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WORLDWIDE: New BAP Multi-Species Farm Standards Completed

WORLDWIDE: New BAP Multi-Species Farm Standards Completed | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA), the leading standards-setting organization for farmed seafood, has expanded the Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) certification program with the completion of new BAP standards for finfish and crustacean farms.


The new multi-species farm standards apply to all types of production systems for finfish and crustaceans, excluding cage-raised salmonids, for which separate BAP standards exist. The standards that they’re replacing were separately tailored for shrimp, salmon, tilapia, Pangasius and catfish.


The addition of the new multi-species farm standards represents a significant advancement for the BAP program, as it opens up the program to a number of finfish and crustacean species not previously covered, including sea bass, sea bream, cobia, seriola, trout, grouper, barramundi, perch, carp, flounder, turbot and striped bass.


The new multi-species farm standards also address environmental and social responsibility, food safety, animal welfare and traceability more rigorously than the standards they’re replacing. For example, the new standards contain 33 clauses relating to worker safety and employee relations, compared to just 12 clauses in the previous standards.


“The new standards clearly show how the BAP program is evolving to meet changing market expectations, stricter compliance criteria and the diverse needs of producers,” said BAP Standards Coordinator Dan Lee.


Added GAA Executive Director Wally Stevens, “The new multi-species farm standards are a logical step for the BAP program. This is a very robust set of standards, and it opens up the BAP program to an even greater range of finfish and crustacean species.”


The new BAP farms standards were initially developed through a careful amalgamation of the existing BAP standards for shrimp, tilapia, Pangasius and channel catfish farms by Jeff Peterson, director of quality control for the BAP program. The species-specific standards were developed by specialist technical committees.


The BAP Standards Oversight Committee (SOC) -- whose members represent a balance of stakeholders from industry, NGOs and academia -- recommended refinements to the standards in November 2012.


The 60-day public-comment period ended on Jan. 31, 2013. Comments were received from respondents that included fish farmers, academics and non-governmental organizations from Australasia, Asia, Europe and the Americas. The comments are published on the GAA website along with the BAP responses.


The SOC then met at the International Boston Seafood Show in March before going on to approve the standards for implementation. The standards require final approval from the GAA board, which is anticipated this week.


About BAP

Best Aquaculture Practices is an international certification program based on achievable, science-based and continuously improved global performance standards for the entire aquaculture supply chain -- farms, hatcheries, processing plants and feed mills -- that assure healthful foods produced through environmentally and socially responsible means. For more information on BAP, visit:

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GREECE: Nireus sells Turkish ops for €4.15m

Nireus has agreed to sell all its activities in Turkey, for €4.15 million in cash.


Greece's largest seabass and seabream producer said the sale is part of efforts to boost liquidity and exit activities considered as non-core.


The sale consists of all the shares in Nireus' Turkish fish farm subsidiary Ilknak and the trading arm Mirama. Combined, these two account for less than 5% of Nireus' total production, said the Athens stock-listed group.


Nireus did not name the buyer but said it was a "Turkish businessman, who is engaged in fish farming for several years".


It said the price is considered to be "within reasonable price limits as obtained from the valuations conducted by SOL Advisory and KPMG."

Nireus said it would increase production capacity in Greece to offset the loss of its production in Turkey.


The transaction will reduce shareholders' equity by €6.7m, but will boost Nireus' net profit after tax for the first nine months of 2014 by €690,000, reducing its loss from €16.627m to €15.937m, said Nireus.


The group is not the first Greek producer to exit Turkey. In 2013, Selonda sold off its remaining license, to buyers said to include Agromey, Kilic Deniz and Defne Tur.


According to its website, Ilknak was created in 1996 and operates a hatchery able to produce 30 million bass and bream juveniles, as well as a pre-fattening unit, two fish farms and an European Union-approved packaging unit. Its main offices are in Izmir, while its facilities are in Denizkoy, Dikili, 100 km north of Izmir and in Mordogan, Karaburun, 80 km west of Izmir.


All its products are sold through Miramar, a trading company established in 2006, states the website.


The sale comes as Nireus is still in the process of restructuring its debt with lenders. On Jan. 5, Nireus said the process would be completed shortly, after an article in the newspaper Kathimerini claimed Nireus' founder and chairman Aristides Belle was hampering negotiations.


"The company is in the final stage of negotiations in order to achieve the optimal restructuring agreement and cooperates fully with the lender banks," Nireus had responded.


"The alleged delays and denial, that are mentioned by the author of the article and his 'banking' or 'other' sources in a most unfounded and defamatory manner, are actually the careful consideration of all relevant documents and procedures in light of the current legislation," it had said.


Nireus is the last of Greece's three largest stock-listed bass and bream farmers to go through a restructuring with its bank lenders. Talks have been going on for over a year for its bank debt, which stood at €220.4 million by the end of September 2014.


Last September, Selonda became the first company in Greece -- across all industries -- to agree to a wide ranging restructuring plan that will see banks effectively take over 82% of the company's shares, while allowing its equity to recover from minus €40.7m into positive territory, while reducing debt from €155m to €105m.


Speaking to Undercurrent News at the time, Selonda's founder and outgoing CEO John Stephanis noted that Nireus would have to go through a similar process.


“Nireus has to follow the same path [as Selonda]," Stephanis had said.

The next step could be a merger with Selonda, he added. "Although the process for them hasn’t started yet, [if they complete it], I think the next step is a merger."


There can be a future for Selonda without Nireus, but, said Stephanis, “I believe a merger with Nireus has to happen”.


Unlike Dias and Selonda, however, which saw their equities plummeting to the red on lower biomass throughout 2013 and 2014, Nireus can still show a positive if rapidly declining equityon its balance sheet. Equity at the end of last September was €41.19m, compared to €92.31m a year earlier.


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ITALIA: Pesca illegale, multe per 9mila euro nel Grossetano

ITALIA: Pesca illegale, multe per 9mila euro nel Grossetano | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Si chiama “Labirynth” ed è la maxi-operazione della guardia Costiera contro la commercializzazione di prodotti ittici illeciti. La Guardia Costiera di porto Santo Stefano (Monte Argentario) ha effettuato 95 controlli a pescherie, ristoranti e a bordo di pescherecci comminando multe per 9 mila euro.


Sono state sequestrate anche quattro attrezzature da pesca e tre persone sono state denunciate per pesca e commercializzazione di prodotto ittico sotto-misura.


Sequestrati oltre 30 chili di pesce. Inoltre, grazie ad una operazione congiunta con le altre forze dell’ordine per contrastare la pesca della “ceca”, gli avannotti di anguilla che possono anche essere venduti a 800 euro al chilo, l’ufficio marittimo di Castiglione della Pescaia, durante un blitz notturno, ha provveduto al sequestro penale di alcuni attrezzi utilizzati per quel tipo di pesca e di circa mezzo chilo di novellame, poi rigettato in mare poiché ancora vivo.


Sono stati ispezionati, insieme alla Asl 9 di Grosseto, i centri all’asta del pesce nel comune di Monte Argentario e al centro allevamento ad Orbetello, che però sono risultati in regola.



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UNITED STATES: Kalbarri abalone gets helping hand

UNITED STATES: Kalbarri abalone gets helping hand | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Department of Fisheries staff and Kalbarri fishermen have released 24,000 Roe's abalone (Haliotis roei) onto reef platforms along the cliffs north of Kalbarri, to restock a population decimated by the marine heat wave of 2010-11.

The heat wave killed 99.9 per cent of the Roe's abalone population in the area, which was once a productive commercial and recreational fishery that has now been closed to fishing indefinitely.

The devastation prompted WA Fisheries scientists to embark on a long-term project to reintroduce abalone to the area.


WA Fisheries research scientist Lachlan Strain says the first step was translocating 6000 adult Roe's abalone from Lucky Bay, south of Kalbarri, which was less severely affected by the heat wave.


