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(EN) (PDF) - Financing Facilities for the Water Sector | IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre

"The water sector faces significant financial constraints in achieving MDG Target 10. A number of studies were conducted between 2000 and 2004 to determine how much funding is needed globally to achieve the targets. The results vary tremendously – from US$7.5 to $70 billion for developing countries alone.
The lower estimate assumes basic water supply and sanitation, while the US $70 billion assumes more high-tech solutions, including wastewater treatment. Current funding flows are inadequate to meet this globally projected need. There is a considerable funding gap between needs and allocations in most countries. Notably, global and country level estimates often fail to capture the cost of institutional reform and support required to achieve sustainable water supply and sanitation provision. Most estimates fail to include the long-term costs of operation and maintenance and rehabilitation. In the 1990s, efforts to bridge the financing gap focused on private sector participation (PSP) and privatisation of state-owned water utilities. However, macro-level governance issues relating to public administration and financial management resulted in extensive regulatory, political, and currency risks to the companies. By 2005, private investment funding flows to water and sanitation fell to their second lowest level in 10 years. Private operators who bustled with enthusiasm at the potential for large concessions projects in the late 1990s appear to be chastened by their experiences throughout Asia, Africa, and Latin America."

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