-Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), surveyed all studies so far conducted which dealt with the consequences of ocean acidification for marine species from five animal taxa: corals, crustaceans, molluscs, vertebrates such as fishes and echinoderms such as starfish und sea urchins. By the end they had compiled a total of 167 studies with the data from over 150 different species. In order to classify these results they used emission scenarios for carbon dioxide on which the world climate report is also based. These scenarios allow to forecast the impacts of different carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere far into the future.


The results of this new assessment are clear. “Our study showed that all animal groups we considered are affected negatively by higher carbon dioxide concentrations. Corals, echinoderms and molluscs above all react very sensitively to a decline in the pH value”, says Dr. Astrid Wittmann. Some echinoderms such as brittle stars have lower prospects of survival in carbon dioxide values predicted for the year 2100. By contrast, only higher concentrations of carbon dioxide would appear to have an impact on crustaceans such as the Atlantic spider crab or edible crab. However, the sensitivity of the animals to a declining pH value may increase if the sea temperature rises simultaneously.


Scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute have determined the consequences of ocean acidification on the fitness of the individual species using physiological features. “For example, we considered whether metabolism, growth, calcification or behaviour change in high carbon dioxide concentrations”, explains Prof. Dr. Hans-Otto Pörtner.


The reason for different taxa reacting differently to ocean acidification is that they differ fundamentally in terms of their bodily functions. Whilst fish, for example, are physically very active and are able to balance any initial fall in the pH value very well in their blood, this is more difficult for corals. They spend their entire life in one place and cannot compensate as well for a higher carbon dioxide level in their bodies because they lack efficient physiological mechanisms. Failure to compensate the pH value in the body fluids can result for example in lower coral calcification, i.e. its calcareous skeleton does not protect against erosion and it cannot be repaired or developed as well.


The presumption that fish can cope with ocean acidification better than corals also becomes evident on taking a look at the past. “We compared our results with the widespread deaths of species around 250 and 55 million years ago when CO2 concentrations were also elevated. Despite the relatively rough statements we were able to make with the as sistance of sediment samples from the past, we discovered similar sensitivities in the same animal taxa”, explains Prof. Hans-Otto Pörtner. The spread of the corals and the size of the reefs slumped drastically 55 million years ago whilst fish exhibited a great adaptive capacity and were able to further extend their dominance. 


The finding that in the past fish were not highly sensitive to acidic water surprises the scientists because current research results show that fish at the larval stage are quite sensitive to ocean acidification. “Not all effects we are currently measuring are decisive for the destiny of a species possibly in the long term”, explains Pörtner.  


The study of the biologists from the Alfred Wegener Institute was conducted in the framework of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and is intended to provide an overview of the current level of scientific knowledge on ocean acidification. “For us, it was important not only to present the research results of recent years but to assess which impacts climate change will have on species”, says Pörtner.


It is the first IPCC report to extensively document the consequences of climate change on the ecosystems of the oceans. The report will be published at the end of March 2014 and is prepared by the so-called second working group, which assesses how climate change impacts socio-economic and ecological systems.


The original title of the article of the research team is “Sensitivities of extant animal taxa to ocean acidification” which will first be appearing online on 25 August 2013 in the scientific journal Nature Climate Change. (doi: 10.1038/nclimate1982)


Further information on research into ocean acidification at the Alfred Wegener Institute is also available in the “Focus” section on the AWI website.  (


Information for editors:

Your contact partners are Prof. Hans-Otto Pörtner (phone: +49 471 4831-1307; email: Hans.Poertner(at) and Dr. Folke Mehrtens, Communication and Media Department (phone: +49 471 4831-2007; email: folke.mehrtens(at)


Follow the Alfred Wegener Institute on Twitter and Facebook for all current news and information on everyday stories from the life of the Institute.


The Alfred Wegener Institute conducts research in the Arctic and Antarctic and in the high and mid-latitude oceans.  The Institute coordinates German polar research and provides important infrastructure such as the research ice breaker Polarstern and stations in the Arctic and Antarctic to the international scientific world. The Alfred Wegener Institute is one of the 18 research centres of the Helmholtz Association, the largest scientific organisation in Germany.


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ΚΟΣΜΟΣ: Διεθνείς προσπάθειες για την απαγόρευση του επιστημονικού προγράμματος φαλαινοθηρίας της Ιαπωνίας

ΚΟΣΜΟΣ: Διεθνείς προσπάθειες για την απαγόρευση του επιστημονικού προγράμματος φαλαινοθηρίας της Ιαπωνίας | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Αυστραλία και Νέα Ζηλανδία κατά Ιαπωνίας


Η Νέα Ζηλανδία και η Αυστραλία ηγούνται της προσπάθειας να ψηφιστεί η απόφαση απαγόρευσης του επιστημονικού προγράμματος φαλαινοθηρίας της Ιαπωνίας στο ερχόμενο συνέδριο της Διεθνούς Επιτροπής Φαλαινοθηρίας.


Το συνέδριο, το οποίο θα λάβει χώρα αυτή την εβδομάδα στη Σλοβενία, είναι το πρώτο μετά την απόφαση του Διεθνούς Δικαστηρίου της Χάγης τον περασμένο Μάρτιο που έκρινε πως το ετήσιο κυνήγι φαλαινών της Ιαπωνίας στα νερά της Ανταρκτικής έχει εμπορικό χαρακτήρα και όχι επιστημονικό, επομένως είναι παράνομο.


Οι ιαπωνικές αρχές ακύρωσαν προσωρινά το κυνήγι φαλαινών για την περίοδο 2014-2015, όμως αναμένεται να παρουσιάσουν ένα νέο σχέδιο το οποίο θα πληροί τα επιστημονικά κριτήρια της Διεθνούς Επιτροπής, ώστε να μπορέσουν να συνεχίσουν τη φαλαινοθηρία.


Η Νέα Ζηλανδία απεναντίας καλεί την επιτροπή να επικυρώσει την απόφαση του Διεθνούς Δικαστηρίου και να προσθέσει ακόμα πιο αυστηρές συνθήκες για μελλοντικές άδειες κυνηγιού για επιστημονικούς λόγους. Σύμφωνα με διεθνείς ανταποκριτές η Νέα Ζηλανδία έχει εξασφαλίσει μία ισχνή πλειοψηφία παρά τις ισχυρές αντιδράσεις της Ιαπωνίας.