"We translocated the animals from Lucky Bay in 2011-12 to five reef-top platforms north of the Murchison River—areas where historically large populations resided," Dr Strain says.


"Since then we have refined the transport and harvest methodologies, which has dramatically improved the survival of translocated animals."


Rather than place added pressure on the Lucky Bay population, in 2013 researchers began harvesting adult abalone from the Perth metropolitan fishery, and transporting them to Kalbarri's notoriously wave-pounded coast when weather permitted—a move which resulted in the translocation of another 3000 animals.


This year they have also translocated 15,000 juvenile abalone bred in aquaculture facilities to further reduce the impact on wild populations.


Dr Strain says monitoring has revealed good survival rates among the translocated animals given the harsh conditions at the release sites.


However, monitoring control sites every six months has yet to reveal signs of newly settled abalone.


"Because of the mortality event's severity, if we do nothing to assist recovery then it could be decades if not longer before we see any signs of natural population recovery," Dr Strain says.


Given the remote location and severity of swells, Dr Strain says researchers have relied on local fishermen to access the reef platforms, during the right weather conditions, to hand release the animals.


"Kalbarri fisherman John Craike and other locals have been instrumental in helping this project to succeed," Dr Strain says.


He expects translocations to continue for another three to five years and hopes, with continued community involvement, they will proceed well into the future.

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UNITED STATES: Camera counts freshwater fish, which could help combat hydrilla

UNITED STATES: Camera counts freshwater fish, which could help combat hydrilla | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

A camera can accurately count freshwater fish, even in the thickest of underwater vegetation, a key finding for those who manage fisheries and control the invasive plant hydrilla, new University of Florida research shows.

The finding by UF/IFAS scientists can help researchers understand how many and which fish species are using dense plant habitats, said former UF/IFAS graduate student Kyle Wilson.


While cameras have been used to document fish behavior – including eating and breeding ─ this marks the first time scientists have used video to count fish in underwater plant habitats, Wilson said. In addition, no prior studies that used cameras to count fish verified their fish populations.


"It is commonly assumed that dense and invasive plants, like hydrilla, can drastically change fish habitat quality, primarily through changes in dissolved oxygen levels, water chemistry and habitat structure," Wilson said. "Whether these changes are good or bad for fish has previously remained uncertain due to sampling problems in dense plant habitats. Using underwater cameras, we have shown that fish can and do use habitats we previously thought were too stressful for fish habitat."


This is a big problem, especially with hydrilla, a plant that has invaded lakes throughout Florida, much of the U.S., Central America, South Africa and Australia, Wilson said. He estimated Florida spent up to $14 million per year throughout the 2000s to manage hydrilla, while the U.S. spent about $100 million per year in the 2000s for aquatic plant management.


In practical terms, researchers and conservation managers could use the UF/IFAS techniques to better understand how fish use other invasive aquatic plants as well, like Eurasian Watermilfoil, because it's similar to hydrilla, Wilson said. Such approaches can be quite valuable in advising conservation plans and can help resolve stakeholder issues associated with these invasive plants.


"This ability to use video cameras to estimate fish abundance is a tremendous asset to fisheries management, allowing us to evaluate fish habitat use in areas where previously no sampling method was effective," Wilson said. Australian researchers studying fish ecology have used cameras to count fish in the relatively clear waters at the Great Barrier Reef, but no research has peered through a lens to detect fish in thick vegetation like this study. "Previously, researchers that used cameras have had to make several broad assumptions that cameras work well in sampling fish. Now we know they work well."


UF/IFAS researchers specifically focused their study on ponds with plenty of hydrilla, Wilson said, but have also conducted preliminary camera work on Lake Tohopekaliga in the Kissimmee Chain of Lakes Area.


To research his master's thesis, Wilson lowered a camera into the water from a boat in three experimental ponds in Gainesville. He discovered the video counted freshwater fish, such as largemouth bass and bluegill sunfish – even those hidden in the nooks and crannies of hydrilla and other vegetation. Wilson counted fish during 13 weeks in the summers of 2011 and 2012, and then drained the ponds to obtain actual fish densities.


He conducted his research under the supervision of Micheal Allen, a professor of fisheries ecology at UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.


"We tested and verified the use of our camera techniques in extremely dense hydrilla habitats," said Wilson, now a doctoral student in ecology at the University of Calgary.


The UF/IFAS study is published in the January issue of the journal Marine and Freshwater Research.

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TANZANIA: Over 120 Muleba farmers get 9m/- for aquaculture projects

TANZANIA: Over 120 Muleba farmers get 9m/- for aquaculture projects | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |
Over 120 farmers at Ruhanga village, in Muleba District, Kagera Region, have been given soft loans amounting to 9m/- to enable them improve aquaculture activities.


Muleba District Commissioner, Mr Lembris Kipuyo, told the ‘Daily News’ that the funds were disbursed under the District Youth Development Fund, urging them to ensure the funds were well utilized.


Deputy Minister for Livestock and Fisheries Development, Mr Kaiko Telele, appealed to residents in Kagera Region to diversify aquaculture because the region had a big potential in the subsector.


Mr Telele made the call recently in Bukoba municipality during marking of International Fishers’ Day. He advised farmers to contact the Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute (TAFIRI) for technical guidance on how to get cages.


He said he was very optimistic that farmers in Kagera region would double their income through aquaculture following findings of a scientific research that a farmer could earn up to 20m/- in a year.

“Aquaculture is a very high-value crop. Farmers in Kagera region are encouraged to adopt cage pen-based aquaculture because the region has a big potential.


The region should start a breeding programme by training farmers on best fish farming technology,” he said. Mr Telele said during 2013 the nation earned a total of 1.4tril/- through the export of 375,160 metric tonnes of fish products. He directed district councils to enact bye-laws to safeguard fish resources.


“Lake Victoria is under threat and the very people this natural resource is supposed to serve are the ones threatening its very existence. Irresponsible human activities are threatening the world’s second largest fresh water lake,” he remarked.


Lake Victoria is the largest fresh water body in Africa, providing a lifeline for more than 5,000,000 people living in rural communities on or near its shores.


The lake is their source of water for bathing, drinking and cooking, and its fish stocks provide both protein and income for families. Many of the fish species, including the lake’s large cichlid population, are endemic and found nowhere else on earth. Presently, aquaculture accounts for only 13.71 per cent of the nation fish production.


The remaining production comes from fresh waters, covering a total area of 58,000 square kms. This includes three big lakes, namely lakes Victoria, Tanganyika and Nyasa, as well as major reservoirs, small water bodies, rivers and ponds. The annual sustainable yield for all marine and island waters is estimated to range from 400,000 to 500,000 tonnes.


The average per capita fish consumption in Tanzania is estimated at 38kg. Fish accounts for 40 per cent of the total animal protein supply. Over 30 million people in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) could greatly improve their livelihoods if they utilized the abundant investment opportunities in the basin.


Under the East African Co-operation Treaty, LVB has been categorized as an economic growth zone. According to Deputy Minister Telele, there has been an increase in illegal fishing using banned gear including dynamite. Other underlying causes degrading Lake Victoria is unregulated access by all.


“The lake belongs to everybody without a strong sense of responsibility,” he said. He says the underlying factors for pollution of the lake include lack of knowledge on managing the environment, poor urban plans, a poor compliance culture, poor policies and systems, lack of research and poor coordination among government agencies.


By MEDDY MULISA, Tanzania Daily News


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UNITED KINGDOM: New app to help keep North Sea fishermen safe

UNITED KINGDOM: New app to help keep North Sea fishermen safe | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |


A new app which will help make life safer for North Sea fishermen has been launched this week.



The FishSAFE Companion App will give information about oil and gas equipment on the sea bed and surface - ranging from platforms to subsea pipelines - so fishermen can better understand what the object is.

