OHS Hazards across industries: Same Same...But Different
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Quest 3: Risk Management and Prevention Guidance in Single Pilot Operations

Quest 3: Risk Management and Prevention Guidance in Single Pilot Operations | OHS Hazards across industries: Same Same...But Different | Scoop.it
Ralph Bancroft's insight:

Callum is a commercial pilot based in Broome operating a range of piston engine aircraft in charter and tourism roles. His work features numerous OHS hazards, however the primary area of concern for both operators and flight crew are those related to single pilot operations. A single pilot operation is one where the Pilot in Command (PIC) of the aircraft completes all functions associated with preparatory, during and post flight segments. The OHS risks recognizable in such an operation include but are not limited to pilot error, fatigue and noise exposure.

 

The following risk management and prevention guidance material is designed to increase Callums awareness of the aforementioned OHS risks and subsequently reduces the chance of a safety incident

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CAAP 5.59 -1(0) Threat & Error Management

Ralph Bancroft's insight:

Threat and Error Management (TEM) is a formalised approach by CASA to mitigate the occurrence of safety incidents. The TEM model provides a sequential order for flight crew to identify and manage threats, errors and undesired aircraft states as they occur in flight.  Civil Aviation Advisory Publication (CAAP) 5.59-1(0) “Teaching and Assessing Single-Pilot Human Factors and Threat and Error Management” is written to provide practical guidance on single pilot human factors and TEM training.  Single pilot human factors are considered as: “optimising safe flight operations by enhancing the relationships between people, activities and equipment.” An understanding of human factors in single pilot operations will allow the pilot to anticipate internal (pilot) and external (environment) threats and manage subsequent errors or undesired aircraft states as they occur.  

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Civil Aviation Order 48.1

Civil Aviation Order 48.1 | OHS Hazards across industries: Same Same...But Different | Scoop.it

 

Refer: http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2005B00876 for CAO48.1

Ralph Bancroft's insight:

Fatigue is a psychosocial hazard that is insidious in nature and “represents a major Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) issue.”(OHSBOK, Psychosocial Hazards: Fatigue). The fatigue framework is considered to consist of inadequate sleep, circadian disruption and time on task. In an aviation context these factors are defined by Civil Aviation Order (CAO) 48.1 as rest periods and flight/duty time respectively. Fatigue can impact a pilots performance by increasing the likelihood of pilot error and reducing problem solving ability. Having identified the risk, and the consequence, one way the risk can be mitigated, is through an administrative/ regulatory process. CAO48.1 was implemented by CASA as a regulatory means of managing pilot fatigue.  The regulation permits a “planned” maximum of 8hrs flight time (time in air) and 11hrs duty time (total time at work) with a 10hr rest period. Furthermore a commercial pilot is also limited by a maximum of 90hrs of duty time every two weeks. (Note: this is a summary of the primary limits refer to CAO 48.1 for further clarification) The effective management of fatigue within an organisation is also dependent on its safety culture and the presence of an effective Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS). An FRMS  is a safety management system where “a systematic process through which potential OHS hazards are identified, assessed and mitigated using multiple, strategic controls” (OHSBOK, Psychosocial Hazards: Fatigue). Post 2013 CAO 48.1 provided the opportunity for operators to develop and operate FRMS within an organisation to enhance awareness of pilot fatigue in ground and flight operations. Therefore, CAO48.1 and an organisational FRMS,  are some of the tools Callum can use to ensure he is aware of  and can manage the effects of fatigue in single pilot operations. 

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Civil Aviation Safety Authority - Pilot guides and information

Civil Aviation Safety Authority - Pilot guides and information | OHS Hazards across industries: Same Same...But Different | Scoop.it
Ralph Bancroft's insight:

CASA’s pilot guides and information page provides a central location for pilots, engineers and operators to source safety guidance and risk management material. A user-friendly webpage enhances the potential for people to access and then read the material presented. 