Η Ιαπωνία υποστηρίζεται από τα άλλα δύο μεγάλα φαλαινοθηρικά κράτη, τη Νορβηγία και την Ισλανδία, καθώς και από ένα πυρήνα μικρών αφρικανικών και νησιωτικών κρατών της Καραϊβικής, τα οποία δέχονται κριτική για τις συμφωνίες που εξασφάλισαν προκειμένου να υποστηρίξουν τις ιαπωνικές θέσεις.


Το μορατόριουμ του 1986 απαγόρευσε το εμπορικό κυνήγι φαλαινών ωστόσο η Ιαπωνία, η Νορβηγία και η Ισλανδία δε σταμάτησαν πρακτικά ποτέ. Η διαφορά είναι ότι η Ιαπωνία δεν περιορίζεται στα χωρικά της ύδατα αλλά δραστηριοποιείται και στα διεθνή ύδατα κοντά στην Ανταρκτική, επικαλούμενη επιστημονικούς λόγους όπως την παρατήρηση της σεξουαλικής ωριμότητας των φαλαινών.


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MAGAZINE: Legacy - October 2014

Complimentary, e-magazine by Wild Game Fish Conservation International. Celebrating three years of exposing risks to planet Earth's wild game fish and their ecosystems.

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WORLDWIDE: New reports reveal a turning tide for sustainable seafood

WORLDWIDE: New reports reveal a turning tide for sustainable seafood | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |


Two new reports published today by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) show the progress being made to secure the future of the world’s oceans, and a plentiful supply of seafood for generations to come.


With 29% of the world’s oceans currently overfished1, the reports show how commitments by seafood producers, retailers and consumers are delivering lasting improvements to the sustainability of marine ecosystems, fish stocks and fishing communities.


Hundreds of improvements by certified fisheries


10% of global wild caught seafood now comes from fisheries engaged in the MSC’s rigorous, scientific program for ensuring the long-term sustainability of marine ecosystems. Since 1999 more than 220 fisheries have undergone independent assessment of their environmental sustainability.


Those achieving MSC certification have made hundreds (575) of improvements to their fishing practices, including measures to reduce unwanted bycatch of endangered species, restore habitat and improve scientific understanding of marine ecosystems. MSC-certified fisheries have also committed to deliver a further 600 improvements by 2020.


Increased consumer demand and commitment to sustainable seafood


As a result of increased consumer demand and greater commitment to sustainability by the fishing industry and retailers, the number of MSC-labelled products has more than doubled over the past five years.


In 2013-14 the retail market value of sustainable seafood carrying the MSC ecolabel reached US$4.8 billion, an increase of 118 per cent since 2009. More than 23,000 products from MSC certified fisheries were available in over 100 countries, a tenfold increase since 2009.


The MSC’s Global Impacts Report 2014 and Annual Report 2013-14 show improvements to marine environments being delivered by fisheries engaged in the MSC certification program. These changes are often incentivised by increased market demand and, in some cases, a price

premium for sustainable seafood.


Seafood's global importance


Seafood accounts for almost 17% of the global population’s intake of animal protein2 and supports the livelihoods of around 10% of the world’s population3.  Safeguarding the world’s oceans is essential if we are to maintain healthy fish populations, economies and ecosystems.


Rupert Howes, Chief Executive for the MSC said: "The MSC’s vision is for the world’s oceans to be teeming with life - today, tomorrow and for future generations. These reports provide evidence that the leadership of our partners is driving real and lasting change in the way our oceans are fished. Stock status of MSC certified fisheries continue to improve, bycatch of unwanted species and seabirds continues to decline and a myriad of wider management improvements have been delivered. Everyone can help to support this positive change by choosing MSC certified sustainable seafood.”

Other highlights

-Improving performance of MSC fisheries: The sustainability performance of certified fisheries is increasing. The proportion of fisheries in the MSC program with habitat and ecosystem impacts at or above best practice has increased from 71% in 2009 to 82 per cent in 2013. At the same time, the proportion of fisheries in the MSC program with stocks that are maintained at or above maximum sustainable levels has increased from 80% in 2009 to 94% in 2013.


- Increasing consumer confidence: On average, there has been an 11% increase in seafood consumers purchasing products carrying the MSC ecolabel since 2010. Seafood consumers can also be assured that the MSC seafood is correctly labelled. DNA testing of 320 samples of MSC-ecolabelled products from 15 counties continues to show that more than 99% are correctly labelled. 


-Academic studies reveal price premiums: Independent academic studies4 of retail sales have shown that MSC certification of some species draws a price premium. This includes retail price increases of 14% for MSC-certified Alaska pollock; 10% for MSC-certified haddock and 13% for MSC-certified whitefish. The MSC certification of the Vietnam Ben Tre clam fishery opened up new markets in Europe and North America, bringing a 30 to 50% price increase.


-Increasing access to sustainable seafood: Fisheries from 34 counties and supply-chain businesses from 66 countries are now engaged in the MSC program. For example, in Canada over 60% of fisheries are either MSC certified or in assessment to become certified, and 65% of all tuna caught in Fiji is now harvested by MSC-certified fisheries.


- Enhanced engagement strategy for developing world fisheries: In February 2014, the MSC Board of Trustees adopted an enhanced engagement strategy to help developing world fisheries achieve MSC certification through Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs). Environmental benefits

Both reports highlight a range of improvements being made by MSC-certified fisheries. These include:



- The South Africa hake fishery which has implemented changes to secure the long-term future of the fishing economy and environment. This has included measures leading to a 90% reduction in seabird mortalities, including a 99% reduction in albatross bycatch, since 2009.


- The Patagonian and Antarctic toothfish, more commonly known as Chilean sea bass. These fish were widely regarded as overfished, at-risk species a few years ago. Toothfish fisheries have made dramatic turnarounds including reduction of bycatch of seabirds from tens of thousands to near zero and 100% observer overage on vessels to ensure compliance with management regulations to prevent illegal catches and overfishing.


- The New Zealand hoki western stock is considered to be fully rebuilt and both stocks are now considered to be within sustainable limits. The fishery has seen the population of New Zealand hoki stocks more than double since its first certification in 2001.


- The Oregon pink shrimp fishery has put in place an annual monitoring and reporting program in order to be able to model stock and implement management approaches which consider population dynamics. This catch per unit of effort has increased by almost 130% since the stock was initially certified in 2007.


- The Fiji Tuna Boat Owners Association has initiated a plan to reduce bycatch of sharks during fishing. This includes the prohibition of fishing techniques harmful to sharks and use of small circular hooks.