It is designed to complement FishSAFE Information and the FishSAFE unit which are already used by hundreds of skippers who fish in the North Sea and provides them with detailed information about potential oil and gas-related hazards in UK waters.


The new free app provides extra information about objects such as subsea wellheads, pipelines and protective structures. The size of equipment is indicated by a scale representation using easily-recognisable objects such as a person, bus or plane so fishermen can easily see how big the potential hazards are in comparison. Users can also type in their own notes in case, for example, the item has moved.


There is also a quiz so fishermen can test their knowledge, and a 3D picture so they know exactly what the potential hazard looks like.

FishSAFE was set up after four men died when the Scottish trawler Westhaven sank after it snagged on an underwater pipeline in 1997.


Fishermen can download the app while onshore or at sea and the information is permanently stored on their smartphone or tablet so they can easily view it, even when there’s no mobile phone coverage.

The information for the FishSAFE project is provided by oil and gas companies and is updated every six months and a version of the data is usually issued to fishermen in January and July. The FishSAFE unit is updated at the same time, and the information can also be downloaded from the organisation’s website which is updated frequently with urgent notices about oil and gas infrastructure and new snagging hazards.


FishSAFE Information provides skippers with detailed notes about oil and gas-related potential hazards in UK waters, and can be displayed on a plotter device on board a vessel. The FishSAFE unit - which is fixed in the wheelhouse - shows on a screen where the boat is and where pipelines and structures are in the area along with the statutory and HSE safety zones, and provides an audible and visual alarm when a boat is near a potential hazard.


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ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: “Κόκκινη γραμμή” το ζήτημα για τους παράκτιους αλιείς

ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: “Κόκκινη γραμμή” το ζήτημα για τους παράκτιους αλιείς | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Ανοιχτή Συζήτηση στο Υπουργείο Αγροτικής Ανάπτυξης για τη δυνατότητα αλιείας με μηχανότρατα πέραν του ενός ναυτικού μιλίου


Συνάντηση λίγες ημέρες πριν την εκλογική αναμέτρηση πραγματοποιήθηκε στο Υπουργείο Αγροτικής Ανάπτυξης και Τροφίμων με θέμα τη δυνατότητα αλιείας με το εργαλείο δίχτυ βυθού(μηχανότρατα) σε απόσταση πέραν του ενός ναυτικού μιλίου από την ακτή, παρουσία αλιέων από όλη τη χώρα.


Παρών στην συνάντηση ο Αντιδήμαρχος Κύθνου

Ειδικότερα, χθες το πρωί πραγματοποιήθηκε ανοιχτή συζήτηση η οποία έλαβε χώρα στην αίθουσα συσκέψεων του 6ου ορόφου του Υπουργείου Αγροτικής Ανάπτυξης και Τροφίμων υπό τον Γενικό Γραμματέα Μόσχο Κορασίδη και την Γενική Διευθύντρια Βιώσιμης Αλιείας Μαρίνα Πέτρου, στην οποία παραβρέθηκε ο Αντιδήμαρχος Κύθνου Γεώργιος Ηλιού, ο οποίος αναγνωρίζοντας την σοβαρότητα του ζητήματος για το κλάδο της παράκτιας αλιείας προσπάθησε να καταθέσει τις ενστάσεις του επί του θέματος.


Ο κ. Ηλιού τάχθηκε υπέρ της γενικότερης άποψης που εκφράστηκε από τους παράκτιους αλιείς ότι η αλιεία με μηχανότρατα πέραν του 1,5 ναυτικού μιλίου που ορίζει η ευρωπαϊκή νομοθεσία αποτελεί κόκκινη γραμμή για τους ίδιους.


Επί τάπητος κατά την συνάντηση τέθηκαν και τα ζητήματα που ταλανίζουν τον κλάδο της αλιείας, όπως το δορυφορικό κοστοβόρο σύστημα το οποίο υποχρεούνται να προμηθευτούν οι αλιείς, το ηλεκτρονικό ημερολόγιο το οποίο δεν μπορούν εκ των πραγμάτων να χρησιμοποιούν όλοι καθώς και το ζήτημα που αφορά στο συνδικαλιστικό τους φορέα, το οποίο είχε πυροδοτήσει τις αντιδράσεις, για τα οποία ζήτησαν απαντήσεις με την πλευρά του υπουργείου να κράτα σιγή ιχθύος.


Όπως ενημέρωσε ο Αντιδήμαρχος Κύθνου, με δεδομένο ότι ο αρμόδιος υπουργός ήταν απών, η συνάντηση παρέμεινε σε επίπεδο συζήτησης, με τους αλιείς να εκθέτουν τις θέσεις τους και τα πάγια αιτήματα τους ζητώντας να μάθουν τι έχει αποφανθεί από τους αρμόδιους για το μέλλον του κλάδου.


Αντί αυτού όμως έρχεται μια απλή γενική απάντηση εκ μέρους του υπουργείου με τον Γενικό Γραμματέα να διαβεβαιώνει ότι “δεν θα παρθεί κανέναν μέτρο που θα δυσχεράνει την ήδη υπάρχουσα κατάσταση” μην ικανοποιώντας ωστόσο καμία πλευρά. Όσον αφορά τον πραγματικό λόγο συνάντησης, που δεν ήταν άλλος από την δυνατότητα αλιείας με μηχανότρατα σε απόσταση ενός ναυτικού μιλίου, οι αλιείς ζήτησαν την χαρτογράφηση της χώρας, καθώς η απόφαση της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης δεν έχει εξετάσει τις διαφορές στις αποστάσεις των περιοχών ανά χώρα.


Ηχηρό μήνυμα αντίδρασης

Για την ενημέρωση των πολιτών,ο Αντιδήμαρχος Κύθνου προέβη σε δηλώσεις σχετικά με το υφιστάμενο ζήτημα και την προγραμματισμένη συνάντηση όπου μεταξύ άλλων ανέφερε ότι «Στις 14 Ιανουαρίου στην ευχαριστήρια επιστολή μου προς τους αλιείς της Κύθνου όσον αφορά την αφιλοκερδή συνεισφορά τους στις εορταστικές εκδηλώσεις των Θεοφανείων είχα αναφέρει ότι αναγνωρίζουμε ότι τα προβλήματα είναι τεράστια , αλλά και ότι κάποιοι βάλλουν κατά του κλάδου». Αμέσως μετά τις δηλώσεις του όπως ο ίδιος ενημέρωσε του εστάλη πρόσκληση εκ μέρους του αρμόδιου υπουργείου που καλούσε τους αλιείς σε ανοιχτή συζήτηση.


Στη συνέχεια τοποθετούμενος επί του θέματος ο κ. Ηλιού αναφέρει τα εξής: “ Όπως γνωρίζουμε εδώ και μερικά χρόνια έχει εφαρμοστεί στην Ελλάδα η ευρωπαϊκή νομοθεσία που σαν ελάχιστο διαχειριστικό μέτρο απαγορεύει την αλιεία με δίχτυ μηχανότρατας πέραν του 1,5 ν.μ. από την στεριά, προστατεύοντας κατά αυτό το τρόπο το θαλάσσιο αλιευτικό πλούτο αλλά και δίνοντας μία ανάσα στους 40.000 παράκτιους αλιείς της χώρας και στις οικογένειες τους.


Μέχρι που φτάνουμε στις αρχές του 2015 που εντελώς άκαιρα αφού σε μερικές μέρες η χώρα οδηγείται σε εκλογές βγαίνει στην επιφάνεια ξανά η δυνατότητα να αλιεύουν οι μηχανότρατες μέχρι και στο 1 ν.μ από τη στεριά θίγοντας κατά αυτό το τρόπο τα συμφέροντα του αλιευτικού κλάδου της Κύθνου που δραστηριοποιείται κατά 100% στην παράκτια αλιεία.


