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MAGAZINE: International Aquafeed - March / April 2013 - Volume16 / Issue 2

The March April 2013 edition of International Aquafeed magazine




- Transforming aquaculture production using oxygenation systems


- Nutritional benefits of using Processed Animal Proteins (PAPs) in European aquafeeds


- Bioenergetics - application in aquaculture nutrition


- Towards aquafeeds with increased food security


- Escapes primarily caused by equipment failure


- The role of bioremediation in water quality management


- The multifunctional dietary properties of spirulina and its use in aquaculture


- Effect of dietary inclusion of seaweeds on intestinal proteolytic activity of juvenile sea bream, Sparus aurata




- Challenges facing the aquaculture feed industry


- The International Aquafeed product showcase 2013



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FINAL REPORT: Ex ante evaluation of a possible future FPA and protocol between the EU and Kenya

FINAL REPORT: Ex ante evaluation of a possible future FPA and protocol between the EU and Kenya | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |



This report provides an ex ante evaluation of a possible Fisheries Partnership Agreement (FPA) and Protocol between the European Union (EU) and Kenya (officially the Republic of Kenya, but hereafter referred to as Kenya). Following informal communication between staff from the EU’s Directorate-General of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE) and officials from Kenya, which took place on the fringes of the annual Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) meeting in May 2013, Kenya expressed interest (in a series of email communications with DG MARE) in a possible FPA/Protocol with the EU. Given interest by EU Member State stakeholders in an FPA/Protocol, the evaluation is intended to inform a decision as to whether to provide a mandate to the European Commission to negotiate an FPA/Protocol with Kenya on behalf of the EU.


This ex ante evaluation of a possible FPA/Protocol between the EU and Kenya is informed by a regional analysis of tuna fisheries in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), which provides background information of relevance to this ex ante evaluation (Poseidon et al., 2014). This evaluation was completed between September and December 2013, and was based on: a review of relevant literature; consultations with regional organisations in the WIO; a visit by the contractors to Kenya (28 September to 8 October 2013); and relevant consultations in the EU with European Commission services, the European External Action Service (EEAS), Member State administrations and the private sector.


The domestic fishing sector in Kenya

Kenya does not have an industrial tuna fleet, and the only domestic tuna-catching sector is therefore an artisanal fleet of around 800 small-scale vessels, all of which are typically confined to within 3-5 nm of the coast, catching around 300 tonnes (t) of tuna a year. The stocks of tuna being caught by the domestic fleet are regional stocks of skipjack, yellowfin and bigeye tuna, none of which is assessed by the IOTC as being overfished or subject to overfishing. The domestic prawn/shrimp and demersal fisheries are also exploited by small-scale vessels, and while research is poor, stocks are probably overfished and subject to overfishing (despite the lack of any industrial activity) due to poor fisheries management.

There are three principal companies providing supplies to visiting foreign fishing (and non-fishing) vessels employing around 500 people. One of these companies also engages in tuna processing, operating on a ‘fee for service’ basis for major tuna traders, with raw material landed directly by EU purse seine vessels to the company’s private berth before tuna is processed into loins to send to the EU for canning. The volume of processing is very sporadic, being dependent on good catches of yellowfin tuna in/near the Kenyan EEZ (in some years the company may process no tuna at all).


Final report:


 Fisheries - European Commission


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WORLDWIDE: Fish catch break on world stage at global conference

WORLDWIDE: Fish catch break on world stage at global conference | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Inland fishing - the powerful yet quieter sister to the large, salty marine aquaculture powerhouse - has gained what experts say is a much-needed visibility boost this as the first partnership between Michigan State University (MSU) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations goes on in Rome.


These freshwater fish provide the food, sport and economic power across the globe. Inland fishing is often a study in the power of the many, more about the line and the net, about individuals, families and small cooperatives. More than 60 million people in low-income nations are estimated to rely on inland fisheries for their livelihood.


Its small-but-many base has in modern times across the globe been shy of strong data to document its impact. That has left the inland fishery industry a poor competitor for water against agriculture, energy, commercial development and industry.


Raising the profile of quiet-but-powerful giant that is inland fishing has joined MSU and the FAO. This week they bring together 212 people from 45 countries to the The Global Conference on Inland Fisheries at the FAO headquarters to discuss ways to make fish a competitive part of global development.


"Fish always been representative of how well humans are doing with their environment," said Bill Taylor, University Distinguished Professor in Global Fisheries Systems in MSU's Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability (CSIS). "It's time for us to make a move and speak for the fish to have them valued along with power, commercial, agriculture and other competition for water."


It's an issue that resonates both domestically and internationally. Across the continental United States, more than a quarter of its miles of streams are considered at high risk from urban development, agriculture, livestock grazing, pollution, or dams.


Inland fisheries and the freshwater lakes and streams that sustain them, meanwhile, support many local economies in Michigan and elsewhere through agriculture, tourism, industry, and energy generation. Many communities continue to directly tap the Great Lakes for their municipal water supplies.


"The world's poor, hungry, and disenfranchised—often the people most dependent on inland fisheries—are the very people whose voices most need to heard and represented by us to those who will make decisions affecting them," said MSU President Lou Anna K. Simon, who delivered the conference's opening address Monday.


"Inland fisheries have long been a quiet but important component in food and economic security around the world. Yet the voices of those most dependent on these resources often are at risk of being drowned out by louder, more powerful interests."


In Rome, 18 MSU professors and students will be attending and giving talks and poster presentations on topics ranging from gathering worldwide fishery data to governance to food security to law enforcement. It's an interdisciplinary show of force, folding in both biological and environmental sciences along with social studies - a hallmark of MSU and CSIS, which stresses the need for holistic research to pursue sustainable solutions that allow both people and nature to thrive.


At the conference on Monday, Simon and Arni Mathieson, assistant director-general of the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, signed a memorandum of understanding, formalizing a way for MSU to continue to reach into the corners of the world to help coordinate and collaborate on inland fisheries issues.


One of the largest issues is the dearth of hard numbers on inland fisheries. Taylor, who has established an international reputation in inland fisheries, says that his research group recently reported that globally, just 156 of more than 230 countries and territories reported their inland capture fisheries production to the FAO in 2010. Moreover, even those reporting have inaccurate and grossly underestimated data.


When accurately assessed, the amount of freshwater fish caught could equal the current amount of marine fish caught. And it's not just the numbers. Taylor said many of the fish caught in fresh waters provide important protein, micronutrients and fatty acids that aren't easily replaced once that resource is gone.



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MAGAZINE: Caribbean Maritime – January 2015

Caribbean Maritime is the official journal of the Caribbean Shipping Association, published by Land & Marine Publications Ltd.

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ΚΟΣΜΟΣ: ΟΗΕ - Κοντά σε σημαντική συμφωνία για την προστασία των ωκεανών

ΚΟΣΜΟΣ: ΟΗΕ - Κοντά σε σημαντική συμφωνία για την προστασία των ωκεανών | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Έναρξη διαπραγματεύσεων για την προστασία της βιοποικιλότητας των διεθνών υδάτων.