Rupert Howes, Chief Executive for the MSC concluded: “I want to take this opportunity to thank all those who have supported the MSC. We are making great progress. However, there is still much more to do if we are to ensure a sustainable future for our oceans and fishing communities.

Going forwards the MSC will work to add value to our fishery partners and to seafood businesses who share our vision. We will also develop new tools to enable greater participation from small-scale and developing world fisheries as well as strengthening the robustness of our traceability requirements.”

1 FAO State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture Report 2014 (p37)


2 FAO State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture Report 2014 (p4)


3 FAO State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture Report 2014 (p6)


4 Roheim et al 2011, Journal of Agricultural Economics; Sogn-Grundvag et al 2012 Marine Policy; Sogn-Grundvag et al 2014 Journal of Agricultural Economics.


Related documents


Annual report 2013/14 English:


MSC Global Impacts report 2014:


MSC Global Impacts summary report 2014:





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ΚΟΣΜΟΣ: Νέα συμφωνία για την προστασία καρχαριών

ΚΟΣΜΟΣ: Νέα συμφωνία για την προστασία καρχαριών | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Από σήμερα τίθεται σε ισχύ μια νέα διεθνής συμφωνία για την προστασία των καρχαριών καθώς τα τελευταία χρόνια πολλά είδη του απειλούνται με εξαφάνιση. Ένας από τους λόγους, το λεγόμενο shark finning.


Στα «σαγόνια του καρχαρία», το περιπετειώδους θρίλερ παραγωγής 1975 σε σκηνοθεσία Στίβεν Σπίλμπεργκ, ένας καρχαρίας δολοφόνος έσπερνε τον τρόμο, σκοτώνοντας μέσα σε λίγες μόνον μέρες τέσσερις ανθρώπους. Η πραγματικότητα όμως είναι τελείως διαφορετική: κάθε χρόνο χάνουν τη ζωή τους από επιθέσεις καρχαρία μόλις πέντε περίπου άνθρωποι και αυτό, περισσότερο, από σύμπτωση: στο κυνήγι του για τροφή ο καρχαρίας μπερδεύει τον άνθρωπο συχνά με τις φώκιες.


Δεδομένου ότι πλέον απειλείται σε πολλές περιοχές του πλανήτη με εξαφάνιση, ο καρχαρίας συγκαταλέγεται ήδη από το 2004 στην κόκκινη λίστα του διεθνούς συμφώνου για την προστασία των απειλούμενων με εξαφάνιση ειδών. «Αυτό είναι τρομακτικό και οφείλεται στην αλόγιστη αλιεία και στο γεγονός ότι χρειάζεται περί τα 22 χρόνια για να φτάσει στο στάδιο της γονιμότητας», σχολιάζει η Χάικε Φίνκε από τον Γερμανικό Σύνδεσμο για την Προστασία της Φύσης NABU.


Αυξημένη ζήτηση για πτερύγια

Ένα εξαιρετικά σπάνιο είδος καρχαρία στον κόλπο του Μεξικού

Για ορισμένα άλλα είδη που απειλούνται με εξαφάνιση, όπως για παράδειγμα οι τίγρεις, υπάρχει πάντα η δυνατότητα εκτροφής τους σε ζωολογικούς κήπους, όπως λέει η ειδικός. «Τους καρχαρίες δεν μπορείς να τους κρατήσεις σε ενυδρεία. Εάν εξαφανιστούν, θα εξαφανιστούν για πάντα».


Σημαντική αύξηση καταγράφει τα τελευταία χρόνια η ζήτηση των πτερυγίων του καρχαρία που σε αρκετές χώρες, όπως στην Κίνα και την Ιαπωνία, θεωρείται «λιχουδιά». Αυτό έχει οδηγήσει δυστυχώς στην πρακτική του shark finning: να αφαιρούνται δηλαδή τα πολύτιμα πτερύγια των καρχαριών και το υπόλοιπο, λιγότερο πολύτιμο μέρος του να καταλήγει και πάλι στη θάλασσα. «Οι καρχαρίες όμως εξακολουθούν να ζουν και έχουν έναν ιδιαίτερα επώδυνο θάνατο που κρατά αρκετές μέρες καθώς χωρίς τα πτερύγιά τους δεν μπορούν πλέον να μετακινηθούν».


Η νέα συμφωνία


Για την επιστήμη οι καρχαρίες παραμένουν ένα εξαιρετικά ενδιαφέρον πεδίο εξερεύνησης. «Μας είναι δύσκολο να τους παρακολουθούμε κάτω από την επιφάνεια της θάλασσας», λέει η Χάικε Φίνκε. «Στον λευκό καρχαρία έχουμε βάλει πομπούς προκειμένου να αντλήσουμε πληροφορίες για τη μετακίνησή του αλλά και τη διαδικασία αναπαραγωγής». Για τους σφυροκέφαλους είναι γνωστό ότι κινούνται συνήθως σε ομάδες. Όταν καταλήγουν σε αλιευτικά δίχτυα πρόκειται για ένα τεράστιο πλήγμα για το σύνολο του είδους.


Από σήμερα Κυριακή, 14 Σεπτεμβρίου, τίθεται σε ισχύ μια νέα διεθνής συμφωνία για την προστασία των καρχαριών. Η ελεγχόμενη αλίευση των ειδών που περιλαμβάνονται στη λίστα εξακολουθεί να επιτρέπεται. Ωστόσο για τα προστατευόμενα είδη ισχύουν πλέον κάποιοι περιορισμοί: οι χώρες που τα εξάγουν θα πρέπει να αποδεικνύουν ότι οι καρχαρίες προέρχονται από μέρη όπου δεν κινδυνεύει ο πληθυσμός τους.


Σύμφωνα με τον Γερμανικό Σύνδεσμο για την Προστασία της Φύσης NABU το 2000 αλιεύτηκαν επίσημα περίπου 800.000 τόνοι, ένας αριθμός που αντιστοιχεί σε περίπου 100 εκατομμύρια καρχαρίες. «Ο πραγματικός αριθμός είναι αναμφίβολα πολύ μεγαλύτερος», λέει η Χάικε Φίνκε.


Karin Jäger / Κώστας Συμεωνίδης



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REVISTA: Troleo - Agosto / Septiembre 2014

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MAGAZINE: Fishing EC - September 2014

Fishing the Eastern Cape of South Africa.