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Flight Safety Australia

"Topical, technical, but reader-friendly, articles cover all the key aviation safety issues – safety management systems, maintenance, runway safety, human factors, airspace, training, aviation medicine – and more."

Ralph Bancroft's insight:

Flight Safety is an aviation safety magazine released by CASA on a bi-monthly basis discussing aviation issues, regulatory changes and provides technical insight and reflection into aviation incidents.  The primary purpose of this magazine is to provide pilots and engineers with an informative safety resource that promotes aviation safety in a reliable and realistic context.

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OHS Hazards in SCUBA Diving - "Dive alone... Die alone"

OHS Hazards in SCUBA Diving - "Dive alone... Die alone" | OHS Hazards across industries: Same Same...But Different | Scoop.it

Craig works as a Dive Master (DM) on a SCUBA diving boat in Victoria. The role of a DM is to manage, supervise and ensure the safety of divers. The Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 regulates SCUBA diving in Australia. The responsibilities of a dive operator are summarised in the DIVESAFE Manual published by Worksafe Victoria. The health and safety factors on a dive vessel can be divided into two groups; transporting the diver to the dive location and the undertaking of the dive itself.  

Ralph Bancroft's insight:

After a discussion with Craig the following SCUBA diving related risks were identified and have the potential to impact on the safety of the dive.

 

The health and safety hazards during the transport/preparation phase are:

 

Inadequate diver competency and training:

   1.Dive certification, suited to the dive, and valid medicals           demonstrate diver competency and level of fitness

   2.Diver has necessary experience to undertake the planned dive

   3.Last dive was in a recent time frame

 

Trips slips and falls can be mitigated by:

   1.Adequate signage at boarding/disembarking points

   2.Sufficient hand rails when walking on deck whilst the boat is moored and sailing

   3.Water drainage areas to drain wet areas

   4. Good housekeeping to prevent equipment lying all over the vessel

 

Injuries due to manual handling can be prevented by:

   1.Moving SCUBA tanks from filling station to gear assembly point using correct lifting procedures

   2.Using team work when donning SCUBA gear

 

The health and safety hazards during the dive phase are:

 

Diver separated from the group:

   1.The DM can prevent this by monitoring individual dive times

   2.Briefing individuals before the dive on Lost Buddy Procedures

 

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):

   1. Wetsuits and gloves protect a diver from cuts and grazes from the reef and aquatic animals

   2.The dive computer allows the diver to monitor dive time as well as       depth range

 

Interaction with other water craft:

   1.Dive flag provides 60m exclusion zone, diver is restricted to venture 30m from the dive flag (therefore separation of 30m between diver and other watercraft)

 

Going to deep resulting in decompression illness and nitrogen narcosis:

   1.DM chooses a dive sight where the sea bed is the deepest point

   2.Dive computers are serviceable and depth alarms are set

   3.Awareness of local conditions provided during pre-dive briefing

 

An awareness of these hazards and mitigators are essential to ensure that health and safety risks are minimised during SCUBA diving. 

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OHS hazards in recreational fishing - "don't get caught"

OHS hazards in recreational fishing - "don't get caught" | OHS Hazards across industries: Same Same...But Different | Scoop.it

Broome, Western Australia has a huge range of fish species accompanied by sunny conditions making fishing a popular pastime. Boating in Western Australia is regulated by the Department of Fisheries. 

Ralph Bancroft's insight:

OHS hazards related to a recreational fishing boat are dehydration/sun exposure, drowning/exposure and physical injury.   