Τα κράτη μέλη των Ηνωμένων Εθνών ξεκίνησαν το Σάββατο διαπραγματεύσεις για την υπογραφή μίας συνθήκης προστασίας της θαλάσσιας βιοποικιλότητας σε περιοχές των ωκεανών που εκτείνονται πέρα από χωρικά ύδατα, σε μία κίνηση που επιδοκιμάστηκε από τις περιβαλλοντικές οργανώσεις.


Η επικείμενη συμφωνία του ΟΗΕ θα είναι η πρώτη που θα απευθύνεται συγκεκριμένα στην προστασία της θαλάσσιας ζωής, καλώντας για τη διαφύλαξη μεγάλων περιοχών που απειλούνται από μόλυνση, υπερβολική αλιεία και την παγκόσμια υπερθέρμανση.


Ωστόσο οι διαπραγματεύσεις ξεκίνησαν μόνο αφού μία μικρή ομάδα χωρών, οι οποίες εμπλέκονται σε επιχειρήσεις αλιείας και εξόρυξης στους ωκεανούς, διαφώνησε με το αρχικό, πιο σύντομο χρονοδιάγραμμα. Τα περισσότερα από τα 193 κράτη καλούσαν για πιο άμεσες ενέργειες, ωστόσο χώρες όπως η Ρωσία, οι ΗΠΑ, ο Καναδάς, η Ισλανδία και η Ιαπωνία εξέφρασαν την επιφυλακτικότητά τους.


Η συμφωνία θα καλύπτει διεθνείς ζώνες που αποτελούν το 64 τοις εκατό της συνολικής επιφάνειας των ωκεανών και το 43 τοις εκατό της συνολικής επιφάνειας της Γης.


«Πρόκειται για το μεγαλύτερο οικοσύστημα στη Γη και ακόμα δεν υφίσταται κάποιο νομικό όργανο ώστε να θεσπίσει εθνικά πάρκα στους ωκεανούς για να προστατεύσει την θαλάσσια ζωή», δήλωσε η Κάρεν Σακ της μη κυβερνητικής οργάνωσης Pew Charitable Trusts.


Η συμφωνία για την αρχή των διαπραγματεύσεων έγινε μετά από τέσσερις ημέρες συζητήσεων στη Νέα Υόρκη, ενώ η τελική επικύρωση της συνθήκης θα λάβει χώρα το 2018 το συντομότερο, καθώς η παρουσίαση των τελικών προτάσεων προγραμματίστηκε για τη Γενική Συνέλευση του Σεπτεμβρίου του 2017.


Ωστόσο το χρονοδιάγραμμα αυτό αποτελεί σημαντική πρόοδο αν αναλογιστεί κανείς πως η συζήτηση για τη δημιουργία μίας τέτοιας συμφωνίας ξεκίνησε πριν από δέκα έτη.


«Η συμφωνία θα βοηθήσει σε μεγάλο βαθμό την εξασφάλιση της προστασίας που χρειάζεται απεγνωσμένα η ανοικτή θάλασσα», δήλωσε η Σοφία Τσενικλή της Greenpeace σε δήλωση της.


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EUROPEAN UNION: Using less fish to test chemicals safety

EUROPEAN UNION: Using less fish to test chemicals safety | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The JRC has released a new strategy on how to replace, reduce and refine the use of fish in testing of chemicals’ effect on flora and fauna in water (aquatic toxicity) and chemicals’ uptake and concentration in living organisms (bioaccumulation).


Out of the 11.5 million animals used for experimental purposes in the EU (2011 data), cold blooded animals, namely reptiles, amphibians and fish represent 12.4%. In the case of specific testing for toxicological safety assessment, fish represent 18% of the one million animals used.


Developed by the JRC-managed European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), the strategy supports EU legislation on environmental hazard and risk assessment of chemicals and EU legislation on protection of animals used for scientific purposes.


Achievement of the of the strategic aims and related objectives outlined in the document will deliver alternative approaches for standard information requirements while ensuring that tests on fish are only conducted as a last resort. Success will depend on the proactive and coordinated engagement of the multiple stakeholders in the field. An important near-term impact could be the reduction in the number of these tests conducted on chemicals subject to the next REACH registration deadline (2018).


The strategy also proposes the further development of mechanistically-based replacement alternatives, as well as the need to revise existing test guidelines to reduce and refine testing on fish. Furthermore, the development of guidance on the application of integrated approaches to chemical assessment is recommended.


Concerning bioaccumulation, efforts are encouraged to develop and apply in silico models such as quantitative structure-activity relationships and physiologically based toxicokinetic models, as well as the standardisation of in vitro methods for hepatic metabolism in fish.


Background information


Aquatic toxicity refers to adverse effects of chemicals on organisms living in the water and is usually determined by testing on organisms representing aquatic plants or algae, invertebrate (crustaceans) and vertebrate (fish) animals. Bioaccumulation describes the uptake and concentration of a chemical in an organism.


Bioaccumulative properties pose a threat since a chemical can reach concentration levels causing toxic effects in organisms taking up the chemical or in those feeding on them.


JRC Science Hub - European Commission

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ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: Απέσπασαν δέσμευση για τα δεδουλευμένα οι εργαζόμενοι στις ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΕΣ ΙΧΘΥΟΚΑΛΛΙΕΡΓΕΙΕΣ

ΕΛΛΑΔΑ: Απέσπασαν δέσμευση για τα δεδουλευμένα οι εργαζόμενοι στις ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΕΣ ΙΧΘΥΟΚΑΛΛΙΕΡΓΕΙΕΣ | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Να ικανοποιήσει μέρος των αιτημάτων των εργαζόμενων υποχρεώθηκε η εργοδοσία στις «Ελληνικές Ιχθυοκαλλιέργειες» στη Φθιώτιδα, κάτω από την πίεση του απεργιακού τους αγώνα.


Η εταιρεία δεσμεύτηκε εγγράφως ότι θα καταβάλλει ένα μηνιάτικο από τα χρωστούμενα για όλους τους εργαζόμενους και όρισε συνάντηση για την ερχόμενη Πέμπτη 29/1, προκειμένου να συζητήσει με το ΔΣ του κλαδικού Σωματείου Γάλακτος - Τροφίμων - Ποτών Φθιώτιδας και εκπροσώπους των εργαζομένων για τον τρόπο εξόφλησης των οφειλόμενων και για τα υπόλοιπα αιτήματά τους.


Οι εργαζόμενοι έκαναν απεργία την περασμένη Τετάρτη, ενώ είχαν αποφασίσει νέα 24ωρη για την Παρασκευή, σε Τραγάνα - Λάρυμνα και στην Ξέρα. Την απόφαση για απεργία πήρε το κλαδικό Σωματείο της Φθιώτιδας, καταγγέλλοντας τη στάση της εργοδοσίας, που δεν καταβάλλει δεδουλευμένα και την περασμένη χρονιά απέλυσε πρωτοπόρους αγωνιστές.