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EUROPEAN UNION: Call for Applications - Membership of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF)

EUROPEAN UNION: Call for Applications - Membership of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The European Commission is to renew the membership of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF). The Committee will be composed of scientific experts competent in the area of fisheries and aquaculture management.


It will aim to advise the Commission on matters pertaining to the conservation and management of living aquatic resources, including biological, economic, environmental, social and technical considerations. Interested candidates are invited to send an application to the Commission by 15 December 2014.


The call for application is addressed to highly qualified experts in fisheries management in the area of assessment of stock status, fisheries knowledge, fishing fleets dynamics, fish population dynamics, fisheries dynamics, technical measures, scientific data collection, management measures for Marine Protected Areas, management plans, fishery economics, socioeconomics, control and enforcement and aquaculture.


A minimum 30 and maximum of 35 members will be appointed. Members of the STECF are required to contribute to the overall work programme of the STECF and to participate in plenary meetings and relevant Expert Working Groups as appropriate.


The Commission shall appoint members in a personal capacity for a three-year, renewable mandate. Members shall commit to act independently and in the public interest.


Call for application:


STECF website:




OJ L225, 31.08.2005, p. 18:



OJ L37, 10.02.2010, p. 52:


Call for application poster:




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MAGAZINE: Fishing Headquarters - September / October / November 2014

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AUSTRALIA: Big Increase Planned for Aquaculture off Western Australia

AUSTRALIA: Big Increase Planned for Aquaculture off Western Australia | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The State Government has paved the way for a huge increase in fish production on Western Australia’s northern coast by declaring a development zone for large-scale fish farms.

Fisheries Minister Ken Baston said the new zone, covering almost 2,000 hectares near Broome, would support production of up to 20,000 tonnes of fish per year - up from the current tonnage of 7,000 tonnes.


At Cone Bay to declare the Kimberley Aquaculture Development Zone open, Mr Baston said an existing barramundi farm could soon be joined by other commercial developments.


Comprehensive studies confirm the zone’s capacity to support the annual production of up to 20,000 tonnes of finfish without significant environmental impact.


“By starting a fish farm in a declared zone, operators do not need to spend years and hundreds of thousands of dollars on environmental approvals and consultation, because these approvals have already been done by the State Government,” the Minister said.


At a special signing ceremony, Mr Baston said such zones would provide an economic boost for WA, with ‘investment ready’ locations and more jobs on offer sooner.


Fulfilling an election promise, the State Government has invested A$1.85 million into developing the zone at Cone Bay and a second off the Mid-West coast.


The strategic approach allows consideration of cumulative environmental impacts, which may not be apparent with case-by-case assessments. Extensive studies and modelling have assessed the potential effects of large-scale aquaculture.


22 August 2014


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WORLDWIDE: North Atlantic albacore fishery of Cantabrian fleets enters MSC full assessment

WORLDWIDE: North Atlantic albacore fishery of Cantabrian fleets enters MSC full assessment | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) has announced that the Organisation for Inshore Fishing of Gipuzkoa (OPEGUI), the Organisation for Inshore Fishing of Biscay (OPESCAYA) and the San Martín de Laredo Fishermen’s Guild are undergoing MSC full assessment to certify the sustainability of their albacore (Thunnus alalunga) fishery operations in the North Atlantic.

If the assessment is successful, the albacore landed by these fleets will be eligible to bear the MSC blue ecolabel. The ecolabel offers consumers a fast and easy way to choose sustainable seafood products and contribute to the continued availability of fish species in the future. The evaluation will be performed independently, as part of a participative process, under the rigorous MSC environmental standard for sustainable fishing. 

Certificate open to other Bay of Biscay fleets

The announcement comes after earlier press releases detailing the commencement of the MSC full assessment of Cantabrian anchovy and Bay of Biscay sardine, landed by the same fleets. This is an important development in the efforts made by Cantabrian Sea fleets to demonstrate the sustainability of their fishing operations.


An open certification system has been established. This means that the certification could be shared with other guilds and boats in the Bay of Biscay fleet which may be eligible to display the blue MSC ecolabel on their albacore catches.


The operations are conducted in the Bay of Biscay and adjacent North Atlantic waters, FAO fishing zone 27. The fishery is composed of a trolling fleet which operates from late May to October and pole and line using live bait fleet which operates from July to November. The fishery has 101 client boats - 42 pole and line vessels and 59 trolling vessels, from the Federation of Guilds of Guipúzcoa and Vizcaya and the Guild of San Martín of Laredo.


In 2013 these fleets landed a total of roughly 4300 tonnes between them.


A commitment to demonstrate the good practices of Cantabrian albacore fishermen

Representatives from the guilds have commented: "Our sector is committed to sustainability and we defend the use of selective fishing methods, such as trolling or live bait for our albacore fishing operations in the Cantabrian Sea. By obtaining MSC certification we hope to confirm our commitment to responsible fishing, assuring consumers the origin of albacore that is clearly identified as coming from the Cantabrian Sea and demonstrating to the market the good practices of our fishermen".


Promoting local fisheries with the MSC ecolabel

Laura Rodríguez, MSC Spain and Portugal Country Manager, declared: "With the Cantabrian sea anchovy, sardine and albacore being assessed to our standard, the possibilities of consuming locally-caught, independently-certified sustainable fish in Spain have increased tremendously.  We also foresee a huge potential for placing MSC ecolabelled Cantabrian albacore as product with great value on the international markets. We wish the Basque and Laredo fleets great success in the process".


About the certifier

The assessment will be conducted by Bureau Veritas, an independent certification body. The team will assess the fishery for compliance with MSC’s three environmental principles: the health of the albacore population, the impact of the fishery on the marine ecosystem, and efficient fishery management.


The assessment process is open and any person with information to add regarding the fishery is invited to take part. To do so, please contact


Press contract

Cátia Meira, communications officer for Spain and Portugal


•Email: • Mobile: +34 637 557 646


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ΗΝΩΜΕΝΕΣ ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΕΣ: Η κλιματική αλλαγή απειλεί τις κυνηγετικές ικανότητες των καρχαριών

ΗΝΩΜΕΝΕΣ ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΕΣ: Η κλιματική αλλαγή απειλεί τις κυνηγετικές ικανότητες των καρχαριών | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Η αύξηση της συγκέντρωσης διοξειδίου του άνθρακα στην ατμόσφαιρα και η επακόλουθη άνοδος της οξύτητας των ωκεανών αναμένεται να δημιουργήσει σοβαρά προβλήματα στην όσφρηση των καρχαριών, σύμφωνα με έρευνα του Ινστιτούτου Τεχνολογίας της Τζόρτζια στην Ατλάντα.