Με τη παρουσία μου στη σημερινή συνάντηση ήθελα να υπογραμμίσω για άλλη μία φορά ότι η νέα διοίκηση του Δήμου Κύθνου θα παρίσταται σε όλες τις συναντήσεις όπου και όποτε αυτές γίνονται, εκθέτοντας τα προβλήματα που ταλανίζουν τους επαγγελματικούς κλάδους του νησιού και υπερασπιζόμενη πάντα τους δημότες της σε περίπτωση που θίγονται τα συμφέροντα τους”.


Μάλιστα από την συγκεκριμένη συνάντηση ο Αντιδήμαρχος Κύθνου ευελπιστεί ότι μέσα από την αντίδραση που στάλθηκε από τους άμεσα θιγόμενους αλλά και τον ίδιο, καθώς στήριξε τις θέσεις των παράκτιων αλιέων, να έγινε κατανοητό από τους φορείς του Υπουργείου να πείστηκαν ότι το θέμα της δυνατότητα αλιείας με το εργαλείο δίχτυ βυθού(μηχανότρατα) σε απόσταση πέραν του ενός ναυτικού μιλίου από την ακτή αποτελεί κόκκινη γραμμή για το Δήμο Κύθνου αλλά και γενικά για τους Έλληνες παράκτιους ψαράδες.


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EUROPEAN UNION: Register for the Erasmus Mundus Master Course on Maritime Spatial Planning!

EUROPEAN UNION: Register for the Erasmus Mundus Master Course on Maritime Spatial Planning! | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) is being implemented in all 23 EU coastal member states and in an increasing number of countries around the world.


This opens interesting job prospects in maritime management. In the coming years, there will be a strong need for specialists trained to tackle all dimensions of MSP: management of environmental resources, shipping, offshore energy, fisheries etc. For this reason, the Commission has decided to finance an Erasmus Mundus Master Course on Maritime Spatial Planning which covers all skills needed to implement Maritime Spatial Planning effectively.


The Erasmus Mundus Master Course on Maritime Spatial Planning is a two-years advanced professional master program, in which three high-rated European universities participate: Università Iuav di Venezia, University of Sevilla and University of Azores. Students will familiarize themselves with key issues involved in policies formulation and planning strategies for maritime space, to improve the management of resources from an environmental, economic, social and legal perspective within the framework of maritime policies.


The aim of the programme is to prepare students to become specialists – providing a multi-disciplinary background – to enable them to operate both in public institutions as well as independent professionals or researchers. As specialists they will have the know-how in planning, in designing and evaluating projects and policies, which consider terrestrial, coastal and marine dimensions. In addition, the course will provide the ability to manage decision processes towards an adaptive and integrated approach.


EMMCMSP is developed by the 'MSP Consortium' coordinated by the Università Iuav di Venezia and co-financed by the European Commission. The deadline for applications is 10 February.


More information and application:



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ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: Απεργούν σήμερα οι εργαζόμενοι στις Ελληνικές Ιχθυοκαλλιέργειες στη Φθιώτιδα

ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: Απεργούν σήμερα οι εργαζόμενοι στις Ελληνικές Ιχθυοκαλλιέργειες στη Φθιώτιδα | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Με 24ωρη απεργία σήμερα, απαντούν οι εργαζόμενοι των Ελληνικών Ιχθυοκαλλιεργειών Φθιώτιδας στις παράνομες και καταχρηστικές απολύσεις και στη μη καταβολή των δεδουλευμένων τους.


Οι εργαζόμενοι διεκδικούν τα δεδουλευμένα τους και καταγγέλουν την εργοδοσία για τις παράνομες και καταχρηστικές απολύσεις που έκανε το προηγούμενο έτος, ενάντια σε πρωτοπόρους εργαζόμενους αγωνιστές.


Την απόφαση για τη σημερινή απεργία πήρε το Σωματείο Γάλακτος, Τροφίμων και Ποτών Φθιώτιδας.


Η Αυγή Online



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ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: Ο Κίνδυνος της Προεκλογικής Καταστροφής της Ελληνικής Αλιείας

ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: Ο Κίνδυνος της Προεκλογικής Καταστροφής της Ελληνικής Αλιείας | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Προκλητικές και ψηφοθηρικές είναι οι προεκλογικές αποφάσεις και πρωτοβουλίες για την αλιεία, του υπουργού Αγροτικής Ανάπτυξης Γ. Καρασμάνη.

Μία μέρα μετά την ανακοίνωση των εκλογών, καταργώντας την ευρωπαϊκή και ελληνική νομοθεσία, ο Υπουργός, με τη συνδρομή της Γενικής Διεύθυνσης Αλιείας, βαφτίζει ως «επιστημονική έρευνα» την επαναφορά βασιλικού διατάγματος του 1966, για την αλιεία με βιντζότρατα.


Αυτό αποτελεί άλλη μία καινοτομία της χώρας μας μέσα από τις πολιτικές των κυβερνώντων καθώς για «επιστημονικούς λόγους», αλλά χωρίς την παρουσία επιστημόνων, το σύνολο των 267 ελληνικών βιτζόντρατών ψαρεύουν από την αρχή του 2015 σε όλη την επικράτεια, όπως όριζε το βασιλικό διάταγμα του 1966. Μοναδική υποχρέωση των συγκεκριμένων ψαράδων είναι να συμπληρώνουν ένα έντυπο καταγραφής.


Η απόφαση του υπουργού αναφέρει βέβαια ότι «το αλίευμα πρέπει να περιορίζεται στην απολύτως απαραίτητη ποσότητα και να χρησιμοποιείται αποκλειστικά για τις ανάγκες της αλιευτικής έρευνας», αλλά όσο κι αν φαίνεται απίστευτο, αυτό γίνεται χωρίς την παρουσία επιστημόνων που θα συγκεντρώσουν τα δεδομένα και θα τεκμηριώσουν την έρευνα!

Αυτή η αυθαίρετη απόφαση, έχει προκαλέσει την αγανάκτηση και αναστάτωση των παράκτιων κοινωνιών σε όλη την Ελλάδα, οι οποίες βρίσκονται ήδη σε απελπιστική κατάσταση από την κάθετη μείωση των ιχθυαποθεμάτων. Αποτέλεσμα αυτής της απόφασης είναι ότι:


-Θίγεται η χώρα μας αλλά και όλοι μας ως Έλληνες πολίτες, που για άλλη μία φορά θα διασυρθούμε στην Ε.Ε. και θα αντιμετωπίσουμε την απειλή προστίμων που θα κληθούμε να πληρώσουμε όλοι μας.


-Καταστρέφεται και ο κλάδος της αλιείας με βιντζότρατα, καθώς με αυτή την απόφαση και με την ποιότητα της «έρευνας» που υλοποιείται, το μόνο σίγουρο είναι ότι το σχετικό διαχειριστικό σχέδιο που θα παραχθεί, θα απορριφθεί από τις ευρωπαϊκές υπηρεσίες και θα καταργηθεί αμετάκλητα το συγκεκριμένο αλιευτικό εργαλείο.

Ο Υπουργός Αγροτικής Ανάπτυξης, πάντοτε με τη συνδρομή της Γενικής Διεύθυνσης Αλιείας, βλέποντας ότι έχουν απομείνει λίγες μόνο ημέρες για διευθετήσουν τις εκκρεμότητες εξυπηρέτησης συντεχνιακών μικροσυμφερόντων δεν σταμάτησε μόνο σε αυτή την απόφαση. Αναζητεί τρόπο να καταργήσει ένα από τα ελάχιστα διαχειριστικά μέτρα που είχε εφαρμοστεί στην Ελλάδα σχετικά με την αλιεία με μηχανότρατες.