Μετά την έγγραφη δέσμευση της εργοδοσίας, η Γενική Συνέλευση των εργαζομένων ανέστειλε τις κινητοποιήσεις, ενώ παραμένουν σε ετοιμότητα. «Αγώνες που γίνονται με τέτοια χαρακτηριστικά έχουν αποτελέσματα και πρέπει να παραδειγματίσουν την εργατική τάξη», τονίζει το ΔΣ του Συνδικάτου Γάλακτος - Τροφίμων - Ποτών Φθιώτιδας, χαιρετίζοντας το μαζικό αγώνα των εργαζομένων.



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GREECE: Nireus sells Turkish ops for €4.15m

Nireus has agreed to sell all its activities in Turkey, for €4.15 million in cash.


Greece's largest seabass and seabream producer said the sale is part of efforts to boost liquidity and exit activities considered as non-core.


The sale consists of all the shares in Nireus' Turkish fish farm subsidiary Ilknak and the trading arm Mirama. Combined, these two account for less than 5% of Nireus' total production, said the Athens stock-listed group.


Nireus did not name the buyer but said it was a "Turkish businessman, who is engaged in fish farming for several years".


It said the price is considered to be "within reasonable price limits as obtained from the valuations conducted by SOL Advisory and KPMG."

Nireus said it would increase production capacity in Greece to offset the loss of its production in Turkey.


The transaction will reduce shareholders' equity by €6.7m, but will boost Nireus' net profit after tax for the first nine months of 2014 by €690,000, reducing its loss from €16.627m to €15.937m, said Nireus.


The group is not the first Greek producer to exit Turkey. In 2013, Selonda sold off its remaining license, to buyers said to include Agromey, Kilic Deniz and Defne Tur.


According to its website, Ilknak was created in 1996 and operates a hatchery able to produce 30 million bass and bream juveniles, as well as a pre-fattening unit, two fish farms and an European Union-approved packaging unit. Its main offices are in Izmir, while its facilities are in Denizkoy, Dikili, 100 km north of Izmir and in Mordogan, Karaburun, 80 km west of Izmir.


All its products are sold through Miramar, a trading company established in 2006, states the website.


The sale comes as Nireus is still in the process of restructuring its debt with lenders. On Jan. 5, Nireus said the process would be completed shortly, after an article in the newspaper Kathimerini claimed Nireus' founder and chairman Aristides Belle was hampering negotiations.


"The company is in the final stage of negotiations in order to achieve the optimal restructuring agreement and cooperates fully with the lender banks," Nireus had responded.


"The alleged delays and denial, that are mentioned by the author of the article and his 'banking' or 'other' sources in a most unfounded and defamatory manner, are actually the careful consideration of all relevant documents and procedures in light of the current legislation," it had said.


Nireus is the last of Greece's three largest stock-listed bass and bream farmers to go through a restructuring with its bank lenders. Talks have been going on for over a year for its bank debt, which stood at €220.4 million by the end of September 2014.


Last September, Selonda became the first company in Greece -- across all industries -- to agree to a wide ranging restructuring plan that will see banks effectively take over 82% of the company's shares, while allowing its equity to recover from minus €40.7m into positive territory, while reducing debt from €155m to €105m.


Speaking to Undercurrent News at the time, Selonda's founder and outgoing CEO John Stephanis noted that Nireus would have to go through a similar process.


“Nireus has to follow the same path [as Selonda]," Stephanis had said.

The next step could be a merger with Selonda, he added. "Although the process for them hasn’t started yet, [if they complete it], I think the next step is a merger."


There can be a future for Selonda without Nireus, but, said Stephanis, “I believe a merger with Nireus has to happen”.


Unlike Dias and Selonda, however, which saw their equities plummeting to the red on lower biomass throughout 2013 and 2014, Nireus can still show a positive if rapidly declining equityon its balance sheet. Equity at the end of last September was €41.19m, compared to €92.31m a year earlier.


Undercurrent News -


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ITALIA: Pesca illegale, multe per 9mila euro nel Grossetano

ITALIA: Pesca illegale, multe per 9mila euro nel Grossetano | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Si chiama “Labirynth” ed è la maxi-operazione della guardia Costiera contro la commercializzazione di prodotti ittici illeciti. La Guardia Costiera di porto Santo Stefano (Monte Argentario) ha effettuato 95 controlli a pescherie, ristoranti e a bordo di pescherecci comminando multe per 9 mila euro.


Sono state sequestrate anche quattro attrezzature da pesca e tre persone sono state denunciate per pesca e commercializzazione di prodotto ittico sotto-misura.


Sequestrati oltre 30 chili di pesce. Inoltre, grazie ad una operazione congiunta con le altre forze dell’ordine per contrastare la pesca della “ceca”, gli avannotti di anguilla che possono anche essere venduti a 800 euro al chilo, l’ufficio marittimo di Castiglione della Pescaia, durante un blitz notturno, ha provveduto al sequestro penale di alcuni attrezzi utilizzati per quel tipo di pesca e di circa mezzo chilo di novellame, poi rigettato in mare poiché ancora vivo.


Sono stati ispezionati, insieme alla Asl 9 di Grosseto, i centri all’asta del pesce nel comune di Monte Argentario e al centro allevamento ad Orbetello, che però sono risultati in regola.



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UNITED STATES: Kalbarri abalone gets helping hand

UNITED STATES: Kalbarri abalone gets helping hand | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Department of Fisheries staff and Kalbarri fishermen have released 24,000 Roe's abalone (Haliotis roei) onto reef platforms along the cliffs north of Kalbarri, to restock a population decimated by the marine heat wave of 2010-11.

The heat wave killed 99.9 per cent of the Roe's abalone population in the area, which was once a productive commercial and recreational fishery that has now been closed to fishing indefinitely.

The devastation prompted WA Fisheries scientists to embark on a long-term project to reintroduce abalone to the area.


WA Fisheries research scientist Lachlan Strain says the first step was translocating 6000 adult Roe's abalone from Lucky Bay, south of Kalbarri, which was less severely affected by the heat wave.


"We translocated the animals from Lucky Bay in 2011-12 to five reef-top platforms north of the Murchison River—areas where historically large populations resided," Dr Strain says.


"Since then we have refined the transport and harvest methodologies, which has dramatically improved the survival of translocated animals."


Rather than place added pressure on the Lucky Bay population, in 2013 researchers began harvesting adult abalone from the Perth metropolitan fishery, and transporting them to Kalbarri's notoriously wave-pounded coast when weather permitted—a move which resulted in the translocation of another 3000 animals.


This year they have also translocated 15,000 juvenile abalone bred in aquaculture facilities to further reduce the impact on wild populations.


Dr Strain says monitoring has revealed good survival rates among the translocated animals given the harsh conditions at the release sites.


However, monitoring control sites every six months has yet to reveal signs of newly settled abalone.