Οι επιστήμονες χρησιμοποίησαν σε πείραμα το είδος καρχαρία Mustelus canis, θέλοντας να εξετάσουν την αντίδραση στην αυξημένη οξύτητα ενός ζώου που βασίζεται σε τόσο μεγάλο βαθμό στην όσφρησή του.


Οι καρχαρίες εκτέθηκαν στη μυρωδιά καλαμαριού, μίας από τις αγαπημένες τροφές τους, μέσα σε πισίνες με διαφορετικά επίπεδα διοξειδίου του άνθρακα, το οποίο αυξάνει την οξύτητα του νερού. Στις πισίνες με τα σημερινά επίπεδα οι καρχαρίες εντόπισαν αμέσως τη μυρωδιά και επιτέθηκαν στην πηγή εκπομπής της.


Όταν η συγκέντρωση διοξειδίου του άνθρακα αυξήθηκε στα επίπεδα που προβλέπεται να φτάσει σε 50 χρόνια, οι καρχαρίες κολύμπησαν προς τη σωστή κατεύθυνση αλλά επιτέθηκαν λιγότερο αποφασισμένα. Στα προβλεπόμενα επίπεδα για το 2100, οι καρχαρίες σταμάτησαν πρακτικά να προσελκύονται από την πηγή της μυρωδιάς.


Οι ερευνητές ελπίζανε πως οι καρχαρίες θα ήταν περισσότερο ανθεκτικοί στις αλλαγές του διοξειδίου του άνθρακα, καθώς στο μακρινό παρελθόν ζούσαν σε πολύ πιο όξινα νερά.


«Οι καρχαρίες είναι σαν ζωντανά απολιθώματα, δεν έχουν αλλάξει σχεδόν καθόλου για εκπληκτικά μεγάλο χρονικό διάστημα», δήλωσε η Ντανιέλ Ντίξον, επικεφαλής της μελέτης. «Έχουν ξαναδεί αυτά τα επίπεδα, αλλά τώρα η αλλαγή γίνεται τόσο γρήγορα που δεν προλαβαίνουν να προσαρμοστούν», πρόσθεσε. Εξάλλου οι καρχαρίες εμφανίστηκαν πριν από 400 εκατομμύρια χρόνια, ενώ το πρώτο δέντρο εμφανίστηκε στον πλανήτη πριν από 350 εκατομμύρια χρόνια.


Η ερευνητική ομάδα χρησιμοποίησε μετριοπαθείς προβλέψεις για το πείραμα, σημειώνοντας ότι αν επαληθευτούν τα πιο δυσοίωνα σενάρια τότε οι καρχαρίες θα αντιμετωπίσουν σοβαρά προβλήματα πολύ πριν το 2100.


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EVENT: 23-24 October 2014, Nelson, New Zealand - Aquaculture Conference - Feeding the Future

EVENT: 23-24 October 2014, Nelson, New Zealand - Aquaculture Conference - Feeding the Future | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Aquaculture is the primary industry of the future


With food demands expected to double in the coming decades to nourish a fast-growing global population, aquaculture is widely recognised as a sustainable solution to feeding the world.


New Zealand is well-placed to capitalise on this food growing revolution with pristine waters, world-class environmental standards and a reputation for food safety and quality that has our farmed seafood prized in premium markets around the world.


The 2014 New Zealand Aquaculture Conference will explore how we can maximise this opportunity to feed the future by securing water space, strengthening social licence, protecting and enhancing productivity and growing market value.


The ultimate networking event for the New Zealand aquaculture sector takes place over October 23-24, Nelson.

Registration opens 8am, Thursday October 23.


Conference closes 1pm, Friday, October 24 – followed by lunch.

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REVISTA: AQUA Acuicultura + Pesca - Septiembre 2014

Durante la presente temporada se supo que solo los proyectos apoyados por Corfo podrían seguir recibiendo financiamiento.

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EUROPEAN UNION: Catch limits on the agenda as EU hosts North Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (NAFO) Annual Meeting

EUROPEAN UNION: Catch limits on the agenda as EU hosts North Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (NAFO) Annual Meeting | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The setting of Total Allowable Catch for NAFO fish stocks will take centre stage at the 36th Annual Meeting to be held in Vigo, Galicia from 22-26 September 2014.


The meeting, hosted by Spain with support from the European Commission, will see the representatives of 12 NAFO Contracting Parties discuss the setting of catch limits based on the best scientific advice.


During the course of the one-week meeting, the Parties will touch on a range of conservation and enforcement measures under NAFO's remit.


The protection of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) will be discussed as current closures expire by the end of the year. The EU has shown its commitment to this with its significant contribution to the NEREIDA seabed mapping project which seeks to improve our knowledge on the sea bottom.
A new challenge for the organisation is the expansion of oil and gas exploratory activities in the NAFO regulatory area which risk undermining conservation efforts.


Other priorities for the EU will be to make control and enforcement as efficient as possible. To this end a process for a major overhaul of the observer system and of port state control will be pushed.


As part of the new CFP reforms the discard ban will also be discussed, most notably though a proposal for a shark fins attached policy. 




The Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (NAFO) is a Regional Fisheries Management Organisation established in 1979 which aims to contribute towards the optimum utilisation, and the rational management and conservation of the fishery resources of the Convention Area.


Its current Contracting Parties are Canada, Cuba, Denmark (in respect of the Faroe Islands and Greenland), the European Union, France (in respect of St. Pierre et Miquelon), Iceland, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway, Russia, Ukraine and the United States of America.


NAFO is responsible for the management of 19 commercially fished stocks.




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ΠΕΡΙΟΔΙΚΟ: Αγροτικός Συνεργατισμός - Αύγουστος 2014

Περιοδικό της ΠΑΣΕΓΕΣ - Τεύχος 131


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ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: Όπως οι τράπεζες, έτσι και οι ιχθυοκαλλιέργειες;

ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: Όπως οι τράπεζες, έτσι και οι ιχθυοκαλλιέργειες; | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Το πρόβλημα με τις ιχθυοκαλλιέργειες, είναι περίπου το ίδιο με το πρόβλημα των τραπεζών. Δηλαδή πολύ μεγάλες βραχυπρόθεσμες υποχρεώσεις, που απαιτούν αύξηση κεφαλαίου για την αναπλήρωση των χαμένων κεφαλαίων, προκειμένου να μπορούν αυτές οι εταιρείες να λειτουργήσουν. 