Επιδιώκοντας πάλι να καταργήσει την ευρωπαϊκή και ελληνική νομοθεσία, προσπαθεί να επιτρέψει την αλιεία με μηχανότρατα κοντά στη στεριά (σε απόσταση 1 μόνο μιλίου από την ακτή), καταστρέφοντας τα παραγωγικά θαλάσσια οικοσυστήματα και υφαρπάζοντας τα τελευταία ιχθυαποθέματα που έχουν απομείνει.


Με αυτό τον τρόπο, για μία ακόμα φορά εξυπηρετείται το βραχυπρόθεσμο κέρδος των 300ων περίπου μηχανοτρατών –δηλαδή σκαφών βιομηχανικής αλιείας, έναντι των 16.000 παράκτιων ψαράδων και των 35.000 και πλέον οικογενειών που εξαρτώνται από την αλιεία. Φυσικά όλο αυτό θέτει σε κίνδυνο και την επιβίωση των ήδη υποβαθμισμένων θαλασσών μας, ενώ επηρεάζει εκατομμύρια συμπολίτες μας που ζουν σε παράκτιες περιοχές και τρέφονται κυρίως με τα αλιεύματα.


Όλα αυτά δεν είναι 2 μεμονωμένες προεκλογικές αποφάσεις, αλλά ένα αποκορύφωμα στα πολυάριθμα πεπραγμένα του καταστροφικού περάσματος αυτής της κυβέρνησης για την ελληνική αλιεία και ιχθυαποθέματα. Θυμίζοντας λίγα ενδεικτικά παραδείγματα από αυτά τα πεπραγμένα:


-Προσχεδιασμένη «κλοπή» του Ευρωπαϊκού Ταμείου Αλιείας. Αντλώντας πόρους από το ίδιο ταμείο για την αλιεία από το οποίο οι βορειοευρωπαϊκές χώρες έκαναν επενδύσεις για μία μακροπρόθεσμα βιώσιμη αλιεία, στην Ελλάδα με απόφαση των πολιτικών που μας κυβερνούν, προτιμήθηκε η άσκοπη απορρόφηση. Τα κύρια μέτρα που επέλεξαν να απορροφήσουν από το ευρωπαϊκό ταμείο αλιείας, αφορούσαν τη χρηματοδότηση της καταστροφής σημαντικού μέρους του παραδοσιακού αλιευτικού μας στόλου, αλλά και χιλιάδων θέσεων εργασίας σε περιοχές όπου δεν υπάρχουν άλλες επαγγελματικές επιλογές. Προέτρεψαν όμως τους αλιείς να επενδύσουν σε «rooms to let» με τις αποζημιώσεις των 30-40.000 ευρώ που έλαβαν.


Ένα άλλο παράδειγμα από προγράμματα που τρέχουν και σήμερα, είναι το Leader Αλιείας. Ενώ θα έπρεπε να έχει αποδέκτες τους ψαράδες και να χρηματοδοτήσει τη στήριξη και τη διαχείριση της αλιείας, τελικά βλέπουμε να απορροφάται σε άσχετα έργα, ακόμα και από μεγάλες ξενοδοχειακές επιχειρήσεις και άλλους μη-αλιείς, που επιδοτούνται για να φτιάξουν καταδυτικά κέντρα, κομμωτήρια και καφετέριες στα νησιά!


-Κατάργηση των αδειών της ερασιτεχνικής αλιείας. Αυτό άφησε ανεξέλεγκτη την αφαίμαξη των αποθεμάτων από τους 78.000 ερασιτέχνες αλιείς που είχαν άδεια (και με την απώλεια των σχετικών εσόδων έκδοσης αδειών). Αυτό φυσικά δεν έγινε για την εξυπηρέτηση των ερασιτεχνών που ψαρεύουν με βαρκάκια, αλλά για τα χιλιάδες κότερα, πολυτελή ή μη, τα οποία αρέσκονται τα τελευταία χρόνια σε κάθε πέρασμά τους από τις θάλασσές μας, να αφαιμάζουν οτιδήποτε κινείται μέσα στη θάλασσα, συχνά χρησιμοποιώντας αθέμιτα μέσα (ψαροντούφεκο με μπουκάλα, αλιεία με τη χρήση χημικών, κλπ).


-Απαξίωση του προγράμματος Χαρτογράφησης Ποσειδωνίας, στο οποίο ελπίζει η πλειονότητα των ψαράδων, έτσι ώστε να είναι επιτέλους εφικτή η εφαρμογή μέτρων για την αειφόρο διαχείριση της αλιείας. Έπειτα από τις πομπώδεις ανακοινώσεις του υπουργείου για αυτό το σημαντικό πρόγραμμα, φρόντισαν κατά την πολύμηνη προεργασία να θέσουν τέτοιες απαράδεκτες προδιαγραφές, με αποτέλεσμα κανένας φορέας να μην δεχθεί να αναλάβει το έργο και ο διαγωνισμός να κριθεί άγονος.

Κλείνοντας λοιπόν, καλούμε τον Υπουργό κ. Γ. Καρασμάνη, την τελευταία εβδομάδα της απερχόμενης κυβέρνησης, να μην προσπαθήσει άλλο να σώσει την αλιεία και να απέχει από οποιαδήποτε λήψη άλλου μέτρου που θα ήθελε να μας αφήσει ως κληρονομιά. Ευχόμαστε να αποτελέσει την τελευταία πολιτική ηγεσία που συνέβαλε με τέτοιον τρόπο στην καταστροφή της ελληνικής αλιείας και την υποβάθμιση των ελληνικών θαλασσών. Ευχόμαστε ότι οι πολίτες θα αναδείξουν ανθρώπους έντιμους, οι οποίοι με γνώση θα χειριστούν αυτούς τους τόσο ζωτικούς τομείς για τη Ελλάδα.

Αναστασία Μήλιου

Διευθύντρια Έρευνας στο Ινστιτούτο
Θαλάσσιας Προστασίας «Αρχιπέλαγος»


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EUROPEAN UNION: Commission to adopt measures to protect sea bass stock

EUROPEAN UNION: Commission to adopt measures to protect sea bass stock | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The European Commission has announced a package of measures aimed at averting the collapse of the declining sea bass stock. In the first instance emergency measures will be implemented to ban pelagic trawling of sea bass during spawning season which runs until the end of April.


These measures protect the stock from being targeted when at its most vulnerable; pelagic trawlers in the spawning season make up 25% of the impact on the stock. It is anticipated that the decision will be adopted and come into force before the end of the month.


Recognising that all those who fish sea bass should make a balanced and fair contribution to saving this stock, it is proposed that the pelagic trawling ban will be complemented by a number of other measures which the Commission and the countries involved – UK, France, Belgium and the Netherlands - are putting together jointly. This will include measures to manage recreational fishing and limit catches of all other commercial fisheries. The Commission will work with the countries involved to finalise these measures and table a proposal to the Council in the coming weeks.

The Commission will publish full details of the measures once they are adopted.


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REVISTA: pesca - Febrero 2015

La revista Pesca es un medio de información alternativo referido a temas del mar y de la pesquería. Difunde información, ideas y corrientes de opinión que tienen por objeto crear conciencia de la necesidad de hacer sostenible la extracción de los recursos marinos, de seguridad alimentaria, del cuidado y protección del medio ambiente y ecosistemas acuáticos.

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EUROPEAN UNION: Legal clarity on landing obligation for EU fishermen in international waters

EUROPEAN UNION: Legal clarity on landing obligation for EU fishermen in international waters | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The Commission delegated regulation on the implementation of the EU's international obligations under the International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas and the Convention on Future Multilateral Cooperation in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries came into effect on 24 January.