"Because of the mortality event's severity, if we do nothing to assist recovery then it could be decades if not longer before we see any signs of natural population recovery," Dr Strain says.


Given the remote location and severity of swells, Dr Strain says researchers have relied on local fishermen to access the reef platforms, during the right weather conditions, to hand release the animals.


"Kalbarri fisherman John Craike and other locals have been instrumental in helping this project to succeed," Dr Strain says.


He expects translocations to continue for another three to five years and hopes, with continued community involvement, they will proceed well into the future.

Read more at:



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UNITED STATES: Camera counts freshwater fish, which could help combat hydrilla

UNITED STATES: Camera counts freshwater fish, which could help combat hydrilla | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

A camera can accurately count freshwater fish, even in the thickest of underwater vegetation, a key finding for those who manage fisheries and control the invasive plant hydrilla, new University of Florida research shows.

The finding by UF/IFAS scientists can help researchers understand how many and which fish species are using dense plant habitats, said former UF/IFAS graduate student Kyle Wilson.


While cameras have been used to document fish behavior – including eating and breeding ─ this marks the first time scientists have used video to count fish in underwater plant habitats, Wilson said. In addition, no prior studies that used cameras to count fish verified their fish populations.


"It is commonly assumed that dense and invasive plants, like hydrilla, can drastically change fish habitat quality, primarily through changes in dissolved oxygen levels, water chemistry and habitat structure," Wilson said. "Whether these changes are good or bad for fish has previously remained uncertain due to sampling problems in dense plant habitats. Using underwater cameras, we have shown that fish can and do use habitats we previously thought were too stressful for fish habitat."


This is a big problem, especially with hydrilla, a plant that has invaded lakes throughout Florida, much of the U.S., Central America, South Africa and Australia, Wilson said. He estimated Florida spent up to $14 million per year throughout the 2000s to manage hydrilla, while the U.S. spent about $100 million per year in the 2000s for aquatic plant management.


In practical terms, researchers and conservation managers could use the UF/IFAS techniques to better understand how fish use other invasive aquatic plants as well, like Eurasian Watermilfoil, because it's similar to hydrilla, Wilson said. Such approaches can be quite valuable in advising conservation plans and can help resolve stakeholder issues associated with these invasive plants.


"This ability to use video cameras to estimate fish abundance is a tremendous asset to fisheries management, allowing us to evaluate fish habitat use in areas where previously no sampling method was effective," Wilson said. Australian researchers studying fish ecology have used cameras to count fish in the relatively clear waters at the Great Barrier Reef, but no research has peered through a lens to detect fish in thick vegetation like this study. "Previously, researchers that used cameras have had to make several broad assumptions that cameras work well in sampling fish. Now we know they work well."


UF/IFAS researchers specifically focused their study on ponds with plenty of hydrilla, Wilson said, but have also conducted preliminary camera work on Lake Tohopekaliga in the Kissimmee Chain of Lakes Area.


To research his master's thesis, Wilson lowered a camera into the water from a boat in three experimental ponds in Gainesville. He discovered the video counted freshwater fish, such as largemouth bass and bluegill sunfish – even those hidden in the nooks and crannies of hydrilla and other vegetation. Wilson counted fish during 13 weeks in the summers of 2011 and 2012, and then drained the ponds to obtain actual fish densities.


He conducted his research under the supervision of Micheal Allen, a professor of fisheries ecology at UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.


"We tested and verified the use of our camera techniques in extremely dense hydrilla habitats," said Wilson, now a doctoral student in ecology at the University of Calgary.


The UF/IFAS study is published in the January issue of the journal Marine and Freshwater Research.

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TANZANIA: Over 120 Muleba farmers get 9m/- for aquaculture projects

TANZANIA: Over 120 Muleba farmers get 9m/- for aquaculture projects | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |
Over 120 farmers at Ruhanga village, in Muleba District, Kagera Region, have been given soft loans amounting to 9m/- to enable them improve aquaculture activities.


Muleba District Commissioner, Mr Lembris Kipuyo, told the ‘Daily News’ that the funds were disbursed under the District Youth Development Fund, urging them to ensure the funds were well utilized.


Deputy Minister for Livestock and Fisheries Development, Mr Kaiko Telele, appealed to residents in Kagera Region to diversify aquaculture because the region had a big potential in the subsector.


Mr Telele made the call recently in Bukoba municipality during marking of International Fishers’ Day. He advised farmers to contact the Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute (TAFIRI) for technical guidance on how to get cages.


He said he was very optimistic that farmers in Kagera region would double their income through aquaculture following findings of a scientific research that a farmer could earn up to 20m/- in a year.

“Aquaculture is a very high-value crop. Farmers in Kagera region are encouraged to adopt cage pen-based aquaculture because the region has a big potential.


The region should start a breeding programme by training farmers on best fish farming technology,” he said. Mr Telele said during 2013 the nation earned a total of 1.4tril/- through the export of 375,160 metric tonnes of fish products. He directed district councils to enact bye-laws to safeguard fish resources.


“Lake Victoria is under threat and the very people this natural resource is supposed to serve are the ones threatening its very existence. Irresponsible human activities are threatening the world’s second largest fresh water lake,” he remarked.


Lake Victoria is the largest fresh water body in Africa, providing a lifeline for more than 5,000,000 people living in rural communities on or near its shores.


The lake is their source of water for bathing, drinking and cooking, and its fish stocks provide both protein and income for families. Many of the fish species, including the lake’s large cichlid population, are endemic and found nowhere else on earth. Presently, aquaculture accounts for only 13.71 per cent of the nation fish production.


The remaining production comes from fresh waters, covering a total area of 58,000 square kms. This includes three big lakes, namely lakes Victoria, Tanganyika and Nyasa, as well as major reservoirs, small water bodies, rivers and ponds. The annual sustainable yield for all marine and island waters is estimated to range from 400,000 to 500,000 tonnes.


The average per capita fish consumption in Tanzania is estimated at 38kg. Fish accounts for 40 per cent of the total animal protein supply. Over 30 million people in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) could greatly improve their livelihoods if they utilized the abundant investment opportunities in the basin.


Under the East African Co-operation Treaty, LVB has been categorized as an economic growth zone. According to Deputy Minister Telele, there has been an increase in illegal fishing using banned gear including dynamite. Other underlying causes degrading Lake Victoria is unregulated access by all.


“The lake belongs to everybody without a strong sense of responsibility,” he said. He says the underlying factors for pollution of the lake include lack of knowledge on managing the environment, poor urban plans, a poor compliance culture, poor policies and systems, lack of research and poor coordination among government agencies.


By MEDDY MULISA, Tanzania Daily News


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UNITED KINGDOM: New app to help keep North Sea fishermen safe

UNITED KINGDOM: New app to help keep North Sea fishermen safe | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |


A new app which will help make life safer for North Sea fishermen has been launched this week.



The FishSAFE Companion App will give information about oil and gas equipment on the sea bed and surface - ranging from platforms to subsea pipelines - so fishermen can better understand what the object is.