 

Dehydration/sun exposure:

1.Dehydration

   a.Minimized by regularly consumption of fluids (more than dictated by thirst alone)

 

2.Sun Burn

   a.Install a protective shade over the boat

   b.Regularly apply sunscreen

   c.Wear sunglasses to reduce glare from the water

   d.Sun smart clothing

 

Drowning/exposure can be prevented by ensuring that:

1.Correct Survival Equipment is carried

   a.Serviceable EPIRB

   b.Sufficient life jackets

   c.Flares

   d.Oars

   e.Radios

 

2.Boat Condition

   a. Regular hull and engine maintenance/inspections

 

Physical Injury:

1.Slips, trips and falls

   a.Awareness of outside environment (swell and waves)

   b.Minimise objects on deck (tripping hazard)

   c.Sufficient handles and rails

 

2.Pull starting outboard motor (shoulder/back injury)

   a.Use correct posture and support oneself prior to starting motor

 

3.Cuts/Scrapes

   a.Wear gloves to prevent cuts from rusty hooks or filleting knives on  deck

   b.Maintain equipment and pack away in tackle box after use

 

OHS hazards while fishing can be minimised and prevented by being constantly aware of the  environment and its effects on human well being. 

 

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CASA Risk Management: Part 3

“A Hazard is anything that could cause harm, damage, or injury, or have a negative consequence, such as bad weather, mountainous terrain, FOD, lack of emergency equipment, high work load/fatigue or use of alcohol and other drugs.”

Ralph Bancroft's insight:

The Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) released a six part safety management kit covering topics such safety management basics through to human factors. Part 3: “Safety Risk Management” discuses risk management, hazard identification and risk assessment/mitigation in an aviation context. Safety risk management principles are the foundation of an aviation organisations safety culture. The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) defines risk management as: “The identification, analysis and elimination (and/or mitigation to an acceptable or tolerable level) of the hazards, as well as the subsequent risks, that threaten the viability of an organisation.” (ICAO Doc. 9859) To ensure that operational and organisational safety goals are maintained identifying, assessing and then mitigating the risks are the responsibility of both flight crew and management.  Risk mitigation is a five step process: “hazard identification, risk analysis probability, risk analysis severity, risk assessment and tolerability risk control/mitigation” and can be further investigated through a risk tolerability matrix. CASA’s Part 3 publication is orientated toward grass root safety mitigation compared to operational mitigation which is further discussed in the Threat and Error Management (TEM) model. This documentation does not directly influence safety in a single pilot operation rather it focuses on promoting a culture of proactive hazard identification, where risks are identified and managed before they can develop in an operational (flying) context. This demonstrates that once the principles of risk assessment are understood and owned, they are not unique to single pilot operations but can be implemented across the aviation industry.

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Fatigue- The Rules Are Changing

"CASA is changing the fatigue management regulations. This booklet relates to flight crew, but legislation applicable to cabin crew members
and air traffic control is in the pipeline."

Ralph Bancroft's insight:

Fatigue – The Rules Are Changing is a booklet that discusses the proposed change to CAO 48.1 and the hazardous nature of fatigue in an aviation environment.  The changes came into effect in 2013 to address the new “24hr nature” of aviation, advancement in aircraft automation, and advancement in human performance monitoring.  The release of this documentation by CASA is to encourage transparency between the regulator and operator by clearly defining safety expectations and recommendations prior to the implementation of regulatory changes. Therefore, by utilising safety promotions such as “the rules are changing” within an organisation a proactive safety culture amongst its employees can be created by encouraging awareness of safety risks and mitigation strategies.  

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Hearing and Noise in Aviation

"Hearing is second only to vision as a sensory mechanism to obtain critical information during the operation of an aircraft."

Ralph Bancroft's insight:

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the American equivalent to Australia’s safety regulator CASA. Safety publications such as “Hearing and Noise in Aviation” are released by the FAA to “acquaint pilots with physiological challenges of the aviation environment so pilots are better prepared to cope with challenges.” (FAA: Pilot Safety) Noise is a physical hazard and in an aviation environment its effects are not exclusively characterised by hearing damage.  Inadequate hearing protection and management of aircraft noise and vibration has the potential to increase pilot fatigue, reduce problem solving and decision making ability. Safe Work Australia published the following decibel recommendation: “[by] keeping noise levels below 50dB (A) where work being carried out that requires high concentration... or below 70dB (A) where more routine work is being carried out that requires speed or attentiveness” (Safe Work Australia) human performance can be maintained. This recommendation is appropriate in general occupational activities however inside an average piston engine aircraft the decibel rating during the cruise segment is 85dB. The use of a high quality headset that meets Technical Standard Orders (TSO) can reduce cockpit noise by 15dB which meets the recommendations of Work Safe Australia. Therefore, by utilising safety guidance material pilots can gain an awareness and appreciation for human factor deficiencies that are caused by various physical or psychosocial hazards.   