This regulation will provide legal clarity to the EU's fishermen as to which rules apply when they fish under the purview of these RFMOs and catch fish which falls under the new EU's landing obligation. The landing obligation applies to all EU vessels fishing in the EU and non-EU waters, as well as to third-country vessels fishing in the EU waters.
In some Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) there are rules that oblige fishermen not to bring on board or land certain fish. With regard to the landing obligation that came into effect this year, such rules exist for bigeye tuna, Eastern Atlantic Bluefin tuna and Atlantic swordfish in the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), and for capelin in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) area.
In order to ensure legal certainty, the delegated regulation that came into effect on 24 January 2015 will permit the fishermen of the European Union vessels and those of other countries fishing in EU waters to continue applying the above mentioned RFMO rules. EU fishermen will be able to respect RFMO rules which currently are not entirely in line with the EU's landing obligation.


In parallel, the European Commission seeks a level playing field for EU operators by promoting the elimination of discards in RFMOs. In the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (NAFO), for instance, a working group was established upon EU proposal to examine the discard situation and find ways to reduce them.


For further information

Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/98:



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AUSTRIA: Cichlid sisters swim together in order to reach the goal

AUSTRIA: Cichlid sisters swim together in order to reach the goal | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The manner and routes of dispersal vary with the species and the ecological conditions. Many fish form shoals to avoid predation. Shoaling with familiar conspecifics affords the fish an even greater advantage by increasing the benefit for relatives. This promotes the continuation and future spread of an individual's own genetic information.


Franziska Lemmel-Schädelin, Wouter van Dongen, Yoshan Moodley and Richard Wagner from the Konrad Lorenz Institute of Ethology studied Neolamprologus caudopunctatus, a species of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika, Africa's second largest and the world's second deepest freshwater lake. Lake Tanganyika has a surface volume of about 33,000 m⊃2;, which corresponds to the size of Belgium. The researchers studied the influence of sex and size on dispersal and shoaling behaviour.


Females dispersed longer distances than males


Lemmel-Schädelin and her field assistants carried out a number of dives in October and November 2008 to study the dispersal behaviour and relationships of over 900 cichlids. The divers collected DNA samples from the dorsal fins and documented the body size and sex of the fish. An analysis of the data showed that over the course of their lives the females dispersed farther from their parental nesting sites than males.


"To avoid inbreeding and resource competition, it is usual among many animals for one sex to disperse farther from their place of birth than the other. Male-biased dispersal is more frequently the norm among mammals, with females remaining near the original nesting area. Among the cichlids we studied, on the other hand, it appears to be the females that disperse," says ethologist Lemmel-Schädelin.   


Kin-shoaling promotes the spread of an individual's own genes


The researchers discovered another phenomenon while studying the familial relationships within the shoals. Small – and therefore probably younger – females tend to shoal with female siblings. Small males do not, instead preferring to shoal with non-sibling males. Larger – and therefore older – fish no longer exhibit this preference for kin-shoaling.


Richard Wagner explains this behaviour as follows: "Females disperse around eleven times as far from their parental nests than males. This naturally involves a certain risk for the females. We observed that females tended to shoal with their female siblings. They probably do so in order to minimize the risks of long-distance dispersal and to increase the chance of at least one member of the family making it."


"Cichlid research is especially interesting from an evolutionary perspective," says Lemmel-Schädelin. "Africa's three largest lakes – Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi – are home to cichlids that are believed to have emerged from a limited source population. The ancestral animals followed the rivers to enter these lakes, where they found a number of ecological niches in which they began to develop in different directions. This makes it possible here to look at evolution in action, so to speak, and to research the emergence of new species and a rich repertoire of different behaviours," Lemmel-Schädelin explains.


Explore further: Males produce faster sperm for sisters


More information: "Sex biases in kin shoaling and dispersal in a cichlid fish", by Wouter F. D. van Dongen, Richard H. Wagner, Yoshan Moodley and Franziska Lemmel-Schädelin was published in the journal Oecologia. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-014-3079-3

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UNITED STATES: Culprit identified in decline of endangered Missouri River pallid sturgeon

UNITED STATES: Culprit identified in decline of endangered Missouri River pallid sturgeon | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Pallid sturgeon come from a genetic line that has lived on this planet for tens of millions of years; yet it has been decades since anyone has documented any of the enormous fish successfully producing young that survive to adulthood in the upper Missouri River basin.

Now, fisheries scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey, Montana State University and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have shown why, detailing for the first time the biological mechanism that has caused the long decline of pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River and led to its being placed on the endangered species list 25 years ago.


In a paper published this week in the journal Fisheries, the scientists show that oxygen-depleted dead zones between dams in the upper Missouri River are directly linked with the failure of endangered pallid sturgeon hatched embryos to survive to adulthood.


"This research is a notable breakthrough in identifying the reason why pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River have been declining for so many decades," said Suzette Kimball, acting director of the USGS. "By pinpointing the biological mechanism responsible for the species' decline, resource managers have vital information they can use as a focus of pallid sturgeon conservation."


"We certainly think this is a significant finding in the story of why pallid sturgeon are failing to recruit in the upper Missouri River," said Christopher Guy, the assistant unit leader with the USGS Montana Cooperative Fishery Research Unit and the MSU professor who was the lead author on the paper. "We're basically talking about a living dinosaur that takes 20 years to reach sexual maturity and can live as long as the average human in the U.S. After millions of years of success, the pallid sturgeon population stumbled and now we know why. From a conservation perspective, this is a major breakthrough."


The study is the first to make a direct link among dam-induced changes in riverine sediment transport, the subsequent effects of those changes on reduced oxygen levels and the survival of an endangered species, the pallid sturgeon.


"This research shows that the transition zone between the freely flowing river and reservoirs is an ecological sink - a dead zone - for pallid sturgeon," Guy said. "Essentially, hatched sturgeon embryos die in the oxygen-depleted sediments in the transition zones."


Guy said fisheries biologists long suspected that the Missouri River's massive reservoirs were preventing hatched embryonic pallid sturgeon from surviving to the juvenile stage. But early attempts to tie the problem to low levels of dissolved oxygen were unsuccessful.


"The reason for that is we hadn't sampled deep enough," Guy said. "It wasn't until we sampled water down at the bottom, where those sediments are being deposited, that we found there was no dissolved oxygen. Because hatched pallid sturgeon embryos are negatively buoyant, they tend to sink into that hostile environment."


"The lack of oxygen is a function of high microbial activity in the sediment laden area," said co-author Eric Scholl, a Ph.D. student at Montana State University and a co-author on the study.


Hilary Treanor, an MSU research associate working with Guy, said they were able to show just how hostile these transition zones between riverine environment and reservoir could be to hatched sturgeon embryos.


In experiments at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Fish Technology Center in Bozeman with coauthors Molly Webb, Kevin Kappenman, and Jason Ilgen, Treanor said different aged hatched embryos were treated with water of varying levels of dissolved oxygen. The lowest level they could recreate - 1.5 milligrams of oxygen per liter of water - was still higher than samples pulled from the bottom at the upper end of Fort Peck Reservoir.


At those depleted levels, the hatched sturgeon embryos suffered almost immediately.


"We saw changes in their behavior fairly quickly. They became disoriented and weren't able to move the way they should have," Treanor said. "Within an hour we started to see mortality. By the end of the experiment they were all dead."


Pallid sturgeon, native to the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, were listed as an endangered species in 1990. The species has a lifespan of more than a century. According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, fewer than 175 wild-spawned pallid sturgeon - all adults - live in the free-flowing Missouri River above Lake Sakakawea. Since 1990, not a single wild-spawned pallid sturgeon is known to have survived to a juvenile, despite intensive searching.


In the past 5 years, researchers identified the most important reason for pallid sturgeon population declines in the Upper Missouri River: the lack of survival of naturally produced hatched sturgeon embryos.


Guy said this most recent study of sturgeon built on research conducted by USGS fisheries biologist Patrick Braaten, which demonstrated not enough available drift distance exists between the reservoirs for hatched pallid sturgeon embryos before entering the reservoirs in the upper Missouri River.