It is designed to complement FishSAFE Information and the FishSAFE unit which are already used by hundreds of skippers who fish in the North Sea and provides them with detailed information about potential oil and gas-related hazards in UK waters.


The new free app provides extra information about objects such as subsea wellheads, pipelines and protective structures. The size of equipment is indicated by a scale representation using easily-recognisable objects such as a person, bus or plane so fishermen can easily see how big the potential hazards are in comparison. Users can also type in their own notes in case, for example, the item has moved.


There is also a quiz so fishermen can test their knowledge, and a 3D picture so they know exactly what the potential hazard looks like.

FishSAFE was set up after four men died when the Scottish trawler Westhaven sank after it snagged on an underwater pipeline in 1997.


Fishermen can download the app while onshore or at sea and the information is permanently stored on their smartphone or tablet so they can easily view it, even when there’s no mobile phone coverage.

The information for the FishSAFE project is provided by oil and gas companies and is updated every six months and a version of the data is usually issued to fishermen in January and July. The FishSAFE unit is updated at the same time, and the information can also be downloaded from the organisation’s website which is updated frequently with urgent notices about oil and gas infrastructure and new snagging hazards.


FishSAFE Information provides skippers with detailed notes about oil and gas-related potential hazards in UK waters, and can be displayed on a plotter device on board a vessel. The FishSAFE unit - which is fixed in the wheelhouse - shows on a screen where the boat is and where pipelines and structures are in the area along with the statutory and HSE safety zones, and provides an audible and visual alarm when a boat is near a potential hazard.


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ΕΥΡΩΠΑΪΚΗ ΕΝΩΣΗ: Καταπολέμηση της φθίνουσας πορείας των αποθεμάτων λαυρακιού

ΕΥΡΩΠΑΪΚΗ ΕΝΩΣΗ: Καταπολέμηση της φθίνουσας πορείας των αποθεμάτων λαυρακιού | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Πακέτο μέτρων προς άμεση απαγόρευση της αλιείας λαυρακιού με τράτα στα πελάγη των Νήσων της Μάγχης, της Κελτικής και Ιρλανδικής Θάλασσας και τη βιώσιμη διαχείριση της εμπορικής και ερασιτεχνικής αλιείας ανακοίνωσε εχθές 26 Ιανουαρίου η Κομισιόν.


Για να αποτραπεί η εξάντληση των αποθεμάτων λαυρακιού στις Νήσους της Μάγχης, στην Κελτική Θάλασσα και Ιρλανδική Θάλασσα και νότια της Βόρειας Θάλασσας πρόκειται να εφαρμοστούν άμεσα μέτρα προστασίας τους.

Ειδικότερα, άμεσα θα απαγορευτεί η αλίευση λαυρακιού σε πέλαγος με τράτα, μιας και είναι περίοδος  αναπαραγωγής για το συγκεκριμένο ψάρι και συνεχίζει μέχρι και το τέλος Απριλίου. Το λαυράκι αυτή την περίοδο είναι περισσότερο ευάλωτο, αφού μαζεύεται σε κοπάδια για να αναπαραχθεί.

Η απαγόρευση της αλιείας με τράτα στα πελάγη αποτελεί το πρώτο κριτικής σημασίας βήμα στο πακέτο μέτρων της Ευρωπαϊκής Επιτροπής, αφού η αλιεία με τράτα θεωρείται ως η κύρια πηγή θνησιμότητας του λαυρακιού. Οι αλιείς εκμεταλλευόμενοι την περίοδο αναπαραγωγής συμβάλλουν στη μείωση των αποθεμάτων μέχρι και 25%.

Η Κομισιόν στοχεύει ακόμα και στην βιώσιμη διαχείριση της εμπορικής και ερασιτεχνικής αλιείας θέτοντας ένα πακέτο μέτρων προς υιοθέτηση από το Συμβούλιο της ΕΕ και από τα Κράτη Μέλη. Τρία ψάρια την ημέρα ανά ψαρά αντιστοιχούν για την ερασιτεχνική αλιεία. Όμως, όσον αφορά την εμπορική αλιεία προετοιμάζεται πρόταση της Επιτροπής που θα περιλαμβάνει περιορισμό των αλιευμάτων.


Παπαηλιού Χαρά  -

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RESEARCH ARTICLE: Fishing for Space - Fine-Scale Multi-Sector Maritime Activities Influence Fisher Location Choice

RESEARCH ARTICLE: Fishing for Space - Fine-Scale Multi-Sector Maritime Activities Influence Fisher Location Choice | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |



The European Union and other states are moving towards Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management to balance food production and security with wider ecosystem concerns. Fishing is only one of several sectors operating within the ocean environment, competing for renewable and non-renewable resources that overlap in a limited space. Other sectors include marine mining, energy generation, recreation, transport and conservation. Trade-offs of these competing sectors are already part of the process but attempts to detail how the seas are being utilised have been primarily based on compilations of data on human activity at large spatial scales. Advances including satellite and shipping automatic tracking enable investigation of factors influencing fishers’ choice of fishing grounds at spatial scales relevant to decision-making, including the presence or avoidance of activities by other sectors. We analyse the determinants of English and Welsh scallop-dredging fleet behaviour, including competing sectors, operating in the eastern English Channel.


Results indicate aggregate mining activity, maritime traffic, increased fishing costs, and the English inshore 6 and French 12 nautical mile limits negatively impact fishers’ likelihood of fishing in otherwise suitable areas. Past success, net-benefits and fishing within the 12 NM predispose fishers to use areas. Systematic conservation planning has yet to be widely applied in marine systems, and the dynamics of spatial overlap of fishing with other activities have not been studied at scales relevant to fisher decision-making. This study demonstrates fisher decision-making is indeed affected by the real-time presence of other sectors in an area, and therefore trade-offs which need to be accounted for in marine planning. As marine resource extraction demands intensify, governments will need to take a more proactive approach to resolving these trade-offs, and studies such as this will be required as the evidential foundation for future seascape planning.


About the Authors 

Alex N. Tidd  - SPC, BP D5, 98848, Noumea, New Caledonia


Alex N. Tidd, John Pinnegar  - Cefas, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT, United Kingdom


Youen Vermard, Paul Marchal  - IFREMER, Département Ressources Biologiques et Environnement Responsable de l’Unité Halieutique Manche-Mer du Nord, Unit 150, Quai Gambetta, BP 699 62321, Boulogne sur mer, France


Julia L. Blanchard -  Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Alfred Denny Building, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, United Kingdom


E. J. Milner-Gulland - Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, SL5 7PY, United Kingdom


Corresponding Author




Competing Interests


The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Author Contributions


Conceived and designed the experiments: AT PM YV. Performed the experiments: AT PM YV. Analyzed the data: AT YV. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AT YV. Wrote the paper: AT JB JP EJMG.