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OHS in hospitality - "Don't make a meal of it!"

OHS in hospitality - "Don't make a meal of it!" | OHS Hazards across industries: Same Same...But Different | Scoop.it

Scott works as a McCafé Barista and a Crew Trainer at a McDonalds restaurant. A crew trainer assists new staff in the induction/training phase of employment, encourages staff to utilize McDonalds standard procedures and promotes awareness of health and safety. 

Ralph Bancroft's insight:

The hospitality industry regardless of the level of safety regulation is inevitably prone to the occurrence of hazards which may result in physical injury.

 

Slips, trips and falls are a main contributor to physical injury. The McDonalds Restaurant Operating Standards (MROS) Guide indicates that the "condition of the floor surface, inappropriate footwear, lack of attention to potential hazards and liquids on the floor" are all potential hazards, which could lead to a health and safety incident. This hazard can be minimised through adequate training and a proactive management team who encourage the use of hazard logs to identify and control potential hazards.

 

Burns and chemical exposure are another major OHS concern in a hospitality environment. The MROS guide indicates that the primary reasons for such incidents are due to: "carelessness and not utilising Personal Protection Equipment (PPE)."  PPE is designed to protect the worker from hazards and is compulsory in all OHS sensitive situations. However, Scott provides an interesting insight into the use of PPE: " I 100% agree PPE is essential in any hazard prone environment but it is common to see that PPE that does not fit properly or is not suited to the task can sometimes be put in the "to hard basket" and only fully utilized after an OHS incident."

 

Scott’s McDonalds Restaurant has a good health and safety record with a negligible number of OHS incidents because of a proactive management and crew training team . 

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Brock McColough's curator insight, August 24, 8:57 PM
In reference to the risk management for hospitality, I believe this article sheds a good insight into how McDonalds, a large corporation is at the forefront of OHS risk management. I believe prevention techniques such as proper shoes etc. would help prevent slips and falls. This could be applied to the hospitality workplace with high grip shoes, with a hard toe. to prevent slips and the possibility of hazardous materials crushing or piercing employees  
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OHS in Aviation - "Taking safety to new heights"

OHS in Aviation - "Taking safety to new heights" | OHS Hazards across industries: Same Same...But Different | Scoop.it

Callum is a commercial pilot based in Broome operating a range of piston engine aircraft in charter and tourism roles. His work features numerous OHS hazards, however the primary area of concern for both operators and flight crew are those related to single pilot operations. A single pilot operation is one where the Pilot in Command (PIC) of the aircraft completes all functions associated with preparatory, during and post flight segments. The OHS risks recognizable in such an operation include but are not limited to pilot error,  fatigue and noise exposure.

Ralph Bancroft's insight:

Firstly, a high work load environment in a single pilot operation has the potential to lead to pilot error. This environment can act as a catalyst promoting a range of OHS hazards that may result in an incident. Threat and Error Management (TEM) has been introduced as a formalized approach by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) as a response to reduce potential flight crew errors. Callum supports the relevance of TEM training:  "Single pilot operations can be very demanding especially in busy airspace environments during poor weather conditions. TEM training allows for a sequential approach to anticipate and counter various threats and errors as they occur. Therefore, the TEM model in "theory" provides a pilot with a step by step process to manage threats and errors but in reality the safe operation of an aircraft primarily comes down to common sense."  TEM procedures or as Callum simply puts it "common sense" in flight operations is not a magic recipe that can prevent all errors from arising rather it is designed to allow pilots to become aware and manage the error appropriately once it has occurred.