Before dams, hatched pallid sturgeon embryos would drift for hundreds of miles, eventually settling out of the river's current in areas with low flow where they matured enough to negotiate the river's flow.


"This team has shown how much we can do when we have a collaboration between MSU, USGS and world-renowned reproductive physiologists Molly Webb and Kevin Kappenman with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service," Guy said. "In the process of doing this research, we've trained a dozen MSU graduate students and a number of undergraduate field and lab techs."


Given what the new research shows about how no oxygen is available to hatched pallid sturgeon embryos, the authors of the paper propose that officials will need to consider innovative approaches to managing Missouri River reservoirs for pallid sturgeon conservation to have a chance. It also could provide some guiding principles for the construction of new dams around the world, Guy said.

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EVENT: 28 and 29 May 2015, Piraeus, Greece - European Maritime Day Conference

EVENT: 28 and 29 May 2015, Piraeus, Greece - European Maritime Day Conference | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The largest annual maritime conference in Europe will be held in Piraeus (Greece) on 28 and 29 May 2015.


This year, the conference will focus on the role of ports and coasts as gateways to maritime growth. Many events are being organised: political sessions, workshops, face-to-face meetings, exhibitions and a networking reception.


Conference overview


The European Maritime Day Conference ( will host high-level sessions and stakeholder workshops attracting delegates and experts from across Europe and beyond. Speakers, including Ministers, Commissioners, CEOs and experts, will discuss the spectrum of opportunities and great challenges that our coasts and seas present, share best practices, and develop new synergies.


On 28 May, the high-level plenary session will introduce the main political challenges of coastal cities and ports. The different aspects of this theme will be declined over the two days in three thematic sessions and about 20 workshops.


Preliminary programme of the conference:





The European Maritime Day is celebrated annually in Europe on 20 May. This annual platform welcomes Europe's growing maritime community joining policy makers to discuss, debate and exchange best practices. The seas and oceans, and the opportunities they offer, are at the heart of the discussions.



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ΑΥΣΤΡΑΛΙΑ: Προϊστορικό καρχαρία που έπιασαν ψαράδες

ΑΥΣΤΡΑΛΙΑ: Προϊστορικό καρχαρία που έπιασαν ψαράδες | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Με το στόμα ανοιχτό έμειναν οι Αυστραλοί ψαράδες όταν τραβώντας τα δίχτυα τους βρέθηκαν μπροστά στον προϊστορικό καρχαρία που είχαν πιάσει.


Ο πτυχωτός καρχαρίας βρισκόταν σε μεγάλο βάθος όταν πιάστηκε στα δίχτυα των ψαράδων.


Με μήκος πάνω από δύο μέτρα, το χρώμα του ήταν σκούρο καφέ και το σχήμα του ήταν όμοιο με αυτό του χελιού.


Τα τρομακτικά του σαγόνια που έχουν 300 δόντια σε 25 σειρές καθιστούν αδύνατο τον απεγκλωβισμό των θυμάτων του.


Λέγεται μάλιστα, πως το συγκεκριμένο είδος καρχαρία χάρη στο σχεδιασμό των σαγονιών του έχει τη δυνατότητα να καταπίνει τα θύματά του ζωντανά.


Το είδος αυτό του καρχαρία είναι γνωστό και ως «ζωντανό απολίθωμα», καθώς υπολογίζεται πως βρίσκεται στη γη εδώ και 80 εκατομμύρια χρόνια.


Θεωρείται μάλιστα ένα από τα μόλις δύο είδη που εξακολουθούν να υπάρχουν στον πλανήτη από την περίοδο εκείνη.


Ο πτυχωτός καρχαρίας (επιστημονική ονομασία Chlamydoselachus anguineus – Χλαμυδοσελάχος ο φιδίσιος) είναι ένα από τα δύο ζώντα μέλη της οικογενείας Χλαμυδοσελαχίδες, με ευρεία, αν και αποσπασματική εξάπλωση σε Ατλαντικό και Ειρηνικό.


Ζει πέρα από την άκρη της ηπειρωτικής υφαλοκρηπίδας, κοντά στο βυθό, αν και υπάρχουν ενδείξεις για σημαντική κάθετη μετακίνηση.

Ζει συνήθως σε βάθος 50 με 200 μέτρων, αν και ένας πιάστηκε σε βάθος 1.570 μέτρων στην Ιαπωνία.


Διαθέτει πολλά πρωτόγονα χαρακτηριστικά. Φτάνει σε μήκος δύο μέτρων και έχει σκούρο καφέ σώμα, που μοιάζει με χέλι, με ραχιαίο, πυελικό και πρωκτικό πτερύγιο. Το όνομά του προέρχεται από την πτυχωτή εμφάνιση των βραχγίων του, τα οποία είναι σε έξι ζεύγη.


Παρατηρείται σπάνια. Τα μακρά, εξαιρετικά ευλίγιστα σαγόνια του του επιτρέπουν να καταπιεί ολόκληρο ένα μεγάλο θήραμα, ενώ οι πολλές σειρές από μικρά, βελονοειδή δόντια αποτρέπουν το θήραμα από να διαφύγει.


Τρέφεται κυρίως με κεφαλόποδα, ενώ επίσης καταναλώνει οστεϊχθύες και άλλους καρχαρίες. Αυτό το είδος είναι ωοζωοτόκο: τα έμβρυα βγαίνουν από τη κάψουλα του αυγού τους μέσα στη μήτρα της μητέρας.


Η περίοδος κύησης μπορεί να είναι τόσο μεγάλη όσο τρία έτη και έξι μήνες, το μεγαλύτερο από όλα τα σπονδυλωτά. Δύο εως 15 μικρά γεννιούνται σε έναν χρόνο. Δεν υπάρχει ξεχωριστή εποχή αναπαραγωγής.


Οι πτυχωτοί καρχαρίες κατά καιρούς συλλαμβάνονται ως παρεμπίπτοντα αλιεύματα από την εμπορική αλιεία, αλλά έχουν μικρή οικονομική αξία.


Το είδος έχει αξιολογηθεί ως σχεδόν απειλούμενο, δεδομένου ότι εξαιτίας του πολύ χαμηλού ρυθμού αναπαραγωγής τους, ακόμα και τα παρεμπιπτόντα αλιευμάτα μπορούν να καταστρέψουν τον πληθυσμό τους. Αυτός ο καρχαρίας, ή ενας υποτιθέμενος γιγάντιος συγγενής του, έχει προταθεί ως πηγή για τις ιστορίες των θαλάσσιων φιδιών.


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SPAIN fights pirate fishing

SPAIN fights pirate fishing | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Spain has a new fisheries law which imposes stronger penalties on Spanish citizens involved in pirate fishing anywhere in the world.


The new Spanish fisheries law 33/2014 is the Spanish translation into legislation of the EU’s illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing regulation, which requires all member states to take action against any IUU fishing activities undertaken by individuals or companies.


Now, The Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF), Oceana, The Pew Charitable Trusts and WWF have called on other member states to follow suit.


“The lack of will by member states to put in place laws that target those getting rich from illegal fishing has been a serious obstacle to the EU’s effectiveness to tackle this problem,” said Maria José Cornax, fisheries campaign manager, Oceana.


WWF pointed to the recent example of vessels being investigated for pirate fishing in the Southern Ocean, New Zealand, as being an important example as to why other countries need to follow Spain’s example.


In the past, two of these vessels have been linked with Spanish based syndicate Vidal Armadores SA, a family owned company in north western Spain that has been linked to more than 40 case of alleged illegal fishing.


The new law will enable Spain to take action against this company if illegal fishing activities can be proved. It will also enable the country to take action against fishing vessels under flags of convenience or those owned or operated by ‘shell’ companies in tax havens.