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MAGAZINE: Inshore ireland - December 2014 / January 2015

News, information and features from Ireland's marine and freshwater industries

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EUROPEAN UNION: New habitat model can help avoid Mediterranean hake overfishing

EUROPEAN UNION: New habitat model can help avoid Mediterranean hake overfishing | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

A habitat model, developed by the JRC and partner scientists, reveals that the main hake nurseries are mostly located from February to June in the northern Mediterranean, on the seabed in depths from 50 to 250 m. Such knowledge can guide decisions for sustainable fisheries management, such as the closure of fishing areas allowing hake stocks to recover from overfishing.


Supported by sound scientific approaches, such measures can increase yield and profits in the long term. The JRC is also studying the potential habitats of other key marine species, such as the Atlantic bluefin tuna.

Due to the rather low minimum size for fishing hake (20 cm), the status of hake stocks in the Mediterranean is indeed characterised by high mortality of young fish.,).


This has led to an exceptional fall in the total number of landings, which were halved in the late 90s for the Europe area, according to the FAO. The reduction of fishing effort in and around nurseries is therefore vital for the hake stocks recovery. The seasonal and large scale mapping of potential habitats provide information on areas and periods where nurseries are active, even if no studies are available.


The new habitat model couples scientific data on hake collected over decades in the Mediterranean Sea (MEDITS campaigns) with environmental data from remote sensing and ocean circulation models. The results show that hake nurseries require a stable bottom temperature, low bottom currents and a frequent occurrence of productive fronts in low chlorophyll-a areas to support a successful recruitment.


These conditions mostly occur recurrently between 50 and 250 meters of depth. The model allows for better understanding of the favorable environmental factors for hake growth for the Mediterranean Sea, including food availability and physical tolerance to temperature and water currents.


The model also shows the primary role of unfavorable environmental conditions on low recruitment in specific years, such as in 2011. As such, the habitat model is valuable for shaping spatial protection measures of hake nurseries under the Common Fisheries Policy providing information on when and where fisheries at sea bed (demersal trawling) should be closed.


This research on habitat mapping addresses the concerns of a study published in July 2014 by the European Commission, that supports the development of new technical conservation measures within the reformed Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) in support of the Council Regulation (EC) No 734/2008 of 15 July 2008 on the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems in the high seas from the adverse impacts of bottom fishing gears.


Monitoring of fish habitats and ecosystem's productivity:


JRC Science Hub - European Commission

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EUROPEAN UNION: European Commission acts to protect sea bass stock

EUROPEAN UNION: European Commission acts to protect sea bass stock | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The European Commission has announced measures to avert the collapse of the declining sea bass stock. Immediately effective emergency measures will place a ban on targeting the fish stock by trawling while it is reproducing, during the spawning season, which runs until the end of April. This will be complemented by further measures to ensure that all those who fish sea bass make a balanced and fair contribution to saving the stock.

The European Commissioner for Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, Karmenu Vella, said: "The impact of this stock collapsing would be catastrophic for the livelihoods of so many fishermen and coastal communities. This is about saving sea bass and saving jobs in the commercial and recreational fishing sector. I am proud of our quick reaction to what is an immediate danger to the stock".


The pelagic trawling ban is a critical first step in this package of measures. This ban will protect the stock from being targeted when at its most vulnerable – when the fish is coming together in shoals during the spawning season to reproduce.


The spawning season is already underway and will last until end of April. Pelagic trawling on is a major source of mortality and reduces the spawning stock as it makes up 25% of the impact on the stock. With a reduced spawning stock further actions and any rebuilding of the stock would be endangered. The measure will therefore come into force immediately and last until 30 April 2015. It will apply to the Channel, Celtic Sea, Irish Sea and southern North Sea.


Commercial and recreational fishing

In order to help the stock of sea bass recover, more action is needed to address the impact of all other commercial and recreational fishing activities.


Therefore the Commission is currently making a renewed and urgent effort in order to help Council and Member States put in place a package of measures to manage commercial and recreational fisheries on seabass more effectively.


For recreational fishing which accounts for 25% of sea bass catches, this would include a limit of three fish per day per angler. Member States would also need to set a minimum size of 42 cm so that fish are not caught, or are released, before they have reproduced.


For other commercial fisheries than pelagic trawling, this would also include limiting catches.   The Commission is working with the Member States involved to prepare a proposal to the Council of Ministers as soon as possible.



Sea bass is one of the most valuable fish on which many fishermen, especially small fishing enterprises, depend. Recent scientific analyses have reinforced previous concerns of unsustainable fishing advising urgently a substantial reduction in fishing mortality. We are witnessing a rapid decline of sea bass that risks leading to a collapse if no action is taken.  International scientific bodies have called for an 80% reduction in catches to turn the situation around.


Around 100 fishermen depend to a higher degree for part of the year on pelagic trawling of sea bass, while during the rest of year their income is made up also from other fisheries. There are however several hundred small scale fishermen that depend solely on sea bass for their income and for whom finding another source of income is much more difficult. With over 1.3m recreational anglers in France and another 800 000 in the UK, many thousands of jobs also depend on recreational fishing.


Following a lack of agreement between Member States since 2012 on coordinated and effective measures to protect this important stock and another lack of agreement of EU ministers in December's Fisheries Council, on 19 December 2014 the UK made a formal request to the Commission to take emergency measures.


The Commission then consulted the Member States involved and analysed the scientific evidence available. On the basis of discussions with all Member States and based on the scientific evidence the Commission has taken its own decision.


The Commission has previously taken such emergency measures to protect vulnerable stocks, most recently with anchovy in the Bay of Biscay.


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REVISTA: pesca - Febrero 2015

La revista Pesca es un medio de información alternativo referido a temas del mar y de la pesquería. Difunde información, ideas y corrientes de opinión que tienen por objeto crear conciencia de la necesidad de hacer sostenible la extracción de los recursos marinos, de seguridad alimentaria, del cuidado y protección del medio ambiente y ecosistemas acuáticos.

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EUROPEAN UNION: Legal clarity on landing obligation for EU fishermen in international waters

EUROPEAN UNION: Legal clarity on landing obligation for EU fishermen in international waters | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The Commission delegated regulation on the implementation of the EU's international obligations under the International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas and the Convention on Future Multilateral Cooperation in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries came into effect on 24 January.


This regulation will provide legal clarity to the EU's fishermen as to which rules apply when they fish under the purview of these RFMOs and catch fish which falls under the new EU's landing obligation. The landing obligation applies to all EU vessels fishing in the EU and non-EU waters, as well as to third-country vessels fishing in the EU waters.
In some Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) there are rules that oblige fishermen not to bring on board or land certain fish. With regard to the landing obligation that came into effect this year, such rules exist for bigeye tuna, Eastern Atlantic Bluefin tuna and Atlantic swordfish in the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), and for capelin in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) area.
In order to ensure legal certainty, the delegated regulation that came into effect on 24 January 2015 will permit the fishermen of the European Union vessels and those of other countries fishing in EU waters to continue applying the above mentioned RFMO rules. EU fishermen will be able to respect RFMO rules which currently are not entirely in line with the EU's landing obligation.