Για να σωθεί αυτή η κατηγορία εταιρειών (κυρίως για να σωθούν οι θέσεις εργασίας), απαιτείται μια τεράστια αύξηση κεφαλαίου (συγκριτικά με την τωρινή κεφαλαιοποίηση) που έχει σαν αποτέλεσμα τον μηδενισμό των μετόχων. 

Σειρά λοιπόν σήμερα έχει ο κλάδος των ιχθυοκαλλιεργειών. Στο παρελθόν έχω κάνει αναφορά στον κλάδο και στη μετοχική πανωλεθρία που θα πάθουν οι μέτοχοι (που έτσι και αλλιώς έχει προεξοφληθεί από την αγορά), αλλά τώρα έχουμε και επίσημα στοιχεία και μπορούμε να βγάλουμε συμπεράσματα. 

Σύμφωνα λοιπόν με αυτά που αποφασίστηκαν στην πρόσφατη γενική συνέλευση των μετόχων της Σελόντα, θα κεφαλαιοποιηθούν περίπου 50 εκατ. ευρώ υποχρεώσεων προς 0,30 ευρώ ανά μετοχή. 

Αυτό μεν θα μειώσει τις υποχρεώσεις της εταιρείας κατά αυτό το ποσό (50 εκατ. ευρώ), αλλά οι συνολικές μετοχές της εταιρείας θα αυξηθούν από τις 36 εκατ. που είναι σήμερα, σε 204 εκατ. μετοχές. Ουσιαστικά δηλαδή οι μέτοχοι θα πάθουν μια αλλοίωση της τάξεως του 400% περίπου, καθώς μετά από αυτή τη διαδικασία θα έχουν μόνο το 18% της εταιρείας, με το υπόλοιπο να ανήκει πλέον στους πιστωτές. 

Και να λένε ένα μεγάλο ευχαριστώ οι μέτοχοι, διότι αν η κεφαλαιοποίηση υποχρεώσεων είχε γίνει στα 0,10 ευρώ, τότε οι συνολικές μετοχές θα ήταν περίπου 500 εκατ. και θα είχαν ακόμα λιγότερο ποσοστό από ότι έχουν σήμερα.

Καταρχάς το σχέδιο αναδιάρθρωσης της εταιρείας, με κεφαλαιοποίηση υποχρεώσεων, θα έπρεπε να είχε γίνει τώρα και αρκετά χρόνια. 

Δεύτερον, το κατά πόσο το ποσό της κεφαλαιοποίησης υποχρεώσεων είναι αρκετό, μένει να το δούμε. Και αν δεν είναι αρκετό (όπως για παράδειγμα στις Ελληνικές τράπεζες τα περασμένα χρόνια), η διαδικασία θα πρέπει να επαναληφθεί στο μέλλον. 

Και το λέω αυτό διότι σύμφωνα με τον τελευταίο ισολογισμό της Σελόντα, οι βραχυπρόθεσμες υποχρεώσεις είναι περίπου 200 εκατ. Ναι μεν ορισμένες από αυτές τις υποχρεώσεις επίσης θα μετατραπούν σε μακροχρόνιες υποχρεώσεις (σύμφωνα με το σχέδιο αναδιάρθρωσης), αλλά νομίζω ότι θα γίνουν τα ίδια λάθη που έχουν γίνει και με τις τράπεζες. Η κεφαλαιοποίηση των υποχρεώσεων ίσως αποδειχτεί λίγη σχετικά με το πρόβλημα, και δεν έχουν αφήσει οι πιστωτές μπόσικα, προκείμενου να αντιμετωπιστούν έκτακτες καταστάσεις. 

Το πιο πιθανό είναι να χρειαστεί γίνει κάτι ανάλογο σε πολλές άλλες εταιρείες στο Χ.Α. Άλλωστε, έχω γράψει στο παρελθόν αρκετά άρθρα γύρο από το θέμα, και για ποιο λόγο ο μοναδικός τρόπος για να μπορούν να σωθούν πολλές εταιρείες στο ΧΑ είναι με κεφαλαιοποίηση υποχρεώσεων (και όχι με διαγραφή όπως ορισμένοι θα ήθελαν -έλεος). 

Πόσες εταιρείες ακόμα πρέπει να κεφαλαιοποιήσουν υποχρεώσεις και πόσοι ακόμα μέτοχοι θα πάνε στον παράδεισο του κεφαλαίου στον ουρανό, είναι άγνωστο αγαπητέ αναγνώστη. Αλλά πριν ολοκληρωθεί αυτή η διαδικασία (που έχει ήδη αργήσει κατά μερικά έτη αν θέλετε την άποψή μου), γενικευμένη άνοδο το μαγαζί δεν θα δει. 

Επίσης, όσο αυτή η διαδικασία της αναδιάρθρωσης των προβληματικών εταιρειών αργεί, θα έχει και επιβάρυνση στην οικονομία, και στην όποια αναπτυξιακή προσπάθεια.

Του Γιώργου Καισάριου 


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MAGAZINE: Tails of Enchantment - Fishing New Mexico - Summer 2014


New Mexico's free fishing magazine created by angler for anglers.

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MAGAZINE: Tuna Coast - Agosto 2014


Tuna Coast Fishing Magazine


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MAGAZINE: Kayakero Fishing & Tacklemag - April 2014

International fishing magazine, photography, travel, fishing art, fishing tackle, kayak fishing and much more...


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WORLDWIDE: Focus of tuna conservation turns to Eastern Pacific

WORLDWIDE: Focus of tuna conservation turns to Eastern Pacific | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Japan’s science-based proposal overcame South Korea’s resistance, helping to push an international accord that aims to halve catches of immature Pacific bluefin tuna, at a meeting of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission held in Fukuoka earlier this month.

Now, attention is focused on whether a similar agreement can be reached to protect bluefin tuna in the Eastern Pacific, which is considered necessary to help the fish stock further recover.

“There was no other choice,” said Masanori Miyahara, who chaired the meeting of a subcommittee of the WCPFC, at a press conference after the meeting. “South Korea had no choice but to accept” a numerical target to halve catches of immature bluefin tuna starting in 2015. Miyahara is special adviser to the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry.

Participants from South Korea insisted at the meeting that it is difficult to achieve the target figure because when they catch mackerel, tuna becomes inadvertently caught as well, according to sources.

However, they were stuck looking for an answer after the Japanese side said mackerel and tuna would never be caught together because tuna fishing is generally done in daytime and mackerel fishing happens at night.