World Fishing & Aquaculture  -


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UNITED KINGDOM: Eyes on the Seas Fixated on Pirate Fishing

UNITED KINGDOM: Eyes on the Seas Fixated on Pirate Fishing | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The U.K.-based Satellite Applications Catapult, supported by The Pew Charitable Trusts, has developed a near real-time technology that the company says will help authorities monitor, detect and respond to illegal fishing activity across the world’s oceans.

The live satellite monitoring system, Project Eyes on the Seas, has been developed by the Catapult for Pew and will initially be launched in the waters of Chile, Palau, and the U.K. Overseas Territories. It is the latest stage in a long-term effort by Pew to reduce illegal or ‘pirate’ fishing around the world, which is valued at USD 23.5 billion annually.


Using multiple sources of live satellite tracking data, the system analyses the data and links it to information about a ship’s ownership, history and country of registration, providing a dossier of up-to-the-minute data that can alert officials to suspicious vessel movements.


Project Eyes on the Seas will launch initially with a ‘Virtual Watch Room’ monitoring the waters surrounding Easter Island, a Chilean special territory; the Pacific island nation of Palau. Over the next three years, the plan is to grow the system’s capability and scope as more countries, regional fisheries management organisations, and seafood retail groups commit to using it to ensure that only legally caught seafood is taken from the ocean and reaches consumers’ plates.


Joshua Reichert, Executive Vice President of The Pew Charitable Trusts, explained: ”Project Eyes on the Seas is designed to transform the current very expensive and patchy system of information gathering and enforcement into a global system for identifying and tracking illegal fishing vessels that is far more cost effective. This system will enable authorities to share information on those vessels operating outside of the law, build a comprehensive case against them, track them into port or within reach of enforcement vessels, and take action against them.”


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BELGIUM: Axis4 building a sustainable future for the Belgian fishing sector

Axis4 in Belgium


Sustainable fishing practices are a real challenge for the eighty or so fishing vessels in Belgium.


Belgian landings make up only 10% of fisheries products consumed in Belgium so there is real scope to promote local fish to and market seasonal and lesser known species to consumers.


That's why sustainability and opening up new markets were two of the main challenges facing the Belgian Fisheries Local Action Group. T


his video shows just one of many examples of how they tackled those issues through a series of innovative projects.


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ΗΝΩΜΕΝΕΣ ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΕΣ: Τα δελφίνια και οι φώκιες έχουν καρδιακές αρρυθμίες

ΗΝΩΜΕΝΕΣ ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΕΣ: Τα δελφίνια και οι φώκιες έχουν καρδιακές αρρυθμίες | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Παρά την εντυπωσιακή τους προσαρμογή στη ζωή κάτω από την επιφάνεια της θάλασσας, τα δελφίνια και οι φώκιες αντιμετωπίζουν σωματικές προκλήσεις όταν κινούνται με κρατημένη την αναπνοή τους, σύμφωνα με νέα μελέτη. Η σωματική καταπόνηση εκδηλώνεται με τη μορφή καρδιακών αρρυθμιών, οι οποίες εμφανίζονται με ιδιαίτερα υψηλή συχνότητα κατά τις βαθύτερες καταδύσεις των δύο θηλαστικών.


Η βραδυκαρδία αποτελεί μία από τις κοινές φυσιολογικές αλλαγές που επιστρατεύουν τα θαλάσσια θηλαστικά για να διατηρήσουν τα αποθέματα οξυγόνου τους όσο βρίσκονται μέσα στο νερό. Ωστόσο ο τρόπος με τον οποίο τα ζώα ανταποκρίνονται στις φυσικές απαιτήσεις του υποβρύχιου κυνηγιού ήταν προηγουμένως ασαφής, δεδομένου ότι η φυσιολογική αντίδραση για την άσκηση είναι η αύξηση του καρδιακού ρυθμού.


Η νέα μελέτη δείχνει ότι αυτά τα αντιφατικά μηνύματα προς την καρδιά οδηγούν συχνά σε καρδιακές αρρυθμίες, σύμφωνα με την Τέρι Γουίλλιαμς, επικεφαλής της έρευνας και καθηγήτρια εξελικτικής βιολογίας στο Πανεπιστήμιο της Σάντα Κρουζ στην Καλιφόρνια.


«Αυτή η μελέτη αλλάζει την κατανόησή μας για τη βραδυκαρδία στα θαλάσσια θηλαστικά», δήλωσε η Ουίλιαμς. «Η καρδιά λαμβάνει αντικρουόμενα μηνύματα, όταν τα ζώα γυμνάζονται έντονα στα βάθη της θάλασσας, κάτι το οποίο συχνά συμβαίνει όταν αρχίζουν την ανάδυσή τους. Οι αρρυθμίες δεν είναι θανατηφόρες, αλλά βάζουν την καρδιά σε μια ασταθή κατάσταση που θα μπορούσε να την καταστήσει ευάλωτη σε προβλήματα», πρόσθεσε.


Οι ερευνητές διαπίστωσαν ότι οι καρδιακοί ρυθμοί ποικίλουν ανάλογα με το βάθος και την ένταση της άσκησης, μερικές φορές εναλλασσόμενοι γρήγορα μεταξύ περιόδων βραδυκαρδίας και ταχυκαρδίας. Καρδιακές αρρυθμίες εμφανίστηκαν σε περισσότερο από το 70 τοις εκατό των καταδύσεων που καταγράφηκαν.


«Έχουμε την τάση να σκεπτόμαστε πως τα θαλάσσια θηλαστικά έχουν εντελώς προσαρμοστεί στη ζωή στο νερό. Ωστόσο, όσον αφορά το χρόνο κατάδυσης και τους καρδιακούς ρυθμούς, βλέπουμε ότι δεν πρόκειται για ένα τέλειο σύστημα», δήλωσε η Ουίλιαμς. «Ακόμα και 50 εκατομμύρια χρόνια εξέλιξης δεν ήταν σε θέση να καταστήσουν αυτή την βασική ικανότητα των θαλάσσιων θηλαστικών ανεπηρέαστη από προβλήματα», πρόσθεσε.


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EUROPEAN UNION: EU fishing fleet increasingly profitable and fuel efficient

EUROPEAN UNION: EU fishing fleet increasingly profitable and fuel efficient | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The European Commission's Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) has published its 2014 Annual Economic Report on the EU fishing fleet.

The report is showing progress in economic performance. The EU fishing fleet was generally profitable in 2012, generating €6.9 billion in revenue. Roughly half of the total revenue was transformed into salaries and profits for the fishing communities. Most national fleets show a positive trend over the period 2002-2012. However, despite signs of a recovery, the impact of the fuel crisis that peaked in 2003 and 2008 demonstrates the vulnerability of the EU fleet to external shocks.


Another finding concerns significant progress in fuel efficiency. Fuel consumption and fuel use intensity decreased by 10% from 2008 to 2012. This improvement is the result of EU-backed fuel-efficient fishing gear, fleet reduction, changes in fishing behaviour and fleet dynamics. Employment on board EU fishing vessels was 151 383 in 2012, declining on average 2% per year from 2008 to 2012. In contrast, the average salary per employee increased over the same period.


About the report

The Annual Economic Report (AER) of EU fleets is the most comprehensive source of economic analysis and data about the EU fishing fleet. It focuses on drivers and trends, and includes specific sections on the EU long distant water fleets, small-scale coastal fleets and main fishing regions. Since 2007, the AER has provided a comprehensive overview of the latest information available on the structure and economic performance of fishing fleets in EU countries.


The AER is increasingly used by fisheries managers as well as international organisations such the OECD and FAO. This exercise is coordinated by the European Commission and produced by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) and the Joint Research Centre. The relevant data are collected by EU countries under the Data Collection Framework.



2014 Annual Economic Report on the EU fishing fleet:





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