In parallel, the European Commission seeks a level playing field for EU operators by promoting the elimination of discards in RFMOs. In the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (NAFO), for instance, a working group was established upon EU proposal to examine the discard situation and find ways to reduce them.


For further information

Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/98:



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AUSTRIA: Cichlid sisters swim together in order to reach the goal

AUSTRIA: Cichlid sisters swim together in order to reach the goal | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The manner and routes of dispersal vary with the species and the ecological conditions. Many fish form shoals to avoid predation. Shoaling with familiar conspecifics affords the fish an even greater advantage by increasing the benefit for relatives. This promotes the continuation and future spread of an individual's own genetic information.


Franziska Lemmel-Schädelin, Wouter van Dongen, Yoshan Moodley and Richard Wagner from the Konrad Lorenz Institute of Ethology studied Neolamprologus caudopunctatus, a species of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika, Africa's second largest and the world's second deepest freshwater lake. Lake Tanganyika has a surface volume of about 33,000 m⊃2;, which corresponds to the size of Belgium. The researchers studied the influence of sex and size on dispersal and shoaling behaviour.


Females dispersed longer distances than males


Lemmel-Schädelin and her field assistants carried out a number of dives in October and November 2008 to study the dispersal behaviour and relationships of over 900 cichlids. The divers collected DNA samples from the dorsal fins and documented the body size and sex of the fish. An analysis of the data showed that over the course of their lives the females dispersed farther from their parental nesting sites than males.


"To avoid inbreeding and resource competition, it is usual among many animals for one sex to disperse farther from their place of birth than the other. Male-biased dispersal is more frequently the norm among mammals, with females remaining near the original nesting area. Among the cichlids we studied, on the other hand, it appears to be the females that disperse," says ethologist Lemmel-Schädelin.   


Kin-shoaling promotes the spread of an individual's own genes


The researchers discovered another phenomenon while studying the familial relationships within the shoals. Small – and therefore probably younger – females tend to shoal with female siblings. Small males do not, instead preferring to shoal with non-sibling males. Larger – and therefore older – fish no longer exhibit this preference for kin-shoaling.


Richard Wagner explains this behaviour as follows: "Females disperse around eleven times as far from their parental nests than males. This naturally involves a certain risk for the females. We observed that females tended to shoal with their female siblings. They probably do so in order to minimize the risks of long-distance dispersal and to increase the chance of at least one member of the family making it."


"Cichlid research is especially interesting from an evolutionary perspective," says Lemmel-Schädelin. "Africa's three largest lakes – Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi – are home to cichlids that are believed to have emerged from a limited source population. The ancestral animals followed the rivers to enter these lakes, where they found a number of ecological niches in which they began to develop in different directions. This makes it possible here to look at evolution in action, so to speak, and to research the emergence of new species and a rich repertoire of different behaviours," Lemmel-Schädelin explains.


Explore further: Males produce faster sperm for sisters


More information: "Sex biases in kin shoaling and dispersal in a cichlid fish", by Wouter F. D. van Dongen, Richard H. Wagner, Yoshan Moodley and Franziska Lemmel-Schädelin was published in the journal Oecologia. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-014-3079-3

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UNITED STATES: Culprit identified in decline of endangered Missouri River pallid sturgeon

UNITED STATES: Culprit identified in decline of endangered Missouri River pallid sturgeon | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Pallid sturgeon come from a genetic line that has lived on this planet for tens of millions of years; yet it has been decades since anyone has documented any of the enormous fish successfully producing young that survive to adulthood in the upper Missouri River basin.

Now, fisheries scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey, Montana State University and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have shown why, detailing for the first time the biological mechanism that has caused the long decline of pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River and led to its being placed on the endangered species list 25 years ago.


In a paper published this week in the journal Fisheries, the scientists show that oxygen-depleted dead zones between dams in the upper Missouri River are directly linked with the failure of endangered pallid sturgeon hatched embryos to survive to adulthood.


"This research is a notable breakthrough in identifying the reason why pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River have been declining for so many decades," said Suzette Kimball, acting director of the USGS. "By pinpointing the biological mechanism responsible for the species' decline, resource managers have vital information they can use as a focus of pallid sturgeon conservation."


"We certainly think this is a significant finding in the story of why pallid sturgeon are failing to recruit in the upper Missouri River," said Christopher Guy, the assistant unit leader with the USGS Montana Cooperative Fishery Research Unit and the MSU professor who was the lead author on the paper. "We're basically talking about a living dinosaur that takes 20 years to reach sexual maturity and can live as long as the average human in the U.S. After millions of years of success, the pallid sturgeon population stumbled and now we know why. From a conservation perspective, this is a major breakthrough."


The study is the first to make a direct link among dam-induced changes in riverine sediment transport, the subsequent effects of those changes on reduced oxygen levels and the survival of an endangered species, the pallid sturgeon.


"This research shows that the transition zone between the freely flowing river and reservoirs is an ecological sink - a dead zone - for pallid sturgeon," Guy said. "Essentially, hatched sturgeon embryos die in the oxygen-depleted sediments in the transition zones."


Guy said fisheries biologists long suspected that the Missouri River's massive reservoirs were preventing hatched embryonic pallid sturgeon from surviving to the juvenile stage. But early attempts to tie the problem to low levels of dissolved oxygen were unsuccessful.


"The reason for that is we hadn't sampled deep enough," Guy said. "It wasn't until we sampled water down at the bottom, where those sediments are being deposited, that we found there was no dissolved oxygen. Because hatched pallid sturgeon embryos are negatively buoyant, they tend to sink into that hostile environment."


"The lack of oxygen is a function of high microbial activity in the sediment laden area," said co-author Eric Scholl, a Ph.D. student at Montana State University and a co-author on the study.


Hilary Treanor, an MSU research associate working with Guy, said they were able to show just how hostile these transition zones between riverine environment and reservoir could be to hatched sturgeon embryos.


In experiments at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Fish Technology Center in Bozeman with coauthors Molly Webb, Kevin Kappenman, and Jason Ilgen, Treanor said different aged hatched embryos were treated with water of varying levels of dissolved oxygen. The lowest level they could recreate - 1.5 milligrams of oxygen per liter of water - was still higher than samples pulled from the bottom at the upper end of Fort Peck Reservoir.


At those depleted levels, the hatched sturgeon embryos suffered almost immediately.


"We saw changes in their behavior fairly quickly. They became disoriented and weren't able to move the way they should have," Treanor said. "Within an hour we started to see mortality. By the end of the experiment they were all dead."


Pallid sturgeon, native to the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, were listed as an endangered species in 1990. The species has a lifespan of more than a century. According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, fewer than 175 wild-spawned pallid sturgeon - all adults - live in the free-flowing Missouri River above Lake Sakakawea. Since 1990, not a single wild-spawned pallid sturgeon is known to have survived to a juvenile, despite intensive searching.