Japan’s proposal to halve catches of tuna aged up to 3 years old is based on results of international scientific studies. More than one estimate showed that catches of immature bluefin tuna must be halved in order to recover the stock of mature bluefin tuna within 10 years.

South Korea had no choice but to accept Japan’s proposal because most of 1,406 tonnes of bluefin tuna caught by South Korea was exported to Japan in 2012. South Korean participants asked Japan to give some part of its fishing quota to their country, but the other members did not allow it.

The new restrictions will be officially adopted at WCPFC’s plenary session in December.

Though the stock of mature bluefin tuna dropped to 26,000 tonnes in 2012, a record low, the new restrictions are expected to help it recover to 43,000 tonnes by 2024.

However, the United States and other countries are asking for lower numerical targets and tighter restrictions on catches of immature tuna, which will be discussed at a WCPFC meeting next year.

Halving catches

Restrictions on catches of bluefin tuna in the Eastern Pacific will be discussed at a meeting of the Inter-America Tropical Tuna Commission in October.

Japan plans to make a proposal to halve catches of immature tuna at the meeting, but heated discussions are expected to follow because Mexico opposes the idea. Like South Korea, however, Mexico also exports most of bluefin tuna catch to Japan.

To ensure recovery of the stock of bluefin tuna, Japan, the world’s biggest importer of tuna, must enhance a surveillance system to keep its commitment to the agreement in addition to introducing restrictions on fishing countries.



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VIETNAM: Northern district reports fisheries output over 136,000 tons

VIETNAM: Northern district reports fisheries output over 136,000 tons | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

In the first 8 months of this year, the fisheries output in Van Don district of Quang Ninh Province reached 13,637 tons, accounting for a 1% increase over the same period in 2013.


Of the output, 8,595 tons came from exploitation and the rest from aquaculture.


The district reports to have 3,000 hectares of salt and brackish water and 70 hectares of fresh water allocated to aquaculture .


In 2014, apart from encouraging fishermen to go offshore fishing, Van Don district has worked closely with relevant departments and agencies to provide instruction to people on high quality breeding techniques in order to develop a sustainable and effective model for aquacultural production./.



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ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: ΣΕΘ - Το ελληνικό λαβράκι κατέχει τιμητική θέση στη Βόρεια Αμερική

ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: ΣΕΘ - Το ελληνικό λαβράκι κατέχει τιμητική θέση στη Βόρεια Αμερική | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Στο 65% το μερίδιο αγοράς της Ελλάδας σε τσιπούρα και λαβράκι στις ΗΠΑ. Στους 2.500 τόνους ανήλθαν οι εξαγωγές το 2013. Τα μηνύματα από τη συμμετοχή του Συνδέσμου Ελληνικών Θαλασσοκαλλιεργειών στην έκθεση Restaurant & Lodging Show που πραγματοποιήθηκε στην Φλόριντα.


Το ελληνικό λαβράκι είναι από τα αγαπημένα ψάρια των Αμερικανών όπως φάνηκε από την συμμετοχή του Συνδέσμου Ελληνικών Θαλασσοκαλλιεργειών στην έκθεση Restaurant & Lodging Show που πραγματοποιήθηκε στην Φλόριντα των Η.Π.Α. στις 7-9/9/2014.


Συγκεκριμένα, όπως αναφέρει σε σχετική ανακοίνωση ο ΣΕΘ, συμμετείχε σε αυτήν την εξειδικευμένη έκθεση στο πλαίσιο του προγράμματος προώθησης προϊόντων υδατοκαλλιέργειας που υλοποιείται από το Enterprise Greece και χρηματοδοτείται από το Ευρωπαϊκό Ταμείο Αλιείας.


Στόχος της ελληνικής συμμετοχής ήταν αφενός να ενισχύσει ακόμα περισσότερο την παρουσία του ελληνικού ψαριού στην συγκεκριμένη αγορά και αφετέρου να τα παρουσιάσει στους σεφ και στους εκπροσώπους των ξενοδοχείων και των εστιατορίων που θέλουν να διαφοροποιήσουν το μενού τους με νέα προϊόντα. Σημαντικός αρωγός στην προσπάθεια αυτή ήταν και ο σεφ κ. Βασάλος ο οποίος εντυπωσίασε για άλλη μια φορά με τις συνταγές για τσιπούρα και λαβράκι που ετοίμασε.


Το ελληνικό λαβράκι είναι από τα αγαπημένα των αμερικανών και έχει καθιερωθεί με την ονομασία «branzino». Μετά από δέκα χρόνια εντατικής προσπάθειας των εταιρειών του κλάδου, το ελληνικό ψάρι εξάγεται εβδομαδιαίως σε πολλές πολιτείες της Βόρειας Αμερικής. Το 2013 οι εξαγωγές ανήλθαν περίπου στους 2.500 τόνους.


Ωστόσο αξίζει να σημειωθεί ότι αν και η Ελλάδα κατέχει μερίδιο αγοράς που αντιστοιχεί στο 65% των πωλήσεων τσιπούρας και λαυρακιού στις ΗΠΑ, πολύ δυναμική παρουσία έχει κάνει ο κύριος ανταγωνιστής μας, η Τουρκία, καθώς έχει υιοθετήσει μια ιδιαίτερα επιθετική εμπορική πολιτική επικουρούμενη και από την Turkish Airlines με χαμηλό μεταφορικό κόστος με απευθείας πτήσεις στις μεγαλύτερες αγορές της Αμερικής.


Για τον λόγο αυτό πρέπει να συνεχιστούν και να εντατικοποιηθούν οι προσπάθειες διείσδυσης και ενίσχυσης της ανταγωνιστικότητας των ελληνικών προιόντων ιχθυοκαλλιέργειας στην συγκεκριμένη αγορά, καταλήγει ο ΣΕΘ.

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WORLDWIDE: Iceland Sustainable Fisheries saithe fishery is MSC certified

WORLDWIDE: Iceland Sustainable Fisheries saithe fishery is MSC certified | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Iceland’s saithe fishery has been MSC certified as sustainable and well-managed following an extensive 18 month assessment.


The fishery, which lands around 50,000 tonnes of saithe each year, scored highly across all of the six fishing gears including bottom trawls, handlines and Danish seine nets.


The fishery client, Iceland Sustainable Fisheries (ISF) was established in 2012 following the Icelandic group certification of the cod and haddock fisheries.  ISF was founded to share the cod and haddock certificate and it now has 34 members.   ISF holds and shares certificates for cod, haddock and for two herring fisheries. This saithe certificate is the first fishery that ISF has taken all the way through the assessment through to certification.