Secondly, pilot fatigue reduces problem solving, narrows attention rate/processing ability and has the potential to cause pilot error. CASA has implemented a national fatigue management standard which is discussed in Civil Aviation Order (CAO) 48.  The regulation permits a "planned" maximum of 8hrs flight time (time in the air) and 11hrs duty time (total time at work) with a 10hr rest period. Furthermore, a commercial pilot is also limited by a maximum of 90hrs of duty time every two weeks. These restrictions are sufficient provided the pilot and operator share an equal appreciation of the consequences linked to ineffective fatigue management. Callum agrees with this notion: "Fatigue management is a critical factor in any commercial environment." Therefore, an adequate company Fatigue Management Systems (FMS) in accordance with CAO 48 will ensure that fatigue does not have the potential to negatively impact on the health and safety of employees.

 

Lastly, noise exposure primarily effects short term and long term pilot hearing. The two main characteristics of sound are frequency or pitch and intensity and loudness. Frequency can be considered as the amount (frequency) of pressure waves arriving at the ear drum and is measured in hertz(Hz). While,  intensity is the degree to which the ear drum is bent by the arriving pressure waves and is measured in decibels (db). In the aviation environment noise can vary from 45db in a busy office environment to 120db when working airside. Once the noise level is above 80db ear discomfort becomes apparent and hearing damage from long term exposure is possible. The aircraft Callum flies has an average cruise decibel rating of 85db.  Callum’s approach to noise management is similar to most pilots: "Noise is something that can't be removed it can only be reduced and managed…a good quality noise cancelling headset  is essential as hearing damage is irreversible."

 

Numerous OHS risks are present in Callum's workplace and all have the potential to negatively impact on the health and safety of the passengers and pilot. Awareness of these risks will ensure that their effects are reduced, resulting in healthy and uninjured employees that are more productive and contributing to the efficiency of the operation.

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Andrew Cross's curator insight, March 27, 2015 6:15 AM

OHS safety during travelling is one aspect which companies are looking to ensure that they are being proactive in intruding/trialling new programs which cater to the OHS risks which pilots, staff and travellers can be exposed to. Aviation is regularly looking to improve their OHS models whether it be for small or large aircraft.

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OHS Hazards in Tourism Transport - Fatigue myths "Bus"ted

OHS Hazards in Tourism Transport - Fatigue myths "Bus"ted | OHS Hazards across industries: Same Same...But Different | Scoop.it

Aran works as a tourism bus driver in Broome transporting clients to various destinations. The outside environment, driver fatigue/distraction and vehicle road worthiness can develop into OHS hazards.

Ralph Bancroft's insight:

Firstly, road works, pedestrians, other vehicles and weather conditions are all hazards that any driver should be continuously aware of. A hazard on a road is defined as: "any possible danger that might lead to an accident". To avoid an accident from occurring the driver needs to remain alert and aware of his/her environment. Aran believes that: "the most challenging but rewarding part of his job is monitoring an environment that is always changing and maintaining a 100% level of vigilance throughout the day."

 

Secondly, driver fatigue is a common and deadly OHS hazard that has the potential to affect every road user. Fatigue can impact on decision-making, reduce reaction times and result in poor judgment which may lead to an accident. The effective management of fatigue is the only way to reduce its effects. Aran supports this view: "The culture in my company is great, rosters are conservative, adequate rest is provided and the overall decision to work is left to the individual rather than an external supervisor." An approach to fatigue that is jointly regulated by employee and employer is ideal and will considerably reduce fatigued related accidents

 

Lastly, All road vehicles should be well maintained particularly the braking system, lights and tyres.  A thorough inspection of the bus prior to leaving the company office will ensure it is safe thus eliminating any OHS hazards that can be attributed to the vehicle itself.

 

In addition to the above other hazards could include passenger distraction and manual handling.

 

Awareness and anticipation of OHS hazards in this environment is central to preventing OHS incidents in Arans workplace. 

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