In the past 5 years, researchers identified the most important reason for pallid sturgeon population declines in the Upper Missouri River: the lack of survival of naturally produced hatched sturgeon embryos.


Guy said this most recent study of sturgeon built on research conducted by USGS fisheries biologist Patrick Braaten, which demonstrated not enough available drift distance exists between the reservoirs for hatched pallid sturgeon embryos before entering the reservoirs in the upper Missouri River.


Before dams, hatched pallid sturgeon embryos would drift for hundreds of miles, eventually settling out of the river's current in areas with low flow where they matured enough to negotiate the river's flow.


"This team has shown how much we can do when we have a collaboration between MSU, USGS and world-renowned reproductive physiologists Molly Webb and Kevin Kappenman with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service," Guy said. "In the process of doing this research, we've trained a dozen MSU graduate students and a number of undergraduate field and lab techs."


Given what the new research shows about how no oxygen is available to hatched pallid sturgeon embryos, the authors of the paper propose that officials will need to consider innovative approaches to managing Missouri River reservoirs for pallid sturgeon conservation to have a chance. It also could provide some guiding principles for the construction of new dams around the world, Guy said.

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EVENT: 28 and 29 May 2015, Piraeus, Greece - European Maritime Day Conference

EVENT: 28 and 29 May 2015, Piraeus, Greece - European Maritime Day Conference | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

The largest annual maritime conference in Europe will be held in Piraeus (Greece) on 28 and 29 May 2015.


This year, the conference will focus on the role of ports and coasts as gateways to maritime growth. Many events are being organised: political sessions, workshops, face-to-face meetings, exhibitions and a networking reception.


Conference overview


The European Maritime Day Conference ( will host high-level sessions and stakeholder workshops attracting delegates and experts from across Europe and beyond. Speakers, including Ministers, Commissioners, CEOs and experts, will discuss the spectrum of opportunities and great challenges that our coasts and seas present, share best practices, and develop new synergies.


On 28 May, the high-level plenary session will introduce the main political challenges of coastal cities and ports. The different aspects of this theme will be declined over the two days in three thematic sessions and about 20 workshops.


Preliminary programme of the conference:





The European Maritime Day is celebrated annually in Europe on 20 May. This annual platform welcomes Europe's growing maritime community joining policy makers to discuss, debate and exchange best practices. The seas and oceans, and the opportunities they offer, are at the heart of the discussions.



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ΑΥΣΤΡΑΛΙΑ: Προϊστορικό καρχαρία που έπιασαν ψαράδες

ΑΥΣΤΡΑΛΙΑ: Προϊστορικό καρχαρία που έπιασαν ψαράδες | Aquaculture and Fisheries - World Briefing |

Με το στόμα ανοιχτό έμειναν οι Αυστραλοί ψαράδες όταν τραβώντας τα δίχτυα τους βρέθηκαν μπροστά στον προϊστορικό καρχαρία που είχαν πιάσει.


Ο πτυχωτός καρχαρίας βρισκόταν σε μεγάλο βάθος όταν πιάστηκε στα δίχτυα των ψαράδων.


Με μήκος πάνω από δύο μέτρα, το χρώμα του ήταν σκούρο καφέ και το σχήμα του ήταν όμοιο με αυτό του χελιού.


Τα τρομακτικά του σαγόνια που έχουν 300 δόντια σε 25 σειρές καθιστούν αδύνατο τον απεγκλωβισμό των θυμάτων του.


Λέγεται μάλιστα, πως το συγκεκριμένο είδος καρχαρία χάρη στο σχεδιασμό των σαγονιών του έχει τη δυνατότητα να καταπίνει τα θύματά του ζωντανά.


Το είδος αυτό του καρχαρία είναι γνωστό και ως «ζωντανό απολίθωμα», καθώς υπολογίζεται πως βρίσκεται στη γη εδώ και 80 εκατομμύρια χρόνια.


Θεωρείται μάλιστα ένα από τα μόλις δύο είδη που εξακολουθούν να υπάρχουν στον πλανήτη από την περίοδο εκείνη.


Ο πτυχωτός καρχαρίας (επιστημονική ονομασία Chlamydoselachus anguineus – Χλαμυδοσελάχος ο φιδίσιος) είναι ένα από τα δύο ζώντα μέλη της οικογενείας Χλαμυδοσελαχίδες, με ευρεία, αν και αποσπασματική εξάπλωση σε Ατλαντικό και Ειρηνικό.


Ζει πέρα από την άκρη της ηπειρωτικής υφαλοκρηπίδας, κοντά στο βυθό, αν και υπάρχουν ενδείξεις για σημαντική κάθετη μετακίνηση.

Ζει συνήθως σε βάθος 50 με 200 μέτρων, αν και ένας πιάστηκε σε βάθος 1.570 μέτρων στην Ιαπωνία.


Διαθέτει πολλά πρωτόγονα χαρακτηριστικά. Φτάνει σε μήκος δύο μέτρων και έχει σκούρο καφέ σώμα, που μοιάζει με χέλι, με ραχιαίο, πυελικό και πρωκτικό πτερύγιο. Το όνομά του προέρχεται από την πτυχωτή εμφάνιση των βραχγίων του, τα οποία είναι σε έξι ζεύγη.


Παρατηρείται σπάνια. Τα μακρά, εξαιρετικά ευλίγιστα σαγόνια του του επιτρέπουν να καταπιεί ολόκληρο ένα μεγάλο θήραμα, ενώ οι πολλές σειρές από μικρά, βελονοειδή δόντια αποτρέπουν το θήραμα από να διαφύγει.


Τρέφεται κυρίως με κεφαλόποδα, ενώ επίσης καταναλώνει οστεϊχθύες και άλλους καρχαρίες. Αυτό το είδος είναι ωοζωοτόκο: τα έμβρυα βγαίνουν από τη κάψουλα του αυγού τους μέσα στη μήτρα της μητέρας.


Η περίοδος κύησης μπορεί να είναι τόσο μεγάλη όσο τρία έτη και έξι μήνες, το μεγαλύτερο από όλα τα σπονδυλωτά. Δύο εως 15 μικρά γεννιούνται σε έναν χρόνο. Δεν υπάρχει ξεχωριστή εποχή αναπαραγωγής.


Οι πτυχωτοί καρχαρίες κατά καιρούς συλλαμβάνονται ως παρεμπίπτοντα αλιεύματα από την εμπορική αλιεία, αλλά έχουν μικρή οικονομική αξία.


Το είδος έχει αξιολογηθεί ως σχεδόν απειλούμενο, δεδομένου ότι εξαιτίας του πολύ χαμηλού ρυθμού αναπαραγωγής τους, ακόμα και τα παρεμπιπτόντα αλιευμάτα μπορούν να καταστρέψουν τον πληθυσμό τους. Αυτός ο καρχαρίας, ή ενας υποτιθέμενος γιγάντιος συγγενής του, έχει προταθεί ως πηγή για τις ιστορίες των θαλάσσιων φιδιών.


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