Protecting delicate habitats


The fishery certification included three conditions, including an agreement to put in place further conservation and management measures for vulnerable marine habitats. Over the next four years, this will ensure that delicate structures such as hydrothermal vents and large sponges receive a formal protection in the fishery management.


Gunnlaugur Eiríksson, Managing Director at Iceland Sustainable Fisheries said: “Iceland Sustainable Fisheries (ISF) is very pleased to have the Icelandic Saithe fishery MSC certified. The certification is another milestone in our journey to get all the main fisheries in Iceland certified as sustainable. As well a confirmation of our commitment to be leading in providing sustainable sourced fish into the markets.


“ISF has been growing rapidly and now members are 34, from the biggest seafood companies in Iceland to small producers. That shows that the seafood industry in Iceland is fully behind what ISF stands for and recognizes the importance of sustainable and well managed fisheries. “


World class management


Gisli Gislason, MSC Country Manager, Iceland, congratulated the ISF group on their success:  “I would like to congratulate ISF for their commitment and the constant growth in members which consist of both, fishing, processing and export companies.  The majority of the Icelandic seafood industry are now engaged in the MSC programme and ISF are an important stakeholder in the MSC."


Iceland has a reputation for good fisheries management and by getting this fishery certified against the MSC standards highlight this. The certification is also a further tool for ISF members to promote and demonstrate to the market that the Icelandic saithe fishery are sustainable and well managed. I hope this MSC certificate will continue to bring value to the companies that have signed up to the ISF.  I look forward to continuous work with ISF.”


Icelandic saithe is primarily processed for export as frozen fillets but some is also exported salted, dried and fresh to markets in Germany, Netherlands, Spain and Nigeria.


More Information


Find out more about saithe.


For media inquiries, please contact:


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NORWAY: Algae may replace fish oil in salmon feed

NORWAY: Algae may replace fish oil in salmon feed | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Fish oil is an ideal source of omega-3 in salmon feed, but the capacity to produce farmed salmon using fish oil as the main source of omega-3 in feed is limited, if the farmed salmon itself is to remain a rich source of omega-3.


This means that the salmon feed industry needs access to large volumes of new ingredients that contain omega-3. Experiments at Nofima have shown that a type of algae known as “heterotrophic algae” can fully replace fish oil in feed used for small salmon.


“We need further sources of omega-3, and heterotrophic algae are one of very few real possibilities at the moment. The algae meal that we have tested contains nutrients that salmon need. We have managed to release and preserve the important nutrients through the process of manufacturing the feed, and this is a necessary condition for the use of this ingredient,” says scientist Katerina Kousoulaki.


Kousoulaki works at the food research institute Nofima and, together with colleagues and the Feed Technology Centre in Bergen, has tested algae meal from heterotrophic algae in the feed of farmed salmon.


Algae that grow in the dark


Heterotrophic algae are single-celled algae that grow using oxygen and a source of carbon (such as plant by-products). Biomass from heterotrophic algae can be produced in a stable manner, in sterile conditions and in large quantities. Current technology allows heterotrophic algae to be produced far more efficiently than phototrophic algae, which grow using light and CO2.


SINTEF has shown that heterotrophic algae such as the one tested by Nofima can be produced at a density of 160-180 gram dry weight per litre of culture, while phototrophic algae can be produced at up to 1-4 gram dry weight per litre. This means that much less space is needed. Furthermore, the productivity for heterotrophic algae is approximately 10 gram/l when grown in large reactors, while it is 0.06 gram/l for phototrophic algae.


Nofima has been commissioned by Alltech, one of the largest companies in the world in the field of animal health and nutrition, to test one of its algae meals. The alga in this meal is a member of the Schizochytrium family, and is extremely rich in omega-3. More than a quarter of the fat in algae is the healthy marine omega-3 fatty acid DHA, which is up to three times more than in fish oil. The alga meal is now being produced commercially by Alltech in the US. The algae have not been subject to gene modification.


As good as fish oil


Nofima has tested how the algae meal affects salmon health, performance, and nutrition.


The normal content of fish oil in commercial feed is around 11%. The meal was added to salmon feed at levels of 0 (control), 1%, 6% and 15% of the feed. The amount of fish oil in the feed was correspondingly reduced, from 15% to 0%. Hence the feed with 15% algae meal contained no fish oil.


The alga-based feed was given to small salmon weighing approximately 200 grams in ponds for 12 weeks. All fish had more than tripled their weight at the end of this period, irrespective of the feed they had received.


The salmon increased their intake of food when it contained algae, which suggests that the algae does not inhibit appetite.


The amount of the long-chained marine omega-3 fatty acids in the fillets was higher in salmon that had received the algae meal than it was in salmon that had been given fish oil as their only source of these fatty acids. The digestibility of protein was equal in all feeds, and the digestibility of fat was highest for the feed with 1% algae meal.


Micromatrix analysis shows the activities of thousands of genes at the same time, and is considered to be a reliable measurement method for effects on health. These analyses showed that the feeds did not have any negative effects on health.


Palm oil now unnecessary


Nofima has also studied whether the algae meal is suitable for ensuring a high technical fillet quality of the salmon.


Salmon fillets from fish given feed that contained algae were just as good as those from fish given exclusively fish oil. The texture of the fillets, for example, was just as firm, as was also drainage of water. The amount of gaping in the fillets was also the same.


The algae meal has a high content of short-chain saturated fatty acids, and it is precisely these fatty acids that make palm oil suitable as a technical stabiliser in fish feed. Thus, the composition of the fat in this algae meal makes it unnecessary to use palm oil as a stabiliser.


Complete replacement for fish oil in salmon smolt feed


We can conclude that this algae meal is an excellent source of omega-3 for small salmon, and that it can replace fish oil, based on current levels in feed.


Nofima is now continuing at the Feed Technology Centre in Bergen with optimising the algae meal in feed and improving the way in which it is processed. The algae meal is also to be tested in trials as a possible whole-life feed for salmon.


Nofima signed a collaboration agreement with Alltech in 2012, covering work with alternative sources of feed. The collaboration is particularly focussed onto the use of microalgae in fish feed, and the work presented here is one result of the collaboration.


Reidun Lilleholt Kraugerud




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PUBLICATION: Public perceptions of New Zealand’s aquaculture industry, 2014

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